space weather

Space
Weather

SWCE
Sun and EarthSWCE2 on Moon

Below is a checklist of Space Weather on postal items, in two sections.

The Stamps section features all known stamps, postal stationery and other selected philatelic items related to Space Weather. Subsidiary items (FDCs, maxicards, imperforates, "specimen" overprints, proofs, souvenir cards, folders, booklets, philatelic covers, color variations, etc) are all included. Also included are a variety of unofficial items (e.g. locals, cinderellas, illegal stamps, personalized postage, etc). Users can freely decide to accept or reject them for their own collections. Stamps from official postal authorities that have catalog numbers are identified in the Catalog Number column. Items whose catalog numbers are not known are entered as "unknown". The Type of Item column includes some philatelic details about the items.

The Launch Covers section features philatelic launch and event covers for satellite, rocket, and stratospheric balloon items related to Space Weather. In this section there are no catalog numbers to identify the launch and event covers. Rather, they are listed chronologically by cancel date, with a separate column for cancel location, followed by a Type of Item column which includes cachet details and identifies the satellite, rocket, or balloon in question.

In both sections, the Notes on Content column includes information about how the items relate to Space Weather. Text within quotation marks in the Notes refers to text found in the philatelic item. Also in the Notes (or rarely in other columns) are included occasional footnote references for subjects or terms that require more explanation. Those footnotes are found at the bottom of each section.

If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page.


In this page, "space weather" is defined as the effects of solar energy in its various forms on the space environment, and more particularly the interactions between that energy and the near-Earth (magnetosphere and ionosphere) space environment. Sudden increases in solar activity can create "storms" of radiation and particles in space, which necessarily interact with the near-Earth environment when they reach it. These "storms" are of interest for several reasons:

  1. They can be dangerous to life in space (e.g. astronauts in Earth orbit, or on the way to the Moon or Mars);
  2. They can affect the functioning of satellites, or in extreme cases even damage their components;
  3. They can disrupt radio and communications signals and GPS navigation;
  4. They cause brilliant displays of the aurora, even to middle latitudes where they are not usually seen; and
  5. In extreme cases, they can cause problems in electrical transmission grids, and pipelines, because of electrical currents induced at the ground.

For these reasons, it is important to observe space weather and to attempt to forecast it.

The solar wind, a stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun, is a major component of space weather. The magnetosphere of a planet with a well-developed magnetic field, such as the Earth, protects the planet by deflecting the solar wind away from it (although some of the particles become trapped in areas known as the Van Allen radiation belts, and some also penetrate into the ionosphere where they form the aurora). A planet with no magnetic field (and therefore no magnetosphere) would have its atmosphere stripped away by the solar wind.

In the United States, since 1994 the National Space Weather Program (NSWP) has been the agency responsible for space weather services. It is a collaborative organization involving NASA and six other federal agencies. NASA contributes to the NSWP by investigating physical processes in the space environment: from Sun to Earth and to other planets of the solar system and beyond to interstellar space. This is done through remote sensing, in situ spaceflight missions and the development of computer numerical models that simulate the space environment.


The Stamps and Launch Covers sections feature philatelic items that contain one or more of the following Space Weather-related categories, through depictions or text or other references:

  1. The magnetosphere and/or magnetic fields of Earth or other planets
  2. The solar wind and/or its interactions with planetary magnetospheres and/or interplanetary space
  3. The ionosphere or other upper atmospheric layers and/or reference to upper atmospheric propagation of wireless signals
  4. Space weather, the space environment, plasma, solar/magnetic storms, charged particles, cosmic rays, neutrons
  5. Radiation hazards to manned or unmanned spaceflight, space weather hazards to people and technology on Earth or in the atmosphere
  6. Space weather-related observations and forecasts (by satellites, rockets, stratospheric balloons, or other instruments and techniques)
  7. The heliosphere, in a space weather context; items issued for the International Heliospheric Year are found in the authors' IHY page
  8. Solar activity (sunspots, prominences/protuberances, solar flares4, coronal mass ejections9, the solar corona), solar observations or solar observatories. Other solar-related items are found in the authors' Solar Effects page
  9. Depictions of Earth's auroras or those of other planets viewed from space, or references to auroras in the general context of space weather or more specifically as part of the missions of scientific satellites, rockets, and balloons. Here is an example of an image of Earth's auroras taken from the ISS, and here is an example of an image of Earth's auroral ring around Antarctica taken by the DE-1 satellite (Explorer-62). Philatelic items depicting Earth's auroras seen from the ground are found in the authors' Auroras page. In this Space Weather page, green highlighting is used to identify postal items depicting auroras seen from space.


In the Stamps section, yellow highlighting is used to identify postal items showing the Solar Wind Composition Experiment (SWCE)2, most of which are based on a photo of Apollo-11 astronaut Aldrin setting up the experiment. The SWCE was deployed on the Moon during five Apollo missions (Apollo-11, 12, 14, 15, and 16). The goal of the SWCE was to sample and measure the solar wind at a location outside of Earth's magnetosphere. It provided the first accurate measurements of the He, Ne, and Ar isotopic components of the solar wind. The experiment consisted of a sheet of pure metal foil, 1-foot wide and 4.6 feet high, mounted on a pole inserted into the soil of the Moon's surface. The foil was exposed for various amounts of time in the different Apollo missions and was then stowed and returned to Earth for analysis. This photo shows Apollo-11 astronaut Edwin Aldrin beside the mounted SWCE sheet; this photo shows a close view of the similar SWCE sheet from the Apollo-12 mission; this diagram provides a few details for the deployed sheet. Similarly, blue highlighting is used to identify postal items showing the Solar Wind Spectrometer (SWS)14.

Some space weather-related research involves making Earth-based measurements of the ionosphere through the use of various types of large antennas or towers. Philatelic items that feature such structures are highlighted in pink in the stamps table below.

The Spaceflight Meteorology Group of the United States forecasts terrestrial weather for spaceflight launches and landings (but at the end of the Space Shuttle program, its operations were significantly scaled back). Since it concentrates on terrestrial weather, philatelic items that refer to it do not belong in this page. Rather, they are found in the National weather services page.

Launch covers
(including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers)
(farther below)
Other postal items
(stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.)
(immediately below)
Space weather
(satellite-related)
Space weather
Space weather
(sub-orbital rocket-related)
Space weather
(balloon-related)


Below is a list of Space weather on postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.).

CountryCatalog NumberType of ItemYear of IssueNotes on Content
Space Weather (on Stamps)
Adzharia RepublicLocal1Czechoslovakia 1717 overprinted on 4x Russia 45207 (Mi4497), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template1994/5?Depiction of magnetosphere (and IK-3/5 type satellite)
Adzharia RepublicLocal2Czechoslovakia 1717 overprinted on 4x Russia 57337 (Mi5904), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template
Adzharia RepublicLocal3Czechoslovakia 1717 overprinted on 4x Russia 5984 (Mi6177), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template
Adzharia RepublicLocal4Czechoslovakia 1717 overprinted on 4x Russia 6067A (Mi252), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template
Afars and IssasC57 (Mi40)1980Ionospheric research tower in Arta, Djibouti
Afars and IssasC57 dsDeluxe sheet (C57)
Afars and IssasC57 fdc1Stamp and (text) cancel and (?) cachet on FDC
Afars and IssasC57 fdc2Stamp and (text) cancel and (Éditions J.F.) cachet on FDC
AjmanBL328A
BL328B
On stamp of SS1 (Mi1221A)
On stamp of imperforate SS1 (Mi1221B)
1971Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Ajman StateMi1268A
Mi1268B
1971In the foreground, Apollo-15 SWS14 (Solar Wind Spectrometer)
Ajman StateMi1268B dsImperforate deluxe sheet (Mi1268B)
Antigua and Barbuda1259 (Mi1295)1989Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin beside the SWCE2
Antigua and Barbuda1822a (Mi2041)One of MS6 (1822 (a-f)) (Mi2041-2046)1994Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin in front of the SWCE2; see also Sierra Leone 1729a
Antigua and Barbuda3014c (Mi4592)One of MS6 (3014 (2x (a-c))) (BL1)2008"Van Allen radiation belt", also depiction of the belts
Antigua and Barbuda3018 (BL3)Stamp and in (right) margin of SS1
ArgentinaC99 (Mi864)1965Solar wind and Van Allen radiation belts
ArgentinaC99 fdcStamp on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc1One of three stamps on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc2One of three stamps on FDC (different)
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc3One of three stamps on FDC (different)
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc4One of three stamps on FDC (different, pictorial cancel)
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc5One of three stamps on FDC (same cachet, text cancel)
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc6One of three stamps on FDC (different)
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc7One of three stamps and cachet on FDC (different), also detail (reproduces the design of C99)
Argentina772+C98-C99 folderFDC folder
Argentina2443 (Mi3136)2007Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory
Argentina2443 fdcStamp and (pictorial) cancel and cachet on FDC
Armenia773 (Mi632)2007Solar flares4 and a graphic of associated energetic protons during the intense solar storms of 17-24 January 2005; also in the maxicard inset image is a graphic showing the NASA Sunspot Cycle #23 prediction (smooth curves) with the actual observed numbers of sunspots through 2004 (jagged curve)
Armenia773 maxiMaxicard, also back
Ascension Island899a (Mi983)One of pair (899 (a-b)), or four of MS8 (899c (4x 899 (a-b))) (Mi983-984)2006Halley's map (from 1701) of "lines of magnetic variation of the compass"
AustraliaNone(Text) cancel and (black typed) cachet on cover1971"12th International Conference on Cosmic Rays"; "Cosmic Rays Conference" (in cachet)
AustraliaNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1973The observatory makes regular observations of solar phenomena, including flares4, sunspots and solar radio bursts
Australia869 fdc (Mi836 fdc)(Benham) cachet on FDC1983Magnetosphere (ESA-GEOS); (design is the same as found in Equatorial Guinea Mi1266A and BL277)
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL8 (Mi8)1966Aurora and auroral observation camera
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL57 cover (Mi61 cover)(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover1984Solar wind and magnetosphere
Australian Antarctic TerritoryNone(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover2002Solar wind and magnetosphere; see also USA cover (2002)
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL172-L176 pack (Mi212-216 pack)Stamp pack exterior, also interior2013"Meteorological and magnetic observations were taken daily" (at the Cape Denison base during the Australasian Antarctic Expedition)
Austria1219 fdc (Mi1715 fdc)(Multi-color printed) cachet on FDC, also back1982Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
AustriaNone(Pictorial) cancel and (black printed) cachet on cover1999Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
Barbuda1099 (Mi1195)Antigua and Barbuda 1259 overprinted1990Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin beside the SWCE2
BelgiumNoneCinderella1953Horseshoe magnet above Earth (symbolizing Earth's magnetic field)
Belgium824 fdc (Mi1677 fdc)(Sony Stamp) cachet on FDC1972Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2 (the drawing is based on this photo)
Belgium2018 (Mi3330)
i2018
From MS10 (2018a (10x 2018))
Imperforate
2004Sun, sunspots and schematic variations of solar energy output with time
Belgium2018 fdc1Stamp and cachet on FDC (Liege cancel)
Belgium2018 maxiMaxicard (Liege cancel)
Belgium2015-2018 fdcTwo of four stamps on FDC (Liege cancel)
Belgium2015-2018 fd-sheetTwo of four stamps on FD sheet (Brussels cancel)
Belgium2890e (Mi4903)One stamp and (upper-right) margin of MS5 (2890 (a-e)) (BL238, Mi4899-4903)2019Solar prominence and "space weather" (in French and Dutch text); "The PROBA-2 satellite observes solar activity, including the Sun's impressive solar eruptions" (in French and Dutch text)
Belgium2890e fdcStamp on FDC
Belgium2890e maxiMaxicard
BeninUnknown d (Mi none)
Unknown id
One stamp and in (lower) margin of MS4 (a-d) [known illegal issue]
One stamp and in (lower) margin of imperforate MS4 (a-d)
2012"Concorde11 - 50 years of solar studies for CNES" (in French text of stamp 'd' and depicted in the cachet of the perforated MS4 FDC); also "STEREO [satellites] - solar studies" (in French text in the lower margin)
BeninUnknown proofSigned-proof MS4 (a-d)
BeninUnknown fdc
Unknown ifdc
MS4 and cachet on FDC
Imperforate MS4 on FDC
BeninUnknown a-d fdcOne of four stamps on FDC(As above for stamp 'd')
BeninUnknown b (Mi none)One of MS4 (a-d) (different) [known illegal issue]2012The Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
BeninUnknown fdc
Unknown ifdc
MS4 on FDC
Imperforate MS4 on FDC
BeninUnknown b (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)201340th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
BeninUnknown a (Mi?)Two stamps and in (lower) margin of MS4 (a-d) (different)201340th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973; also "STEREO [satellite] solar studies" (in French text in lower margin)
BeninUnknown d (Mi?)"[Hubble] space telescope coronagraph(e)"8
BeninUnknown c (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d) (different)201340th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
BeninUnknown a (Mi?)From MS4 (a-d) (different)201340th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
BeninUnknown c (Mi?)"Cluster II - ESA - vent solaire"
BeninUnknown d (Mi?)"IRIS [satellite] solar studies" (in French text)
BeninUnknown b (Mi?)From MS4 (a-d) (different)201340th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
BeninUnknown d (Mi?)"ESA-NASA SOHO [satellite]" (SOlar Heliospheric Observatory)
BeninUnknown ms fdcMS4 and cachet on FDC(As above for stamps)
BeninUnknown a-d proof fdcTwo of four proof stamps on FDC
BeninUnknown a (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d) (different)201340th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
BeninUnknown b (Mi?)
Unknown ib
One of MS4 (a-d)
One of imperforate MS4 (a-d)
2014Symbolic magnetosphere or aurora and Cluster FM1/FM2/FM3/FM4 launch [failed] (the Cluster satellites were for magnetospheric research)
BeninUnknown a-d fdcOne of four stamps and cachet on FDC
BeninUnknown b proof
Unknown ib proof
One of MS4 proof (a-d)
One of imperforate MS4 proof (a-d)
BeninUnknown ms proofSigned-proof MS4 (a-d)
BeninUnknown ms proof fdc
Unknown ims proof fdc
MS4 proof on FDC
Imperforate MS4 proof on FDC
BeninUnknown ss (BL none)
Unknown iss
SS1, blue background [known illegal issue]
Imperforate SS1, blue background
2018PSP12; schematic depiction of part of the solar magnetic field; also Solar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9 (in the cachet of the imperf FDC)
BeninUnknown ss (BL none)SS1, brown background [known illegal issue]
BeninUnknown fdc
Unknown ifdc
SS1, brown background, on FDC
Imperforate SS1, brown background, and (multi-color printed) cachet on FDC
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serb Admin.)488 fdc (Mi613 fdc)FDC back, also front2014With his telescope, Galileo "was able to observe the sunspots". He was one of the first people to study sunspots with a telescope.
British Antarctic Territory85 (Mi87)1981Solar wind and magnetosphere
British Antarctic Territory82-85 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
British Antarctic Territory237 (Mi247)1996Antenna array for ionospheric research
British Antarctic Territory235-238 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC
British Antarctic Territory235-238 fdc2One of four stamps on FDC (different)
British Antarctic Territory239 (BL3)In (upper-left) margin of SS1
British Antarctic Territory239 fdc1SS1 on FDC
British Antarctic Territory239 fdc2SS1 on FDC (different)
British Antarctic Territory284 (Mi297)1999"The electric field associated with the aurora" (measured with an ionospheric antenna array)
British Antarctic Territory280-284 fdcOne of five stamps on FDC, also insert
British Antarctic Territory431d (Mi472)One of MS4 (431 (a-d)) (BL19, Mi469-472)2011"Advanced Ionospheric Sounder" (in white text on red wall)
Bulgaria1462 (Mi1589)1965Earth's magnetic field
Bulgaria1463 (Mi1590)Artistic depiction of the solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
Bulgaria1464 (Mi1591)
Bulgaria1462-1464 fdcThree stamps on FDC(As above for stamps)
BurundiBL499A
BL499B
In (lower) margin of MS2 (Mi3480A-3481A)
In (lower) margin of imperforate MS2 (Mi3480B-3481B)
2014"ESA Cluster - studying the interactions between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere" (in French text)
Canada1442a fdc (Mi1323-1324 fdc)(Canada Post Corp.) back of FDC, also front1992"Alouette-1 provided a wealth of information about the ionosphere"; Canada's space program includes "research into ... cosmic rays, the aurora [and] magnetic fields"
Canouan (St. Vincent)Unknown d (Mi139)One of MS4 (a-d) (Mi136-139)2010Solar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9
Cayman Islands1186 (Mi1305)2017"Solar Flares"4
Central African Republic34 fdc (Mi57 fdc)(PJ) cachet on FDC1964(probable) ionospheric research antenna used in the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY); (same design as Gabon 179 FDC, Mali 65 FDC, Mauritania 176 FDC1, and similar to Mauritania 176 stamp)
Central African Republic848a (BL412)
i848a
In (right) margin of SS1 (848)
In (right) margin of imperforate SS1 (i848)
1987"Éruption solaire" and Cluster satellites, whose mission was to study the solar wind
Central African RepublicMi6998One of MS4 (Mi6995-6998)2017Solar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9
Central African RepublicUnknown b (Mi8698)One of MS4 (a-d) (Mi8697-8700)2019"Luna-1 and the Van Allen belts" (in French text)
Central African RepublicUnknown ss (BL1932)In (upper-left) margin of SS1Depiction of the Van Allen belts
Chad436 (Mi955A)
i436 (Mi955B)

Imperforate
1983"Study of the magnetosphere" (in French text) and magnetospheric depiction
Chad436a (BL146)SS1 (436)
Chad439b (Mi953-958)
i439b
On one of MS6 (434-439)
On one of imperforate MS6 (i434-i439)
ChadUnknown c (Mi none)
Unknown ic
One of MS4 (a-d) [known illegal issue]
One of imperforate MS4 (a-d)
2011Van Allen radiation belt
ChadUnknown fdc
Unknown ifdc
MS4 and cachet on FDC
Imperforate MS4 on FDC
ChadUnknown c (Mi none)
Unknown ic
One of MS4 (a-d) [known illegal issue]
One of imperforate MS4 (a-d)
2017Van Allen radiation belt [overprints of Chad 2011 set]
ChadUnknown fdc
Unknown ifdc
MS4 and cachet on FDC
Imperforate MS4 on FDC
ChadUnknown ms (Mi?)In (surrounding) margin of MS4 (a-d)201240th anniversary (in 2013) of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973; Sun and solar flare4 (in left margin); solar flare4 from Sun eclipsed by the Moon (in right margin)
ChadUnknown b (Mi?)From MS4 (a-d)201340th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
ChadUnknown c (Mi?)"CNES [satellite] Picard" (making solar observations)
ChadUnknown d (Mi?)"ESA-NASA SOHO [satellite]" (SOlar Heliospheric Observatory)
ChadUnknown a-d proof fdcThree of four proof stamps and (text in) cachet on FDC(As above for stamps)
ChadUnknown (Mi?)201340th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
ChadUnknown (Mi?)"Picard" (satellite) observing "solar activity" (in French text)
ChadUnknown (Mi?)"Vent solaire" (solar wind); one of the goals of the Cluster satellites was to study the solar wind
ChadUnknown a (Mi?)
Unknown ia
From MS4 (a-d) (different)
From imperforate MS4 (a-d)
40th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
ChadUnknown c (Mi?)
Unknown ic
"Picard" (satellite) observing "solar activity" (in French text)
ChadUnknown d (Mi?)
Unknown id
"Vent solaire" (solar wind); one of the goals of the Cluster satellites was to study the solar wind
ChadUnknown proofSigned-proof MS4 (a-d)(As above for stamps)
ChadUnknown fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
ChadUnknown ms fdc
Unknown ims fdc
MS4 and cachet on FDC
Imperforate MS4 and cachet on FDC
ChadUnknown a (Mi?)From MS4 (a-d) (different)201340th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
ChadUnknown b (Mi?)
ChadUnknown d (Mi?)Japanese satellite "Solar-B" making solar observations
ChadUnknown a (Mi?)
Unknown ia
From MS4 (a-d) (different)
From imperforate MS4 (a-d)
201340th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
ChadUnknown c (Mi?)
Unknown ic
"SDO - Solar Dynamics Observatory" (satellite) making solar observations
ChadUnknown d (Mi?)
Unknown id
"Solar Orbiter" (satellite) making solar observations
ChadUnknown proofSigned-proof MS4 (a-d)(As above for stamps)
ChadUnknown fdc1
Unknown ifdc1
MS4 and cachet on FDC
Imperforate MS4 and cachet on FDC
ChadUnknown fdc2One of four stamps on FDC
ChadUnknown a (Mi?)
Unknown ia
From MS4 (a-d) (different)
From imperforate MS4 (a-d)
201340th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
ChadUnknown c (Mi?)
Unknown ic
"IRIS" (satellite) making solar observations
ChadUnknown d (Mi?)
Unknown id
"NASA's STEREO [satellites] - solar studies" (in French text)
ChadUnknown proofSigned-proof MS4 (a-d)(As above for stamps)
ChadUnknown ms fdc
Unknown ims fdc
MS4 and cachet on FDC
Imperforate MS4 and cachet on FDC
ChadUnknown a-d fdcOne of four stamps and cachet on FDC
ChadUnknown a (Mi?)From MS4 (a-d) (different)201340th anniversary of the Concorde11 making solar corona observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
ChadUnknown c (Mi?)Solar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9 (the massive eruption depicted behind and below the Solar-A satellite)
ChadUnknown d (Mi?)The SOHO satellite carried a coronagraph8 to observe the solar corona
ChadUnknown ims fdcImperforate MS4 and cachet (same design as stamp 'c') on FDC(As above for stamps)
ChadUnknown a-d proof fdcThree of four proof stamps on FDC
Chile1666 (Mi2598)2019"Corona solar" (Solar corona, visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
China (People's Republic)None(Cyan and red and black printed) cachet on cover, and back1991"comprehensive observations of the peak year of solar activity"
China (People's Republic)NonePostal card2003Uranus as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope; the bright spots are possibly auroras or storms in the Uranian atmosphere
China (People's Republic)NoneBack of cover, also front2004Zhongshan Antarctic station "geomagnetism observation"
China (People's Republic)3505a (Mi3764)One of pair (3505 (a-b)), or four of MS8 (3505c (4x (3505 (a-b)) + 8 labels)), or four of MS8 (3505d (4x (3505 (a-b)) + 8 (different) labels))2006Depiction of magnetosphere or the Van Allen radiation belts; also Chinese TC/Doublestar satellite
China (People's Republic)3505 fdcPair on FDC
China (Taiwan)4539 (Mi4390A)Also MS4 (4540a (like 4537-4540)) (BL229, Mi4388B-4391B)2020Solar corona, visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8
Congo (Democratic Republic)Unknown ss (BL?)In (surrounding) margin of SS12002Solar flares4
Congo RepublicUnknown fdc(Multi-color printed) cachet on FDC2009Solar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9; (also Ulysses satellite)
Congo RepublicUnknown ss (BL none)On stamp of SS1 [known illegal issue]2014"Van Allen radiation belt" (in French text); also depiction of the belts
Congo RepublicUnknown fdcSS1 on FDC
Congo RepublicUnknown ss (BL none)
Unknown iss
In (upper-right) margin of SS1 [known illegal issue]
In (upper-right) margin of imperforate SS1
Solar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9
Congo RepublicUnknown fdc
Unknown ifdc
SS1 on FDC
Imperforate SS1 on FDC
Congo (Republic)Unknown ms (Mi?)
Unknown ims
In (lower) margin of MS4 (a-d)
In (upper and lower) margins of imperforate MS4 (a-d)
2015Van Allen belts, and reproduction of Equatorial Guinea BL277
Congo (Republic)Unknown ms fdc
Unknown ims fdc
MS4 on FDC
Imperforate MS4 on FDC
Congo (Republic)Unknown ms proofMS4 (a-d) proof
Congo RepublicUnknown ss (BL none)In (lower) margin of SS1 [known illegal issue]2018False color image of a solar prominence in UV wavelengths (from the Skylab-318 ATM (Apollo Telescope Mount)), as in this photo
Cuba958 (Mi1020)1965Earth's magnetic field/magnetosphere under influence of symbolic solar wind
Cuba960 (Mi1022)
Cuba961 (Mi1023)
Cuba963 (Mi1025)
Cuba958-960 fdcTwo of three stamps on FDC
Cuba961-963 fdcTwo of three stamps on FDC
Cuba963a (BL26)Imperforate SS1 (963)
Cuba963a fdcSS1 on FDC
Cuba963b (BL27)Imperforate SS1, 963a with changed colors and text
Cuba963b fdcImperforate SS1 on FDC
Cyprus779-780 fdoi (Mi771-772 fdoi)FDOI card1991"Solar wind"
Cyprus779-780 folder (Mi771-772 folder)Folder back, also front
Czechoslovakia1454 (Mi1688)1967Symbolic solar wind or other solar space weather effects (in main stamp design); Earth's Van Allen radiation belts (in inset at lower left)
Czechoslovakia1717 (Mi1971)1970Depiction of magnetosphere (and IK-3/5 type satellite)
DjiboutiC207 (Mi420)
iC207
Also detail
Imperforate
1984Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
DjiboutiC208a (BL105)
iC208a
On one of MS2 (C207-C208) (Mi420-421)
On one of imperforate MS2 (iC207-iC208)
DjiboutiUnknown ms (Mi none)
Unknown ims
Stamp 'a' and (lower) margin of MS3 (a-c) [known illegal issue]
Stamp 'a' and (lower) margin of imperforate MS3 (a-c)
2014"Van Allen belt" (in French text in stamp 'a'); the belts are also depicted (in stamp 'a' and in the lower margin of MS3)
DjiboutiUnknown proofImperforate MS3 proof? (or imperforate MS3 with perforated MS3 colors?)
DjiboutiUnknown fdc
Unknown ifdc
MS3 on FDC
Imperforate MS3 on FDC
(As above for MS3)
DjiboutiUnknown ss (BL none)
Unknown iss
In (lower) margin of SS1 [known illegal issue]
In (lower) margin of imperforate SS1
Van Allen radiation belts
DjiboutiUnknown ss fdc
Unknown iss fdc
SS1 on FDC
Imperforate SS1 on FDC
Dominica292 (Mi291)1970Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Dubai118c (Mi364)One of strip of 3 (118 (a-c)) (Mi362-364), or four of MS12 (118d (4x (a-c)))1969Apollo-11 SWCE2 (at left, in front of lunar module landing gear)
Equatorial GuineaMi1266A
Mi1266B

Imperforate
1976-1978Magnetosphere (and ESA-GEOS); (design is the same as found in Australia 869 fdc)
Equatorial GuineaMi1266A fdcStamp on FDC
Equatorial GuineaBL277Imperforate SS1
Equatorial GuineaBL277 2ndImperforate SS, second printing10
Equatorial GuineaBL277 muestraImperforate SS1, overprinted "muestra"
Equatorial GuineaBL277 fdcImperforate SS1 on (airmail) FDC
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p1Imperforate SS1 (BL277) 1st overprint
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p1 muestraImperforate SS1 (BL277) 1st overprint, overprinted "muestra"
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p2Imperforate SS1 (BL277) 2nd overprint
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p2 muestraImperforate SS1 (BL277) 2nd overprint, overprinted "muestra"
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p2 invertedImperforate SS1 (BL277) 2nd overprint inverted
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p3Imperforate SS1 (BL277) 3rd overprint
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p3 muestraImperforate SS1 (BL277) 3rd overprint, overprinted "muestra"
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p3 invertedImperforate SS1 (BL277) 3rd overprint inverted
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p4Imperforate SS1 (BL277) 4th overprint
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p4 muestraImperforate SS1 (BL277) 4th overprint, overprinted "muestra"
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p4 invertedImperforate SS1 (BL277) 4th overprint inverted
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p5Imperforate SS1 (BL277) 5th overprint
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p5 muestra1Imperforate SS1 (BL277) 5th overprint, overprinted "muestra"
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p5 muestra2Imperforate SS1 (BL277) 5th overprint, double-overprint "muestra"
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p5 fdcImperforate SS1 (BL277) 5th overprint (airmail) FDC
Equatorial GuineaBL277 coverImperforate SS1 on (airmail) cover1977Magnetosphere (and ESA-GEOS); (design is the same as found in Australia 869 fdc)
FranceNone(Space Voyage) cachet on cover1978"Atmospheric and space physics experiment[s]" (Spacelab-1, flown aboard STS-9, was designed for five broad research areas, two of which were space plasma physics, and astronomy and solar physics)
FranceNoneStamp-on-stamp in (lower-right) margin of SS1 cinderella2010Movement of charged particles following some of Earth's magnetic field lines in magnetosphere; also aurora (related to those movements) (reproduction of Russia 5060)
Franklin Mint (USA)None(Bronze) medallion reverse, also obverse1970s"Probing the interaction of the Earth's magnetic field with the solar wind, Hawkeye-1 [Explorer-52] contributes to knowledge of the magnetosphere"
Franklin Mint (USA)None(Bronze) medallion reverse, also obversePioneer-5 sent data about "solar flares4, radiation particles, energy and magnetic field phenomena"
Franklin Mint (USA)None(Silver) medallion reverse, also obversePioneer-5 sent data about "solar flares4, radiation particles, energy and magnetic field phenomena"
Franklin Mint (USA)None(Bronze) medallion reverse, also obverse"Study of radiation in space" by SAS-3
Franklin Mint (USA)None(Bronze) medallion reverse, also obverseAfter their 28 days aboard Skylab, the crew's "health was unimpaired by the record mission" (i.e. they suffered no space weather radiation effects or other physiological effects)
French GuianaNone(Lollini) cachet on cover1973"Record solar eclipse observation time in the supersonic Concorde11 [during the] 30 June 1973 eclipse" (in French text)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories8 (Mi10)1957Ionospheric research antenna and towers (part of the research program of the International Geophysical Year (IGY))
French Southern and Antarctic Territories9 (Mi11)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories10 (Mi12)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC6 (Mi30)1963Ionospheric research towers
French Southern and Antarctic Territories24+C6 fdc1One of two stamps on FDC (PJ green cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories24+C6 fdc2One of two stamps on FDC (PJ blue cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories24+C6 fdc3One of two stamps on FDC (Éditions J.F. cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC12 (Mi37)1966Ionospheric research tower, Adélie Land; see also FSAT C108 and FSAT 649
French Southern and Antarctic Territories29 (Mi38)
i29

Imperforate
1967Research rocket for auroral and ionospheric studies
French Southern and Antarctic Territories29 fdc1Stamp and (Éditions J.F.) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic Territories29 fdc2Stamp and (PJ) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a (Mi96-97)Two stamps and label in strip of 2 (C40a (C39-C40 + label)) (Mi96-97) from MS10 (C40b (5x (C39-C40 + label)))1975Aurora and two Eridan research rockets for "magnetospheric research - Franco-Soviet program ARAKS" (in French text on label). The ARAKS (Artificial Radiation Aurora between Kerguelen and Sogra) experiment was dedicated to auroral studies; (see also Russia 4012 cover 1975)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc1Two stamps and label and (pictorial) cancel on FDC (FSAT PO official embossed cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc2Two stamps and label and pictorial) cancel and (Lollini) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc3Two stamps and label and pictorial) cancel on FDC (PJ cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc4Two stamps and label pictorial) cancel and (Éditions J.F.) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc5Two stamps and label and (Lollini) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a dsDeluxe sheet (C40a)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC39 dsDeluxe sheet (C39)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC39 proofSigned proof (C39)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1982"1982 - Crozet - 1983 - géomagnétisme"
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC80 sc (Mi190 sc)Souvenir card (C80)1984"The auroras result from a large-scale interaction between Earth's magnetic field and the electrically-charged particles of the solar wind"; "The magnetosphere contains the belts of charged particles that are trapped in Earth's magnetic field"; "The most intense auroras are associated with strong magnetic storms caused by major solar activity" (in French text)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1985"Amsterdam '85 géomagnétisme"
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC108 (Mi258)1989Ionospheric research tower, Adélie Land; see also FSAT C12 and FSAT 649
French Southern and Antarctic Territories232 (Mi370)One of strip of 3 (232a (230-232)) (Mi368-370), or five of MS15 (232b (5x (230-232)); also ionospheric research antenna detail1997Ionospheric research antenna
French Southern and Antarctic Territories232a fdc1One of strip of 3 on FDC (Éditions J.F. cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories232a fdc2One of strip of 3 on FDC (? cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories232a fdc3One of strip of 3 on FDC (? cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories232a fdc4One of strip of 3 on FDC (? cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC80 cover (Mi190 cover)(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover1998Ionospheric research antenna
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC149 (Mi386)1998Ionospheric research antenna
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC149 fdcStamp and cachet (reproduction of stamp) on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC149 cover (Mi386 cover)Stamp and (rectangular rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1998Ionospheric research antenna; "Kerguelen - cosmic radiation" (in French text)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories325 (Mi520)From MS20 (325a (20x 325))2003Super Dual Auroral Radar Network ("Super DARN")1 high-frequency antennas
French Southern and Antarctic Territories325 proofSigned proof
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover2009Magnetosphere under influence of the solar wind; also possible symbolic graphic of magnetic variations observed at Kerguelen Island during a solar storm
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Black printed) cachet on cover2016"Observation of a magnetic storm at Dumont d'Urville" (in French text)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories551 (Mi935)2016Kerguelen ionospheric research tower (small, in background behind the building); "Bernard Duboys de Lavigerie, 1934 - 2008 - ingénieur recherches ionosphériques"
French Southern and Antarctic Territories649 (Mi1127)2021Ionospheric research tower, Adélie Land; see also FSAT C12 and FSAT C108; also André Lebeau, who did ionospheric research in Adélie Land in the early 1960s
FujeiraMi454A
Mi454B
From MS12 (12x Mi454A)
From imperforate MS12 (12x Mi454B)
1970Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
FujeiraBL23A
BL23B
On one of MS4 (like-Mi449A+like-Mi452A+Mi454A-455A)
On one of imperforate MS4 (like-Mi449B+like-Mi452B+Mi454B-455B)
FujeiraBL23B pairBL23B imperforate pair
FujeiraMi461A
Mi461B
From MS12 (12x Mi461A), Mi454A overprinted in silver
From imperforate MS12 (12x Mi461B), Mi454B overprinted in silver
1970Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
FujeiraBL24A
BL24B
On one of MS4 (like-Mi456A+like-Mi459A+Mi461A-462A), BL23A overprinted in silver
On one of imperforate MS4 (like-Mi456B+like-Mi459B+Mi461B-462B), BL23B overprinted in silver
FujeiraMi468A
Mi468B
From MS12 (12x Mi468A), Mi454A overprinted in gold
From imperforate MS12 (12x Mi468B), Mi454B overprinted in gold
1970Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
FujeiraBL25A
BL25B
On one of MS4 (like-Mi463A+like-Mi466A+Mi468A-469A), BL23A overprinted in gold
On one of imperforate MS4 (like-Mi463B+like-Mi466B+Mi468B-469B), BL23B overprinted in gold
Gabon179 fdc (Mi215 fdc)(PJ) cachet on FDC1965(probable) ionospheric research antenna used in the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY); (same design as CAR 34 FDC, Mali 65 FDC, Mauritania 176 FDC1, and similar to Mauritania 176 stamp)
GabonUnknown ms (Mi?)
Unknown ims
In (upper-left) margin of MS2 (a-b)
In (upper-left) margin of imperforate MS2 (a-b)
2014Earth's magnetic field
GabonUnknown a (Mi?)
Unknown ia
One of MS4 (a-d)
One of imperforate MS4 (a-d)
2015Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
GabonUnknown proofSigned-proof MS4(As above for stamp)
GabonUnknown fdc
Unknown ifdc
MS4 on FDC
Imperforate MS4 and cachet on FDC
GabonUnknown a-d fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
GabonUnknown c (Mi?)
Unknown ic
One of MS4 (a-d)
One of imperforate MS4 (a-d)
2017Upper Van Allen radiation belt and GEOS satellite
GabonUnknown proofSigned-proof MS4(As above for stamp)
GabonUnknown fdc
Unknown ifdc
MS4 on FDC
Imperforate MS4 on FDC
GabonUnknown a-d fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
GabonUnknown ms (Mi?)
Unknown ims
MS4 (a-d)
Imperforate MS4 (a-d)
2019The African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973; also the Concorde11, which made solar observations during that eclipse; also a CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9 exploding from the Sun
GabonUnknown ims fdcImperforate MS4 on FDC (multi-color printed cachet)
GabonUnknown ms proofMS4 (a-d) proof
Gambia3593 (BL?)In (lower) margin of SS12014Aurora over Russia seen from space
Gambia3646a (Mi7123)From MS4 (MS4 (a-d))2015Solar flares4 (white spots on Sun, on stamp and in upper-left margin of MS4) and Planet-C satellite
Gambia3646c (Mi7125)"Solar magnetic field" and Planet-C satellite
Germany (East)747 (BL22)SS1 (Mi1081)1964Van Allen radiation belts
Germany (East)747 fdcSS1 on FDC
Germany (East)747 cardSS1 on FDC card, also back
Germany (East)None t(Gesellschaft für Deutsch-Sowjetische Freundschaft) cinderella, from cinderella MS20 (a-t + 5 labels)1975Sunspots and solar prominences
Germany (East)None g(Gesellschaft für Deutsch-Sowjetische Freundschaft) cinderella, from cinderella MS20 (a-t + 5 labels)1981Depiction of Earth's magnetosphere under the influence of the solar wind
Germany (East)None l(Gesellschaft für Deutsch-Sowjetische Freundschaft) cinderella, from cinderella MS20 (a-t + 5 labels)1983Einstein Tower solar observatory16
Germany (East)None(Pictorial) cancel on postal card1989German amateur astronomer S.H. Schwabe started the first long-term regular study of sunspots in 1826. By 1843, he concluded that there exist periodic rises and falls in the sunspot count, with a period of about 10 years (it is now known that the average period is closer to 11 years).
Germany (East)None(Pictorial) cancel and cachet on postal card
Germany (East)None(Pictorial) cancel and cachet (different) on postal card
Germany (East)2676 cover (Mi3171 cover)(Pictorial) cancel on cover1990Solar wind and magnetosphere
GermanyNone (Mi?)Strip of 2 Bieberpost (private post)2018PSP12; "A mission to touch the Sun"
GermanyUnknown ms (Mi3620)In (upper-right) margin of MS10 (10x unknown)2022"Polarlicht": "Aurora: Luminous molecules in Earth's atmosphere that react to electrically charged particles in the solar wind" (in German text)
Ghana2909a (Mi4745)One of MS4 (2909 (a-d)) (Mi4745-4748)2016"solar wind"
Ghana2909a proofOne of MS4 (2909 signed-proof (a-d))
Ghana2909a-d+2910 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
Ghana2909 fdcMS4 on FDC
Great BritainNone(Pictorial) cancel on cover1970Sunspots
Great Britain1375a+1377a fdc (Mi1337-1340 fdc)Insert from FDC, also front (Benham cachet, and second cancel for 30th anniv. Gagarin's flight)1991"Explorer-1 enabled Dr. Van Allen of the USA to discover that there are two belts of highly active charged particles surrounding the Earth's equatorial regions. Their rapid spiral movements generate a magnetic field which counteracts with Earth's magnetic field so as to toss them from pole to pole indefinitely. These belts represent a serious hazard to man, transistors and other types of equipment sensitive to radiation". They came to be known as the Van Allen radiation belts.
Great Britain1375 fdc (Mi1338 fdc)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front1991Ulysses carried instruments "designed to measure the solar wind, the heliospheric magnetic field, radio bursts and plasma rays, solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays"
Great Britain3113 (Mi3366)From presentation pack (3113-3118) (Mi3366-3371)2012"Particles ejected from the solar surface seen by the SOHO satellite"
Great Britain3113-3118 fdc1One of six stamps on FDC (Tallents House, Edinburgh cancel, Royal Mail cachet)
Great Britain3113-3118 fdc2One of six stamps on FDC (Star Gaerwen, Gwynedd cancel, Royal Mail cachet)
Great Britain3113-3118 fdc3One of six stamps on FDC (Sunbeam Way, Birmingham cancel, Royal Mail cachet)
Great Britain3113-3118 fdc4One of six stamps on FDC (Picadilly, London cancel, Royal Mail cachet)
Great Britain3113-3118 fdc5One of six stamps on FDC (Macclesfield, Cheshire cancel, Cotswold Covers/BPCPA cachet)
Great Britain3942 (Mi4536)2020"Jupiter's auroras are the strongest in the solar system"
Great Britain3938-3945 fdcOne of eight stamps on FDC
Great Britain3938-3945 bookletPane1 from Prestige Booklet (3938-3945)
Great Britain3938-3945 packBack of Presentation Pack (3938-3945), also front and insert"Jupiter's Auroras: Like the Earth, the giant planet Jupiter experiences auroras. On both planets, they are produced when charged particles accelerate into the atmosphere, giving off light as they collide with the gas atoms there. Earth's auroras come in visible wavelengths of red and green, but at Jupiter they shine in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum and as X-rays. On Earth, powerful voltages in our magnetic field power the auroras."
Great Britain3938-3945 bookletFront of Prestige Booklet (3938-3945), also pane2 and pane2 label2020Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8); also a solar prominence (at the left)
Great Britain3938-3945 bookletPane3 from Prestige Booklet (3938-3945)2020"The launch of Explorer-1, the first US satellite, took place from Cape Canaveral. The satellite carried a Geiger counter to detect radiation in space".
Greece1716a fdc (Mi1777-1778 fdc)(Multi-color printed) cachet on FDC1991Earth magnetic field and Van Allen radiation belts
Greece2392a (Mi2511A)One of strip of 2 (2392 (a-b)) (Mi2511A-2512A), or 10 of MS20 (10x 2392 (a-b))2009Depiction of magnetic field/magnetosphere
Greece2392 fdcStrip of 2 and cachet on FDC, also back
Greece2392d (Mi2511C)One of strip of 2 (2392f (a-b)) (from booklet) (Mi2511C-2512C); also booklet (MH33)
Greece2392f fdcStrip of 2 (from booklet) and cachet on FDC
GreenlandNone(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1973"AFCRL6 Geopole Observatory" (space weather-related work includes studies of the aurora, ionospheric and magnetic disturbances, and cosmic rays (neutron monitoring))
GreenlandNone(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover1992Solar wind and magnetosphere
Grenada3698a (Mi6105)One of MS6 (3698 (a-f)) (Mi6105-6110)2009Solar prominence (at upper right) in UV light
Grenada3701c (Mi6113)One of MS4 (3701 (a-d)) (Mi6111-6114)2009"Saturn aurora"
Grenada Grenadines1070 (Mi1184)1989Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Grenada Carriacou2920 (Mi5023-5027)In (center) margin of MS5 (2920 (a-f))2015The northern lights occur when "streams of charged particles from the Sun, known as solar winds, react with gases in the upper atmosphere"
Grenada CarriacouUnknown ms (Mi?)In (upper-left) margin of MS2 (a-b) [probably unofficial issue]2019SWCE2 (just to the right of the LEM)
Guernsey (Great Britain)449-452 fdc (Mi518-521 fdc)Insert from FDC, also insert back and front1991Sputnik-1 "carried temperature and pressure meters, a magnetometer to measure the magnetic field, and a radiation counter"
Guernsey (Great Britain)Unknown packPresentation pack front2019Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin beside the SWCE2
Guernsey (Great Britain)1043 (Mi1242)2009Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
Guernsey (Great Britain)1044 (Mi1243)Solar flares4
Guinea RepublicUnknown g (Mi?)One of MS9 (a-i)1998The Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
Guinea RepublicBL1112A
BL1112B
In (upper-right) margin of SS1
In (upper-right) margin of imperforate SS1
2006Solar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9 (the massive eruption depicted at the upper-right of the Sun)
Guinea RepublicBL1390On stamp of SS12007Objectives of the International Heliophysical Year included the study of the Sun and the surrounding zone in which the solar wind blows (the heliosphere) (in French text)
Guinea RepublicBL1390 fdcSS1 and cachet on FDC
Guinea RepublicBL1478In (upper-left) margin of SS12007After passing Jupiter and Saturn, Voyager-1 continued en route toward the heliopause, where interstellar space "officially" begins (in French text)
Guinea RepublicBL1483In (upper) margin of SS12007The goals of the Cassini-Huygens mission included making measurements of Saturn's magnetosphere (in French text)
Guinea RepublicBL1483 fdcSS1 on FDC
Guinea RepublicBL1584A
BL1584B
In (upper) margin of SS1
In (upper) margin of imperforate SS1
2008Shuttle mission STS-122 brought to the ISS "a solar observatory and a European platform with eight instruments for the study of the space environment" (in French text); the space environment studies included measurements related to space weather
Guinea RepublicUnknown a (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)2016Aurora seen from the International Space Station (ISS)
Guyana2810b (Mi4711)One of MS6 (2810 (a-f)) (Mi4710-4715)1994Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin beside the SWCE2
Guyana3503a (Mi6900)
i3503a
One of MS6 (3503 (a-f)) (Mi6900-6905)
One of imperforate MS6 (i3503 (a-f))
2000Solar corona
Hong Kong1714 (Mi1968)One of strip of 6 (1715a (1710-1715)) (Mi1964-1969)2015Sunspots
Hong Kong1714 maxiMaxicard
Hong Kong1713-1714_ms3On one of MS3 (d-f)
Hong Kong1713-1715_ms3 fdc1MS3 on FDC
Hong Kong1713-1715_ms3 fdc2MS3 on FDC (different cachet)
Hungary1217 (Mi1576A)1959Solar prominences and sunspots
Hungary1661 (Mi2103A)
i1661 (Mi2103B)

Imperforate
1965Research rocket and depiction of the Van Allen radiation belts
Hungary1663 (Mi2105A)
i1663 (Mi2105B)

Imperforate
Earth's magnetic field
Hungary1659+1661+1666-1667 fdc
i1659+i1661+i1666-i1667 fdc
One of four stamps on FDC
One of four imperforate stamps on FDC
(As above for stamps)
Hungary1660+1662-1665 fdc
i1660+i1662-i1665 fdc
One of five stamps on FDC
One of five imperforate stamps on FDC
Hungary1668 (BL46A)
i1668 (BL46B)
On stamp of SS1 (Mi2110)
On stamp of imperforate SS1
Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
Hungary1668 fdc
i1668 fdc
SS1 on FDC
Imperforate SS1 on FDC
Hungary1668 cover (BL64A cover)SS1 on cover1965Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
India2288 (Mi2320)2008Sunspots
Israel1644 booklet (Mi?)Booklet outside, also inside2006Solar prominences
Ivory CoastUnknown d (Mi none)
Unknown id
One of MS4 (a-d) [known illegal issue]
One of imperforate MS4 (a-d)
2011"ceintures de Van Allen" (Van Allen belts) (in text and depicted)
Ivory CoastUnknown fdc
Unknown ifdc
MS4 on FDC
Imperforate MS4 on FDC
Ivory CoastUnknown ss (BL none)In (upper-right) margin of SS1 [known illegal issue]2017Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
JapanNone(Pictorial) cancel on cover1972Research rocket for auroral and ionospheric studies
JapanNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1977"I.M.S.13" (using research rockets, as part of the Japan Antarctic Research Expedition)
Japan4186h (Mi8965)On one stamp and in (lower-left) margin of MS10 (4186 (a-j)) (Mi8958-8967)2018Solar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9
Japan4474s (Mi10750)On one stamp and in (lower-left) margin of MS25 (4474 (a-y)) (Mi10732-10756)2021Solar flares4
Korea (North)4172 (BL505, Mi4501-4504)In (upper-left) margin of MS4 (4172 (a-d))2001Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
Korea (North)4868 (BL728)On stamp 'a' and label1 and in (lower) margin of MS2 (4868 (a-b + 2 labels))2009Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
Korea (North)4868a envelopePrinted stamp on stamped envelope (with printed perforations?)
Korea (North)4868c (BL729)SS1 (4868a)
Korea (North)4868e proofImperforate proof MS6
Liberia3029 (Mi6613-6618)In (center) margin of MS6 (a-f)2015Aurora seen from space
Libya1692c (Mi?)From MS6 (1692 (a-f))2006Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
Libya1692f (Mi?)
Madagascar (Malagasy Republic)Unknown b (Mi none)
Unknown ib
One of MS4 (a-d) [known illegal issue]
One of imperforate MS4 (a-d)
2011Solar flares4 (white spots on Sun); also CME9 from Sun (in left margin of MS4), and CME9 from Sun eclipsed by Moon (in right margin of MS4); (same design as in Somalia Unknown ss 2004)
MadagascarUnknown ms (Mi none)MS4 (a-d) [known illegal issue]2018The MMO (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter) will study Mercury's "magnetic field and exosphere as well as the waves and particles in the vicinity of the planet" (in French text)
MadagascarUnknown ss (BL none)SS1 [known illegal issue]"Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter" (MMO)
MadagascarUnknown b (Mi none)MS8 (a-h + 2 labels) [known illegal issue]2019Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin beside the SWCE2
Maldive Islands1358 (Mi1381)1989Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin deploying the SWCE2 (stamp design based on this photo)
Maldive Islands2959d (Mi4690)One of MS4 (2959 (a-d)) (Mi4687-4690)2008"Dr. Van Allen and the Van Allen radiation belt"; also depiction of the belts
Maldive Islands2959 fdcMS4 on FDC
Maldive Islands2959a-d fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
Maldive Islands3495c (Mi6018)From MS4 (3495 (a-d)) (Mi6016-6019)2015Relationship between the electric and magnetic fields (originally from James Clerk Maxwell) and symbolic depiction of the two fields in space, where they are related to space weather
Maldive Islands3495d (Mi6019)Solar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9
Maldive Islands3495 fdcMS4 and (multi-color printed) cachet on FDC(As above for stamps); solar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9 (in cachet)
Mali65 fdc (Mi90 fdc)(PJ) cachet on FDC1965(probable) ionospheric research antenna used in the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY); (same design as CAR 34 FDC, Gabon 179 FDC, Mauritania 176 FDC1, and similar to Mauritania 176 stamp)
MaliUnknown a (Mi?)From MS4 (a-d) [known illegal issue]2015SOHO and EXOSAT making observations of the Sun and the solar corona
MaliUnknown b (Mi?)
MaliUnknown ms fdc
Unknown ims fdc
MS4 on FDC
Imperforate MS4 and (multi-color printed) cachet (design like stamp 'a') on FDC
MaliUnknown a-d fdcTwo of four stamps on FDC
MaliUnknown a (Mi none)From MS3 (a-c) [known illegal issue]2019"Ceinture de Van Allen"
MaliUnknown c (Mi?)"Vent solaire"
MaliUnknown ms fdcMS3 on FDC(As above for stamps)
ManamaMi313A
Mi313B
Two of MS32 (2x (Mi306A-321A))
Two of imperforate MS32 (2x (Mi306B-321B))
1970"Apollo 11 - Setting Up Solar Wind Sheet"; this refers to the setting up of the SWCE2 by Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin
ManamaMi313 ssSS1 (Mi313)
ManamaMi310A_ss+312A-313A_ss+318A_ss fdcOne of four SS1 on FDC
ManamaMi1093A
Mi1093B
One of strip of 3 (Mi1091A-1093A)
One of imperforate strip of 3 (Mi1091B-1093B)
1972Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Mauritania176 (Mi231)
i176

Imperforate
1964(probable) ionospheric research antenna used in the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY); (FDC1 cachet has same design as CAR 34 FDC, Gabon 179 FDC, and Mali 65 FDC cachets; stamp has a similar design)
Mauritania176 dsDeluxe sheet (176)
Mauritania176 fdc1Stamp and (PJ) cachet on FDC
Mauritania176 fdc2Stamp on FDC (Éditions J.F. cachet)
Mauritania176 fdc3Stamp and (Éditions So.Ge.Im.) cachet on FDC
MauritaniaC134 (Mi457)
iC134

Imperforate
1973Observation of the solar corona and other phenomena during the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973 by an Aerobee-170 research rocket and the instrumented Concorde11
MauritaniaC134 dsDeluxe sheet (C134)
MauritaniaC134 varC134 with slight color variation
MauritaniaC133-C135 fdcOne of three stamps and (multi-color printed) cachet (design like stamp) on FDC
MauritaniaC135a (BL11)
iC135a
MS3 (C133-C135) (Mi459-461)
Imperforate MS3 (iC133-iC135)
Mauritania527 (Mi782)1983Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Mauritania527 dsDeluxe sheet (527)
Mauritius483b (Mi478)One of booklet pane of 3 (483d (483 (a-c))) (Mi477-479), or three of booklet pane of 6 (483e (2x (483 (a-c))))1979Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Mauritius483Front (p00) of booklet of 9, also p01, p02, p03, p04, p05, p06, p07, p08, p09, p10, and p11/backApollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin beside the SWCE2
Micronesia344d (Mi724)One of MS20 (344 (a-t)) (Mi721-740)1999"First scientific interplanetary space discovery: observation of solar wind / Mariner-2 1962"
Mongolia374 (Mi380)1965Earth's magnetic field
Mongolia371+373-374+C6 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC
Mongolia371+373-374+C6 fdc2One of four stamps on FDC (no cancel)
MongoliaC89 (Mi1087)1977Solar wind and magnetosphere
Montserrat728 (Mi759)1989Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Montserrat728 specimenOverprinted "specimen"
Montserrat849 (Mi906)728 overprinted in red1994Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Montserrat1200 (Mi1408-1411)On one stamp and in (right) margin of MS4 (1200 (a-d))2008Aurora seen from space
Montserrat1200 fdc1MS4 on FDC (Plymouth cancel)
Montserrat1200 fdc2MS4 on FDC (Brades cancel)
Mozambique2708e (Mi6185)One of MS6 (2708 (a-f)) (Mi6181-6186)2012"Scientists studying how the ionosphere affects radio transmissions in northern Canada" (in Portuguese text); also Alouette-1
Mozambique2708 fdcMS6 on FDC
Nevis1545a (Mi2308)One of MS4 (1545 (a-d)) (Mi2308-2311)2008Solar wind and magnetosphere; also "Van Allen radiation belt(s)" highlighted in red
Nevis1545 fdcMS4 on FDC
Nevis1822 (BL352)SS12014"Aurora Borealis is a spectacular natural light show caused by visible magnetospheric charged particles of the upper atmosphere"
NevisUnknown b (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)2019Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin beside the SWCE2
Niger843B (Mi1143A)
i843B (Mi1143B)

Imperforate
1991Aurora and Japanese satellite EXOS-D (whose mission was the "observation of the Aurora Borealis")
Niger843Bc (BL78A)
i843Bc (BL78B)
On stamp of SS1 (843B)
On stamp of imperforate SS1 (i843B)
Niger843A-843B+843F_ms3
i843A-i843B+i843F_ms3
On one of MS3 (843A-843B+843F)
On one of imperforate MS3 (i843A-i843B+i843F)
Niger969 (BL102)
i969
In (right) margin of SS1
In (right) margin of imperforate SS1
1997Auroral ring (region of maximum auroral activity), in green at the top of the globe
Niger970 (BL103)
i970
In (left) margin of SS1
In (left) margin of imperforate SS1
Niger970a (BL104)
i970a
In (center) margin of MS2 (969-970)
In (center) margin of imperforate MS2 (i969-i970)
NigerMi6060-6063_ms4MS4 (Mi6060-6063)2018PSP12; "to study the solar corona (in French text, stamp 'b'); in 1958, "Eugene Parker proposed the concept of the solar wind" (in French text, stamp 'd')
NigerBL914SS1PSP12; "Eugene Parker"
Niue668a (Mi842)One of strip of 3 (668 (a-c)) (Mi842-844), or six of MS18 (668d (6x (668 (a-c))))1994Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
NiueUnknown c (Mi1318)One of MS4 (a-d), also MS4 variation (without SWCE stamp 'c')2019Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin beside the SWCE2)
NiueUnknown a-d fdcOne of four stamps on (un-canceled) FDC
NiueUnknown ms fdcMS4 on (un-canceled) FDC
NorwayNone(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1971Tromso Auroral Observatory
Norway990 (Mi1063)1991Aurora and research rocket for auroral and ionospheric studies
Norway989-990 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
Norway1318-1319 fdc (Mi1413-1414 fdc)(Pictorial) cancel on FDC2001Diagram of Earth's magnetic field/magnetosphere
Norway1584 (Mi1686)One of MS2 (1585a (1584-1585))2009Solar prominence
Pakistan1150 (Mi1378)From MS16 (1150a (16x 1150))2011"50 Years of Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research" (including "Space Weather Monitoring", "Geomagnetic Field Monitoring" and "Ionospheric Science" (as in leaflet text))
Pakistan1150 fdcStamp and (text) cancel and (Pakistan Post) cachet on FDC, also back
Pakistan1150 leafletFDC leaflet, also back
Pakistan1150 folderFDC folder
Pakistan1150 cover (Mi1378 cover)Stamp and cachet on cover2011"50 Years of Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research" (including Space Weather Monitoring, Geomagnetic Field Monitoring and Ionospheric Science)
Palau501e (Mi1460)From MS6 (501 (a-f)) (Mi1456-1461)1999The Mars Surveyor 2001 Orbiter (later renamed Mars Odyssey) made measurements of the radiation environment around Mars
Palau501f (Mi1461)The Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander mission plan included measurements of radiation at Mars surface, but the mission was later canceled.
Palau528 (BL99)SS11999Saturn's aurora as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer
ParaguayC779 (Mi4331)From MS8 (4x (C779-C780 + label))1989Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Penrhyn Islands376 (Mi502)1989Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin beside the SWCE2
Portugal3655 (Mi3989)2014Aurora and geomagnetic studies at the Geophysical Institute of the University of Coimbra
Ras Al KhaimaMi434A
Mi434B
One of strip of 3 (Mi434A+440A+446A)
One of imperforate strip of 3 (Mi434B+440B+446B)
1970Apollo-12 astronaut setting up the SWCE2
Ras Al KhaimaMi434A+440A+446A_strip3 fdcStrip of 3 on FDC
Ras Al KhaimaMi434 ds1Deluxe sheet (Mi434), blue-grey border
Ras Al KhaimaMi434 ds2Deluxe sheet (Mi434), white border
Ras Al KhaimaMi434 ds fdcDeluxe sheet on FDC
Russia (USSR)2089 (Mi2105)1958Aurora and S-180 auroral observation camera used during the International Geophysical Year (IGY)
Russia (USSR)2089-2091 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Russia (USSR)2089 cover (Mi2105 cover)Stamp on cover1958Aurora and S-180 auroral observation camera used during the International Geophysical Year (IGY)
Russia (USSR)2495 (Mi2500)1961Research rocket for auroral and ionospheric studies
Russia (USSR)2986 (Mi3006)1964Galileo and sunspots
Russia (USSR)4070 (Mi4108)1973Depiction of magnetosphere
Russia (USSR)4070 fdcStamp and (red-brown and blue-grey printed) cachet on FDC
Russia (USSR)4070 fdc2Stamp and (red-brown and blue-grey printed) cachet (and signature) on FDC
Russia (USSR)4012 cover (Mi4045 cover)(Multi-color printed and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1975Aurora and "ARAKS 1975" (in Cyrillic text in the cancel); The ARAKS (Artificial Radiation Aurora between Kerguelen and Sogra) experiment was dedicated to auroral studies; (see also FSAT C40a)
Russia (USSR)4593 fdc (Mi4652 fdc)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front1977Venera-9 and Venera-10 "orbiter sections circled the planet [Venus], relaying information on magnetic fields, solar winds and other phenomena back to Earth"
Russia (USSR)4666 (Mi4730)From MS36 (4666a (36x 4666))1978"Space Meteorology" (in Cyrillic text); also upper atmospheric research rockets and Meteor satellite
Russia (USSR)4666 fdc1Stamp and (multi-color printed) cachet on FDC, also back
Russia (USSR)4666 fdc2Stamp on FDC (Fleetwood cachet)
Russia (USSR)4666 pinReproduction of stamp as metal pin
Russia (USSR)4668 (Mi4733)From MS36 (4668a (36x 4668))"Space biology and medicine" (in Cyrillic text); space weather effects are an integral part of those disciplines
Russia (USSR)4668 fdcStamp and (multi-color printed) cachet on FDC, also back
Russia (USSR)4919a+label (Mi5049-5050+label)Label from pair (4919 (a-b)), or from MS20 (4919b (10x 4919 (a-b) + 5 labels)), also detail1981Earth's magnetic field
Russia (USSR)5060 (Mi5191)From MS8 (5060a (8x 5060))1982Movement of charged particles following some of Earth's magnetic field lines in magnetosphere; also aurora (related to those movements) and upper atmospheric research rocket
Russia (USSR)5061 (Mi5192)From MS8 (5061a (8x 5061))Symbolic solar wind (the arrows) and magnetosphere (the light blue arcs above Earth)
Russia (USSR)5241 (Mi5371)1984"Space Meteorology" (in Cyrillic text) and M-100 upper atmospheric research rocket
Russia (USSR)None(Green rubber-stamp) cachet on stamped envelope1987Mir "HEXE (High Energy X-Ray Experiment)"
Russia (USSR)None(Pictorial) cancel and cachet on stamped envelope1990Solar wind and magnetosphere; 50th anniv. IZMIRAN (Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation)
Russia (USSR)None(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover2015"Conference on Radiation Effects on Components and Systems"; depiction of coronal mass ejection (CME)9 and shock wave impacting Earth's magnetosphere
Rwanda954 (Mi1030)1980Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
RwandaUnknown c-d (Mi none)Two of MS4 (a-d) [known illegal issue]2012Solar CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejections)9 (the massive eruptions depicted on the left and right sides of the Sun); Picard and Solar Orbiter are solar observation satellites
Sacha RepublicLocal1 (800val)Czechoslovakia 1717 overprinted on 4x Russia 5984 (Mi6177), from strip of 51994/5?Depiction of magnetosphere (and IK-3/5 type satellite)
Sacha RepublicLocal2 (800val)Czechoslovakia 1717 overprinted on 4x Russia 5987 (Mi6180), from strip of 5
Sacha RepublicLocal3 (800val)Czechoslovakia 1717 overprinted on 4x Russia 6060 (Mi231), from strip of 5
Sacha RepublicLocal4 (800val)Czechoslovakia 1717 overprinted on 4x Russia 6066A (Mi262), from strip of 5
Sacha RepublicLocal5 (800val)Czechoslovakia 1717 overprinted on 4x Russia 6067 (Mi251), from strip of 5
St. Thomas and Prince Islands580 (Mi648)1980Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
St. Thomas and Prince Islands580 maxiMaxicard
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsUnknown (Mi?)One of MS3 (a-c)2004Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsUnknown fdcOne of three stamps and (multi-color printed) cachet (design like stamp) on FDC
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsUnknown ms (Mi?)MS9 (a-i), which contains three of the same stamps as MS3
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsUnknown ms fdcMS9 on FDC
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsUnknown ia (Mi?)One of imperforate MS3 (a-c)2006The Concorde11 making solar observations in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsUnknown ims fdcImperforate MS3 and cachet on FDC
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsUnknown ms (Mi?)In (left) margin and in (lower-left) margin of MS92006Auroral ring (in left margin) and "Sun-Earth connections" during the "Solar Max[imum]" (with a symbolic Earth magnetotail, in lower-left margin)
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsUnknown ms fdcMS9 on FDC
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsUnknown ims fdc1Imperforate MS9 on FDC
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsUnknown ims fdc2Imperforate MS9 on FDC (different)
St. Vincent1207a (Mi1311)
i1207a
One of strip of 4 (1207 (a-d)) (Mi1311-1314)
One of imperforate strip of 4 (i1207 (a-d))
1989"Buzz Aldrin conducting solar wind experiments" with the SWCE2
St. Vincent2080f (Mi2966)One of MS9 (2080 (a-i)) (Mi2961-2969)1994"Explorer-1 and Van Allen belts"; also depiction of the belts
St. Vincent2080 fdcMS9 on FDC
St. Vincent2080f specimenOne of MS9 (2080 overprinted "specimen" (a-i))
SharjahBL53In lower-center panel of imperforate SS1, also detail1969SWCE2 (in background)
SharjahBL53 fdcImperforate SS1 on FDC
SharjahMi990A
Mi990B

Imperforate
1972Potential hazards for Apollo astronauts on the Moon, including space weather effects: "solar particles", "cosmic rays", "ultraviolet rays", "X-rays" and "gamma rays" (in French text); the stamp design is based on this illustration from Arthur C. Clarke's 1966 book "Man and Space" (part of the Time-Life Books Life Science Library)
SharjahMi990 dsImperforate deluxe sheet (Mi990B)
Sierra Leone1070g (Mi1236)One of MS9 (1070 (a-i)) (Mi1230-1238)1989Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Sierra Leone1070g specimenOne of MS9 (1070 specimen (a-i))
Sierra Leone1729a (Mi2158)From MS6 (1729 (a-f)) (Mi2158-2163)1994Apollo-11 Astronaut "Aldrin gathering soil samples" with the SWCE2 nearby; see also Antigua and Barbuda 1822a
Sierra Leone1729b (Mi2159)Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Sierra Leone2933c (Mi5130)From MS4 (2933 (a-d)) (Mi5128-5131)2009"Solar eruption" (in this case a solar prominence)
Sierra Leone2933d (Mi5131)Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
Sierra Leone5108 (Mi10589-10592)MS4 (5108 (a-d))2018PSP12; "to probe the outer corona of the Sun"
Sierra Leone5126 (BL1624)SS1 (Mi10593)PSP12; "honoring physicist Eugene Parker"
Sierra LeoneUnknown ms (Mi?)In (upper-left) margin of MS2 (a-b)2020Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
SomaliaUnknown ss (BL?)In (left) margin of SS11996Artist's depiction of solar prominences
SomaliaUnknown ss (BL?)
Unknown iss
In (left) margin of SS1
In (left) margin of imperforate SS1
2004CME9 from Sun eclipsed by Moon (in left margin of MS4) (same design as in Malagasy Republic Unknown ms 2011)
South AfricaNone(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1976(Ground-based) "neutron research5" (includes measurements of GLEs15) project (originated by Potchefstroom Campus of North West University, RSA)
South AfricaNone(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1980(Ground-based) "neutron research5" (includes measurements of GLEs15) project (originated by Potchefstroom Campus of North West University, RSA)
South AfricaNone(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1982(Ground-based) "neutron research5" (includes measurements of GLEs15) project (originated by Potchefstroom Campus of North West University, RSA)
South AfricaNone(Purple and magenta) cachets on cover1983Neutron research5 and South Atlantic ionospheric research
Sweden857 (Mi680)One of strip of 5 (857b (853-857)) (Mi676-680), and from booklet pane of 10 (857c (2x (853-857)), or complete booklet (857a) (MH25)1970Launch of research rocket for auroral studies; "The [ESRO] sounding rocket programme comprises studies of auroral particles, polar cap absorptions and galactic X-rays" (in 853 FDC text); also in booklet and 853-857 FDC1 insert text: "North Magnetic Pole attracts showers of charged particles emanating from solar flares4, which collide spectacularly with the Earth's atmosphere" (and in doing so, form the aurora). "Hither come both Swedish and European aerospace research teams to shoot their rocket probes into the flaming auroral skies".
Sweden853-857 fdc1One of five stamps on FDC, also insert
Sweden853-857 fdc2One of five stamps and (pictorial) cancel on FDC
Sweden853 fdc(Pictorial) cancel and cachet on FDC
Sweden1514 (Mi1305)1984Aurora and Viking satellite (its mission was to study the charged particles that cause the Aurora Borealis)
Sweden1514 maxiStamp and (pictorial) cancel on maxicard
Sweden1515 (Mi1306)Aurora and launch of research rocket for auroral studies
Sweden1515 maxiMaxicard
Sweden1514-1515 fdc1Two stamps on FDC, also insert(As above for stamps); The Viking satellite's mission was "the study of the Aurora Borealis" (in French text in the FDC2 cachet); it made "measurements in the part of the magnetosphere that lies between 4,000 and 15,000 km over the surface of the Earth. The charged particles that cause [the] Aurora Borealis will be studied" (in text in the FDC1 insert)
Sweden1514-1515 fdc2Two stamps and cachet on FDC
SwedenNone(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on postal card1986"EISCAT17 Scientific Association"
Sweden1892 (Mi1664)One of booklet pane of 3 (1893a (1891-1893)), with booklet front, and booklet interior (1893b (2x 1893a)) (MH159, Mi1663-1665); also full booklet (1893c)1991Freja satellite and stratospheric balloon for ionospheric and auroral research; "the first Swedish research satellite Viking, ... increased our knowledge of the Northern Lights" (in folder text)
Sweden1893a fdcOne of booklet pane of 3 on FDC
Sweden1893a folder insideInside of folder (2x (1893a (1891-1893)))
Sweden1893a blackBlackprint
Swedeni1893a trialImperforate trial color printing on white paper
SwitzerlandNonePostcard back, also front1989Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin beside the SWCE2
SwitzerlandKM-unknown20 francs (silver coin), also obverse2019Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
TahitiNone(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1994Taravao ionospheric station
Tanzania502 (Mi588A)
i502 (Mi558B)

Imperforate
1989Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Tanzania499-500+502+505 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC (red and black printed cachet)
Tanzania1248d (Mi1943)One of MS9 (1248 (a-i)) (Mi1940-1948)1994Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
TogoC400 (Mi1396)1979Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
TogoC401a (BL148)On one of MS2 (C401a (C400-C401))
TogoUnknown c (Mi?)One stamp and in (left and lower) margins of MS4 (a-d)2013The "Concorde11, transformed into a flying observatory" (in French text in the margin) observing the solar corona during the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
TogoUnknown d (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)2019"Buzz Aldrin déploie le capteur de particules du vent solaire" ("Buzz Aldrin deploys the SWCE2")
TokelauUnknown c (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d), also annotated2019SWCE2 (in the background, to the right of the LEM); stamp design based on this photo)
TurkeyB159 (Mi2428)1977Earth's magnetosphere (outlined by some magnetic field lines)
TurkeyB158-B159 fdc1One of two stamps on FDC (Turkey PTT cachet)
TurkeyB158-B159 fdc2One of two stamps on FDC (Éditions J.F. cachet)
Turks and Caicos Islands778f (Mi?)One of MS6 (778 (a-f))1989Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Turks and Caicos Islands789c (Mi?)One of MS5 (789 (a-e))1990Apollo-11 SWCE2 (in left background)
Uganda1484A (Mi1855-1862)In (lower) margin of MS8 (1484A (b-i))1997Voyager-1 "braved the intense Jovian radiation belts"
Umm Al QiwainMi862A
Mi862B
One of MS28 (Mi859A-886A)
One of imperforate MS28 (Mi859B-886B)
1972Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Union Island (St. Vincent)Mi470-475_ms6In (lower-left) margin of MS6 (Mi470-475)1972SWCE2
United Nations947 (BL27)In (right) margin of SS12007Multiple CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejections)9 and solar flares4
United Nations947a (BL27_I)In (right) margin of SS1, overprinted
United Nations (Vienna)624 (Mi1018)From MS20 (624a (20x 624))2018"Aurora Australis seen from the ISS" (in German text)
United Nations (Vienna)623-624 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
United States1088 (Mi710)1957Responsibilities of the US "Coast and Geodetic Survey" include the study of "geo-magnetism"
United States1088 fdc1Stamp and (Fleetwood) cachet on FDC (small font, 4-line cancel), also insert
United States1088 fdc2Stamp and (Fleetwood) cachet on FDC (large font, 3-line cancel), also insert
United States1107 (Mi727)1958Solar eruptions, possibly CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejections)9 [numerous 1107 derivative items can be found on the IGY page]
United States1107 sc/fdc (Mi727 sc/fdc)FDC with (Fleetwood) cachet on (PCS) souvenir cardThe IGY coincided with "a period of especially intense solar activity" and one of its goals was to study "many subjects affected by sunspots and other solar disturbances"
United StatesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1967"Stanford University Antarctic Magnetospace Observatory"
United StatesNone(ESSA-SDL blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1969"ESSA Space Disturbance Laboratory, Space Disturbance Forecast Services"; depiction of solar wind, magnetosphere, Van Allen belts, ionosphere and aurora
United StatesUX57 fdc(Riser/Andromeda Space Covers) cachet on postal card FDC1970"providing up-to-the-minute space environmental data for Apollo astronauts"
United StatesUX57 fdc
1371 cover
(Riser/Andromeda Space Covers) cachet on postal card FDC
United States1435b fdc1 (Mi1046-1047 fdc1)(Hammond) cachet on FDC card (Houston TX cancel)1971"solar winds" (one of many subjects studied by the Apollo-15 mission)
United States1435b fdc2 (Mi1046-1047 fdc2)(Hammond) cachet (different) on FDC card (Kennedy Space Center FL cancel)
United StatesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1973"Thule Super Neutron Monitor"5
United States1529 fdc (Mi1136 fdc)(C. Stephen Anderson) cachet on cover1974One of Skylab's missions was to study "solar phenomena"
United StatesSP348(USPS) souvenir page (1529)The Skylab mission "was to increase Man's knowledge of Earth and the Sun"
United States1556 fdc1 (Mi1164 fdc1)(Fleetwood) cachet on FDC, also back1975Pioneer-10 and Pioneer-11 made measurements of Jupiter's "magnetic field [and] radiation belts"
United States1556 fdc2 (Mi1164 fdc2)(Fleetwood) cachet (and signatures) on FDC, also back
United States1556 fdc3 (Mi1164 fdc3)(The Century Club, University of Louisville) insert (inside) from FDC, also insert (front and back) and frontPioneer-10 and Pioneer-11 relayed "valuable information about ... [Jupiter's] intense radiation belts"
United States1556 fdc4 (Mi1164 fdc4)(Cover Craft Cachets) insert from FDC, also frontThe Pioneer spacecraft relayed "valuable information about [Jupiter's] intense radiation belts"
United States1556 fdc5 (Mi1164 fdc5)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also frontPioneer-10 and -11 observed Jupiter's "weather patterns, atmosphere and hostile radiation belts"
United StatesSP360(USPS) souvenir page (1556)"Pioneer-10 and Pioneer-11 provided valuable information about Jupiter's "weather patterns, atmosphere and radiation belts"
United States1557 fdc1 (Mi1170 fdc1)(JPL Stamp Club) insert (yellow) from FDC, also insert back (yellow), or insert (white), and cover front1975"Charged particle telescope"; "Magnetometers"; "Plasma science expt"; "The spacecraft also detected a magnetic field at Mercury - a highly significant, though unexpected, discovery".
United States1557 fdc2 (Mi1170 fdc2)(Postmasters of America) insert from FDC, also front, and back"Passing within 3,600 miles of the cloud-shrouded planet in February 1974, Mariner-10's high-resolution cameras radioed back man's first close-up pictures of Venus"
United States1759 fdc (Mi1356 fdc)(Space Voyage) cachet on FDC (Hampton VA cancel)1978"SPHINX15 satellite"
United States1759 cover1 (Mi1356 cover1)(British Caledonian Airways) cachet on cover, also insert1979Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2 (at right in the cachet)
United States1759 cover2 (Mi1356 cover2)(British Caledonian Airways) cachet (and signature) on cover, also insert
United States1759 cover3 (Mi1356 cover3)(British Caledonian Airways) cachet (and signature, different) on cover, also insert
United States1912 fdc (Mi1481 fdc)(PCS golden-replica) insert from FDC, also front1981"An aluminum foil screen was erected to capture particles of the solar wind shot out by the Sun". This experiment was known as the SWCE2
United States1915 (Mi1484)One of block of 8 (1919a (1912-1919)) (Mi1481-1488)1981"Understanding the Sun" (Skylab made space-weather-related solar observations using the ATM (Apollo Telescope Mount)); "Skylab's prime mission was solar study" (in folder text); also depiction of "solar corona taken by a coronagraph8/polarimeter" (in folder); also, in the insert of 1915 FDC1: "The Solar Maximum Mission pictured on this stamp [but Skylab, not SMM, is shown in USA 1915] was launched in 1980 to coincide with a period of enormously powerful solar eruptions"
United States1915 fdc1Stamp and (PCS golden-replica) cachet from FDC, also insert
United States1915 fdc2Stamp on FDC (Bazaar? cachet)
United States1915 fdc3Stamp and (Zaso silk/IASP no.32) cachet on FDC
United States1915 fdc4Stamp and (R&R/Colorano silk) cachet on FDC
United States1915 fdc5Stamp on FDC (Reader's Digest cachet)
United States1915 fdc6Stamp and (DRC Cachets) cachet on FDC, also back
United States1915 fdc7Stamp on FDC (Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Stamp Club cachet)
United States1915 fdc8Stamp and (Skylab Mission Control) cachet on FDC
United States1915 fdc9Stamp and (Fleetwood) cachet on FDC, also back
United States1915 fdc10Stamp on FDC (Spectrum cachet)
United States1915 fdc11Stamp on FDC (PhilSwiss cachet)
United States1915 fdc12Stamp on FDC (Don Kauer cachet)
United States1915 sc(Reader's Digest) souvenir card (with 1915 fdc), also back
United States1915+1919 fdc1One of two stamps on FDC (GAMM cachet)
United States1915+1919 fdc2One of two stamps on FDC (First Rank/Space Voyage blue and red cachet; KSC, FL cancel)
United States1915+1919 fdc3One of two stamps on FDC (First Rank/Space Voyage brown and orange cachet; Houston TX cancel)
United States1915+1919 fdc4One of two stamps on FDC (First Rank/Space Voyage green and orange cachet; MSFC, AL cancel)
United States1919 fdc(Black printed) cachet on FDC
United States1919a fdc1One of eight stamps on FDC (ArtCraft cachet)
United States1919a fdc2One of eight stamps on FDC (Spectrum cachet)
United States1919a fdc3One of eight stamps on FDC (Artmaster cachet)
United States1919a fdc4One of eight stamps on FDC (Butcher/Fleetwood cachet), also back
United States1919a fdc5One of eight stamps on FDC (Colorano silk cachet)
United States1919a folder1FDC folder (1919a)
United States1919a folder2Folder (1919a)
United StatesSP555(USPS) souvenir page (1919a)
United StatesCP143(USPS) commemorative panel (1919a)
United StatesNoneCinderella1983Schematic radiation belts
United States2224 cover (Mi? cover)(Blue printed) cachet on cover1986"Voyager-1: Search of boundary of solar system" (the spacecraft did eventually find that boundary, on 25 August 2012, when it crossed the heliopause, thus leaving the heliosphere and entering interstellar space)
United StatesNoneInsert back from cover, also insert front and cover front1986"ISEE-3" studied "the interaction between the [Giacobini-Zinner] comet and the solar wind" and made "long distance observations of the solar wind near Halley's Comet"
United States2497 cover (Mi2094 cover)(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover~1990"MIST - University of Washington" (Magnetospheric, Ionospheric, Solar and Terrestrial studies)
United StatesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1991"MIST - University of Washington" (Magnetospheric, Ionospheric, Solar and Terrestrial studies)
United States2568+2572+2577 fdc(P.A. Roman) cachet on FDC1991(artistic) depiction of a coronal loop19
United States2569 fdc (Mi2184 fdc)(PCS golden-replica) insert from FDC, also frontMariner-2's observations of Venus "failed to detect any radiation belt similar to Earth's Van Allen Belt, or the existence of any kind of magnetic field"
United States2569+2574 sc/fdc (Mi2184+2189 sc/fdc)(PCS) cachet on SCAs it flew by Venus, Mariner-2 "failed to detect any radiation belt similar to Earth's Van Allen belts or any trace of a magnetic field"
United States2575 maxi (Mi2190 maxi)(Unicover) maxicard back, also front"Uranus emits intense ultraviolet radiation called 'electroglow'"
United States2575 fdc (Mi2190 fdc)(PCS golden-replica) FDC insert, also frontVoyager-2 showed that "Uranus also has a unique magnetic field that fluctuates wildly as the planet spins on its axis"
United States2576 fdc (Mi2191 fdc)(PCS golden-replica) FDC insert, also front"Neptune itself was found to be a pale blue object glowing with auroras and crackling and hissing from the radio noise of charged particles trapped by magnetic fields"
United StatesC130 maxi (Mi2148 maxi)(Unicover) maxicard back, also front1991"During the 1950s the scientific community established an International Geophysical Year to coincide with sunspot activity projected for 1957-1958"
United StatesC130 fdc (Mi2148 fdc)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front"the scientific community coordinated efforts to establish an International Geophysical Year to coincide with sunspot activity projected for 1957 - 1958"
United StatesCP366(USPS) commemorative panel (C130)IGY scientific research included studies of "magnetism", "cosmic radiation" and "sunspots"
United States2634 maxi (Mi2238 maxi)(Fleetwood) maxicard back, also front1992"Evidence suggests that at one time water flowed there [i.e. on Mars]. In fact, scientists theorize Mars once had enough water to cover the entire planet 33 feet deep. The puzzling question remains: Where did it all go?" Certain space weather effects are probably one part of the answer.
United States2634a fdc (Mi2235-2238 maxi)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front
United States2841a fdc (Mi2477 fdc)(JLP Cachets) cachet on FDC, also annotated1994"Solar wind experiment" (SWCE2)
United StatesLocal~1998"Explorer-1" and the Van Allen radiation belts
United States3187d fdc1 (Mi3126 fdc1)(BGC) cachet on FDC1999Based on observations from Explorer-1, Dr. Van Allen theorized about the "existence of a belt of charged particles trapped in space by the Earth's magnetic field. The existence of these Van Allen belts ... was confirmed by Explorer-3"
United States3187d fdc2 (Mi3126 fdc2)(Collins) cachet on FDC"the Van Allen radiation belt[s] discovered by the Explorer satellites" (refers to Explorer-1 and Explorer-3)
United States3187d fdc5 (Mi3126 fdc5)(PCS golden-replica) back of FDC, also frontThe "American satellites [Explorer-1 and Explorer-3] yielded valuable scientific information including the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belt"
United States3189i fdc1 (Mi3233 fdc1)Stamp and (PCS golden-replica) back of FDC, also front1999Pioneer-10 "provided important information about [Jupiter's] atmosphere, magnetic fields and intense radiation belts"
United States3189i fdc2 (Mi3233 fdc2)(PCS) information sheet from FDC, also frontPioneer-10 recorded "important scientific data" about Jupiter's "solar wind and magnetic field"
United States3189i fdc3 (Mi3233 fdc3)(Mystic) back of FDC, also frontPioneer-10 explored Jupiter's "radiation belts" and "was the first Earth spacecraft to make it through ... Jupiter's blanket of radioactivity"
United States3388 fdc (Mi3284 fdc)(Mystic Stamp Company) cachet on FDC, also back2000"Saturn's north and south poles illuminated by ultraviolet auroras"; this image, obtained from HST in 1997, was "the first picture of Saturn's aurora"
United States3410a (Mi3367)From MS5 (3410 (a-e)) (Mi3367-3371)2000Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
United States3410b (Mi3368)Solar prominences
United States3410d (Mi3370)CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9
United States3410a fdc1Stamp on FDC (Space Voyage/First Rank cachet)(As above for stamps)
United States3410a fdc2Stamp on FDC (PCS cachet)
United States3410b fdc1Stamp on FDC (PCS cachet)
United States3410b fdc2Stamp on FDC (multi-color printed cachet)
United States3410d fdcStamp on FDC (PCS cachet)
United StatesNone(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover2000Solar wind and magnetosphere
United StatesNone(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover2002Earth's magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind; see also AAT cover (2002)
United States4123b fdc (Mi4197 fdc)(Multi-color printed) cachet on FDC2007"NASA photo from Spacelab-3 of geomagnetic storm" and aurora seen from space (the aurora are one result of the "geomagnetic storm")
United States4123 fdc (BL62 fdc)(Multi-color printed) cachet on FDCAurora seen from space (in cachet at lower left)
United States4203 fdc1 (Mi4315 fdc1)(Mission 57) back of FDC, also front2007Solar wind and magnetosphere; also Northern Hemisphere auroral ring (in cachets front and back)
United States4203 fdc2 (Mi4315 fdc2)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front"The colored lights of the Aurora Borealis are caused by a collision between solar wind-driven charged particles and atoms of gases in the Earth's protective atmosphere"
United States4204 fdc1 (Mi4316 fdc1)(Mission 57) back of FDC, also front"Solar Earth magnetosphere process[es]"; also "solar flare4" image; also Southern Hemisphere auroral ring (in cachets front and back)
United States4204 fdc2 (Mi4316 fdc2)(Fleetwood) cachet on FDC, also back"The [polar] lights are caused by the collision of high-speed solar particles (emitted by the Sun) with gases in Earth's protective atmosphere". "Violent solar storms, which cause stronger solar winds, enlarge the area the aurora covers (auroral ring)"
United StatesNone(Mission 57) cachet on IGY cover back, also front2007"Explorer-1 ... discovered a band of charged particles surrounding the Earth, later named the Van Allen radiation belt"
United StatesNone(Mission 57) back of cover, also front2007"Solar Earth magnetosphere process[es]"; also "solar flare4" image; also Southern Hemisphere auroral ring (in cachets front and back)
United StatesNoneCinderella2010sSchematic drawing of the heliosphere and some of its components; also Voyager-1 and 2
United States4528 fdc1 (Mi4702 fdc1)(Multi-color printed) cachet on FDC (DCP cancel)2011MESSENGER observation of Mercury's "atmosphere, magnetosphere and plasma environment"
United States4528 fdc2 (Mi4702 fdc2)(Multi-color printed) cachet on FDC (text cancel)
United States4528 fdc3 (Mi4702 fdc3)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also frontMercury "is thought to be the only other Earth-like planet with a global magnetic field"
United States4528 fdc4 (Mi4702 fdc4)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front (different cancel)
United StatesNone(Coverscape) cachet on cover2014155th anniv. the Carrington Event solar storm: 28 Aug - 2 Sep 1859; "a solar coronal mass ejection9 aligned with and hit the Earth's magnetosphere, inducing one of the largest known geomagnetic storms in recorded history"
United States5071 fdc (Mi5245 fdc)(Bullfrog) cachet on FDC, also detail2016Auroral ring
United States5073 fdc (Mi5247 fdc)(Bullfrog) cachet on FDCJupiter has "a powerful magnetosphere"
United States5074 fdc (Mi5248 fdc)(Bullfrog) cachet on FDC"Electrical current within the metallic hydrogen layer is thought to give rise to Saturn's planetary magnetic field"
United States5075 fdc1 (Mi5249 fdc1)(Bullfrog) cachet on FDC"Like the other giant planets, Uranus has a ring system [and] a magnetosphere"
United States5075 fdc2 (Mi5249 fdc2)(Colorano silk) cachet on FDCSolar prominence
United StatesSP2015(USPS) souvenir page (5069-5076)The "Hubble Space Telescope ... has captured high-resolution images of ... the auroras of Jupiter and Saturn"
United StatesCP966(USPS) commemorative panel (5069-5076)"NASA's famed Hubble Space Telescope ... has captured high-resolution images of ... the auroras of Jupiter and Saturn"
United StatesNone(Zazzle.com) personalized postage2016For an unknown reason, sunspots virtually disappeared between 1645 and 1715 in what is now known as the "Maunder minimum", named after E.W. Maunder (1851-1928), an English astronomer who studied that period of minimum solar activity
United States5211 (Mi?)Stamp with thermochromic ink which changes when heated, from MS16 (5211a (16x 5211)) or MS16 heated2017Solar corona (visible during a solar eclipse or through the use of an instrument known as a coronagraph8)
United StatesSP2065(USPS) souvenir page (5211)
United StatesCP982(USPS) commemorative panel (5211)
United States5211 cover (Mi? cover)Stamp and (pictorial) cancel and (multi-color printed) cachet on cover2017Observing "the solar corona using stabilized telescopes aboard two of NASA's WB-57F research aircraft" during the 21 August solar eclipse
United StatesNone(Coverscape) cachet on cover2019Depiction of Earth's magnetosphere; "James A. Van Allen" was the "discoverer of the magnetosphere", which was named the "'Van Allen Radiation Belts' in his honor, following his discovery of them during the International Geophysical Year in 1958"
United StatesNone(Coverscape) cachet on cover2019160th anniv. "the Carrington event - the great solar storm of 1859"
United States5607c (Mi5831BA-5840BA)
i5607c
MS20 (10x (5598-5607)), also back
Imperforate MS20 (5598a-5607a)
2021"Sunspots" (in 5604 stamp); the "active Sun" with "coronal hole", "coronal loops"19, "solar flare", "plasma blast", and "sunspots" in images obtained by the SDO satellite; also various space weather-related illustrations in the cachets of the FDCs, including the "Scheiner Helioscope - 1630" (in the cachet of 5604_fdc2). In 5600_fdc4, the cachet image is presented as a negative so that the solar flares in the cachet are the dark areas (rather than the bright areas as they are in a positive image). 5600_fdc5 also depicts a solar prominence in its cachet.
United States5598-5607 posterPoster (5798-5607)
United States5598-5607 fdcTen stamps and (Panda Cachets) cachet on FDC
United States5598 fdc1Stamp on FDC (Janet Hobbs hand-drawn and hand-painted cachet), also back
United States5598 fdc2Stamp and (JVC) cachet on FDC
United States5599 fdcStamp and (JVC) cachet on FDC
United States5600 fdc1Stamp and (JVC) cachet on FDC
United States5600 fdc2Stamp and (multi-color printed) cachet on FDC
United States5600 fdc3Stamp and (multi-color printed) cachet (different) on FDC
United States5600 fdc4Stamp and (multi-color printed) cachet (different) on FDC
United States5600 fdc5Stamp and (multi-color printed) cachet (different) on FDC
United States5600 fdc6Stamp and (multi-color printed) cachet (different) on FDC
United States5601 fdc1Stamp on FDC (Janet Hobbs hand-drawn and hand-painted cachet), also back
United States5601 fdc2Stamp and (JVC) cachet on FDC
United States5602 fdc1Stamp on FDC (Janet Hobbs hand-drawn and hand-painted cachet), also back
United States5602 fdc2Stamp and (JVC) cachet on FDC
United States5602 fdc3Stamp on FDC (Alpine cachet), also back
United States5603 fdc1Stamp and (Janet Hobbs hand-drawn and hand-painted) cachet on FDC, also back
United States5603 fdc2Stamp and (JVC) cachet on FDC
United States5603 fdc3Stamp on FDC (Alpine cachet), also back
United States5604 fdc1Stamp and (Mews) cachet on FDC
United States5604 fdc2Stamp and (black printed) cachet on FDC
United States5604 fdc3Stamp and (DCP) cancel on FDC (blank/no cachet)
United States5604 fdc4Stamp and (pictorial) cancel and (Ranski) cachet on FDC
United States5604 fdc5Stamp and (JVC) cachet on FDC
United States5605 fdc1Stamp and (JVC) cachet on FDC
United States5605 fdc2Stamp on FDC (Alpine cachet), also back
United States5606 fdc1Stamp and (Coverscape) cachet on FDC
United States5606 fdc2Stamp and (JVC) cachet on FDC
United States5607 fdc1Stamp on FDC (Janet Hobbs hand-drawn and hand-painted cachet), also back
United States5607 fdc2Stamp and (JVC) cachet on FDC
United StatesSP2191(USPS) souvenir page (5607c)
United StatesCP1046(USPS) commemorative panel (5607c)
Vatican City518 cover (Mi599 cover)(KimCover) cachet on cover, also detail1972Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin beside the SWCE2
Vatican City654 (Mi745)From MS20 (654a (20x 654))1979Solar prominences (in the stamps and cachets); "various depictions of solar prominences" (in Italian text in the folder)
Vatican City655 (Mi746)From MS20 (655a (20x 655))
Vatican City656 (Mi747)From MS20 (656a (20x 656))
Vatican City654-656 fdc1Three stamps and (Capitolium brown) cachet on FDC
Vatican City654-656 fdc2Three stamps and (Capitolium brown) cachet (slightly different) on FDC
Vatican City654-656 fdc3Three stamps and (Capitolium blue) cachet on FDC
Vatican City654-656 folderFDC folder (654-656), also front and back
Yemen Mutawakelite KingdomBL224A
BL224B
SS1
Imperforate SS1
1970Apollo-11 Astronaut Aldrin setting up the SWCE2
Zimbabwe882 (Mi701)2001Solar "prominences during a total solar eclipse"

1Super DARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) consists of a large number of radars operating on frequencies between 8 and 20 MHz and looking into the polar regions of the Earth. These radars can measure the position and velocity of plasma irregularities in the Earth's ionosphere. The movements of those irregularities respond to energy coupled into the auroral regions from the solar wind and magnetosphere. Super DARN is therefore one source of information on how the Earth interacts with the space environment.
2The Solar Wind Composition Experiment (SWCE) was deployed on the Moon during five Apollo missions (Apollo-11, 12, 14, 15, and 16). The goal of the SWCE was to sample and measure the solar wind at a location outside of Earth's magnetosphere. It provided the first accurate measurements of the He, Ne, and Ar isotopic components of the solar wind. The experiment consisted of a sheet of pure metal foil, 1-foot wide and 4.6 feet high, mounted on a pole inserted into the soil of the Moon's surface. The foil was exposed for various amounts of time in the different Apollo missions and was then stowed and returned to Earth for analysis. This photo shows Apollo-11 astronaut Edwin Aldrin beside the mounted SWCE sheet; this photo shows a close view of the similar SWCE sheet from the Apollo-12 mission; this diagram provides a few details for the deployed sheet.
3The Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) was formerly known as the Space Environment Center (SEC), or the Space Environment Services Center. Its mission is to continually monitor, analyze and forecast Earth's space environment. The SWPC is the official source of space weather forecasts, alerts and warnings for the United States.
4A solar flare is a sudden massive eruption of energy from the Sun, mostly in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which reaches Earth in around 8 minutes and can affect wireless communications through its interactions with the ionosphere. Solar flares are often accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs)9, which dramatically strengthen the solar wind, which can result in other significant space weather effects on and near Earth if they strike the Earth.
5Ground-based neutron monitors generally record galactic cosmic rays and their variation with the 11-year sunspot cycle and the 22-year magnetic cycle. However, the Sun occasionally emits cosmic rays of sufficient energy to raise radiation levels at the surface to the degree that they are readily detected by neutron monitors. Such events are termed "Ground Level Enhancements" (GLEs)6 and are one symptom of some solar or magnetic storms.
6AFCRL: Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (Cambridge MA)
7See here for a list of engraved/lithographed Russian definitive pairs known to exist with satellite overprints.
8A coronagraph is a special telescope equipped with a disk that blacks out ("occults") the solar disk, thereby making possible daylight observations of the solar corona.
9A CME (Coronal Mass Ejection) is a massive eruption of matter from the solar corona that moves away from the Sun in a huge "cloud" of energetic solar particles. CMEs can cause significant space weather effects.
10Equatorial Guinea BL277 was produced in 2 printings, if not more: The first printing is blue and the second is blue-violet (as seen in the non-overprinted sheets). A third printing that is magenta has been found overprinted only, and possibly a fourth printing with more green has been found on FDCs only). None of the overprints appear to be found on more than one printing.
11The Concorde was used as a mobile solar observatory in the African total solar eclipse of 1973. It was large enough to house scientists and their equipment, flew high enough to reduce atmospheric effects on the observations, and was fast enough to remain in the area of totality. In this mission it was in the area of totality for 74 minutes. For more information, see https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/8q8qwk/the-concorde-and-the-longest-solar-eclipse.
12PSP is the Parker Solar Probe, launched 12 August 2018. Its mission is to try and answer three basic questions about the Sun:
1. How is the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona, heated to temperatures about 300 times higher than the visible surface below?
2. How is the solar wind accelerated so quickly to the high speeds we observe?
3. How do some of the Sun's most energetic particles rocket away from the Sun at more than half the speed of light?
For more information, see https://earthsky.org/space/parker-solar-probe-1st-image-from-inside-suns-atmosphere.
13The IMS (International Magnetospheric Study) was an international program under SCOSTEP (Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics) in which a coordinated effort was made to understand magnetospheric processes.
14The Solar Wind Spectrometer (SWS) was deployed on the lunar surface by Apollo-12 and Apollo-15. Although the solar wind contains ions of most chemical elements (including the noble gases measured by the Solar Wind Composition Experiment (SWCE)), over 95% of the particles in the solar wind are electrons and protons, in roughly equal numbers. The SWS measured the flux of protons and electrons as a function of particle velocity. The measurements were made in a set of seven detector cups with different orientations in order to determine the direction of particle motion. Most of the measured flux was in the detector that was oriented most directly toward the Sun.
15A Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) event is a solar energetic particle (SEP) event in which the particles reach the neutral atmosphere of Earth and produce secondary neutrons that are detected at ground level as sudden increases in cosmic ray intensity.
16The Einstein Tower on Telegraph Hill in Potsdam, Germany is a solar observatory. The surrounding area on Telegraph Hill is also used by Geo-Forschungszentrum Potsdam and other institutes of climate and polar research.
17The EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter) Scientific Association conducts ionospheric and atmospheric research using four incoherent-scatter radar systems located north of the Arctic Circle in Sweden, Finland and Norway. EISCAT's observations contribute to the science of space weather and the auroras. For example, they are used in studies of Sun-Earth interactions as revealed by disturbances in the ionosphere, which in turn may be related to changes in the magnetosphere.
18The four Skylab missions are identified on the Skylab-mission Earth imagery page.
19Coronal loops are huge loops of magnetic field beginning and ending on the Sun's visible surface (photosphere) and projecting into the solar atmosphere (corona). Hot glowing ionized gas (plasma) trapped in the loops makes them visible. Coronal loops range widely in size up to several thousand kilometers long. They are transient features of the solar surface, forming and dissipating over periods of seconds to days.


Below are the three tables containing lists of Space weather on satellite, rocket, and balloon launch covers (including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers).

CountryCancel DateCancel LocationType of ItemNotes on Content
Space Weather (on Launch Covers, satellite-related)
United States1958-07-26Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Explorer-4 launch cover"providing data on radiation and analysis of Earth's magnetic field"
United States1959-09-18Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Vanguard-3 launch coverMeasuring space environment conditions, including Earth's magnetic field and the effect on the Earth's [upper] atmosphere of solar X-rays
United States1958-10-11Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Pioneer-1 launch cover"Provides first measurements of interplanetary magnetic field"
United States1959-10-13Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Explorer-7 launch cover"Study cosmic rays, X-rays from Sun"
United States1959-10-13Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet (and signatures) on Explorer-7 launch cover
United States1960-11-03Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Explorer-8 launch covermade "direct measurements of the ionosphere"
United States1960-12-07Vandenberg AFB, CA(Multi-color printed) cachet on Discoverer-18 launch coverContained "various human tissues for radiation studies" ("spy-in-the-sky")
United States1961-03-25 (inverted hour "2")Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft no.1) cachet on Explorer-10 launch cover"Van Allen radiation belts & magnetic fields; designed to chart 'least hostile' routes for future space travel"
United States1961-03-25Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft no.1) cachet (and signature) on Explorer-10 launch cover
United States1961-08-15Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Explorer-12 launch cover"to study the interaction between solar winds and the Earth's magnetic field"
United States1961-08-16Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft) insert from Explorer-12 launch cover, also front"Solar winds"
United States1961-08-16Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft) insert from Explorer-12 launch cover, also front (with signature)
United States1961-08-23Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft, no logo) cachet on Ranger-1 launch cover, also insertmeasured "charged particles, protons [and] nuclei of hydrogen atoms from the Sun, and cosmic rays"
United States1962-01-24Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Injun-2 and SolRad-4A and SECOR-(1) and LOFTI-2 launch [failed] cover, also insert"To study the Van Allen radiation belt"
United States1962-03-07Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on OSO-1 launch coverobserved "the stormy surface of the Sun"
United States1962-03-07Port Canaveral FL(?) cachet on OSO-1 launch coverobserved "the stormy surface of the Sun", and studied "how the Sun influences conditions on Earth"
United States1962-03-07Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OSO-1 launch cover, also insert"To measure X-rays, gamma, ultraviolet and infrared rays streaming toward Earth from the Sun"
United States1962-03-07Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet (and signature) on OSO-1 launch cover, also insert
United States1962-03-07Port Canaveral FL(Red and black printed) cachet on OSO-1 launch cover"To study how the Sun influences conditions on Earth"
United States1962-04-26Port Canaveral FL(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on Ariel-1 launch cover"Study ionosphere - Sun relations"
United States1962-04-26Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from Ariel-1 launch cover, also front"to acquire increased knowledge of the ionosphere and how it is affected by solar radiation, and to obtain data on primary cosmic radiation"
United States1962-04-26Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from Ariel-1 launch cover, also front (and signature)
United States1962-10-03Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft) cachet on Explorer-14 launch cover, also insert or insert variation (minor differences)"Space weather satellite, to study Sun's radiation belt and threat Sun poses to space explorers"
United States1962-10-03Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft) cachet on Explorer-14 launch cover, also insert or insert variation (minor differences)
United States1962-10-03Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Explorer-14 launch cover"Measures the relationship of energetic particles with the Earth's magnetic field"; "Measures dangers to men in space"
United States1963-05-07Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Telstar-2 launch cover"included design changes aimed at avoiding the severe radiation damage which eventually killed the first Telstar"
United States1963-11-27Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Explorer-18 launch cover, also insert"To measure magnetic fields, cosmic rays and solar winds in space"
United States1963-11-27Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Explorer-18 launch cover, also insert
United States1963-11-27Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Centennial) cachet on Explorer-18 launch cover"to determine if satellite instruments can forecast solar flares4 on the Sun"
United States1963-11-27Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Centennial) cachet on Explorer-18 launch cover
United States1963-11-27Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Explorer-18 launch cover"to study solar flares4 whose deadly radiation threatens manned voyages into outer space"
United States1963-11-27Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers, no logo) cachet on Explorer-18 launch cover"Solar wind and cosmic ray study"
United States1963-12-21Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on TIROS-8 launch cover, also insert or insert variation (slightly different line lengths)"World-wide space weather forecasting"
United States1963-12-21Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on TIROS-8 launch cover, also insert or insert variation (slightly different line lengths)
United States1964-08-25Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Explorer-20 launch cover, also insert"To investigate why the ionosphere acts as a mirror for radio waves and radar"
United States1964-09-05Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OGO-1 launch cover, also insert"Probing for manned spaceflight hazards caused by the Sun"
United States1964-09-05Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OGO-1 launch cover, also insert
United States1964-10-04Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Explorer-21 launch cover, also insert"To gather research of cosmic radiation through space on swift solar winds"
United States1964-10-04Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet (and signature) on Explorer-21 launch cover, also insert
United States1964-12-21Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from Explorer-26 launch cover, also front"Radiation detection satellite"; "the satellite will investigate energetic particles in the Earth's radiation belts" (the "Van Allen radiation zone")
United States1964-12-21Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from Explorer-26 launch cover, also front
United States1964-12-21Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers, no logo) cachet on Explorer-26 launch cover"Radiation detector satellite ... to study Earth's radiation belts"
United States1964-12-21Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Centennial orange earth) cachet on Explorer-26 launch cover"radiation-detection satellite"
United States1964-12-21Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Centennial orange earth) cachet on Explorer-26 launch cover
United States1965-02-03Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Sarzin) cachet on OSO-2 launch coverStudying "radiation that both sustains and threatens Man"
United States1965-02-03Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Sarzin) cachet on OSO-2 launch cover
United States1965-02-03Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers) cachet on OSO-2 launch cover"Study the Sun's thermonuclear solar flares4 during eruptions"
United States1965-02-03Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Centennial) cachet on OSO-2 launch cover"to make the most comprehensive study to date of the Sun and how it affects conditions on Earth & the planets"
United States1965-02-03Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Centennial) cachet on OSO-2 launch cover
United States1965-02-03Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slightly different line lengths) from OSO-2 launch cover, also front"Measuring solar flares4 [and] examining energetic particles in the lower Van Allen region above the Earth's atmosphere"
United States1965-02-03Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slightly different line lengths) from OSO-2 launch cover, also front (with signature)
United States1965-02-03Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slightly different line lengths) from OSO-2 launch cover, also front
United States1965-05-25Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Pegasus-2 launch cover"to detect harmful radiation that may affect our Moon team" (but that statement is misleading, since the actual mission was to detect micrometeorite impacts, not radiation)
United States1965-05-29Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Explorer-28 launch cover, also insert"To chart radiation hazards along the astronauts' route to the Moon"
United States1965-05-29Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Explorer-28 launch cover"To measure space radiation hazards along the astronauts' pathway to the Moon"
United States1965-05-29Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers, no logo) cachet on Explorer-28 launch cover"Solar wind and cosmic ray study"
United States1965-08-25Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from OSO-C [failed] launch cover, also front"Shed new light on the relation between solar flares4, [solar] winds and Sun radiation"
United States1965-08-25Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from OSO-C [failed] launch cover, also front (and signature)
United States1965-08-25Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from OSO-C [failed] launch cover, also front
United States1965-08-25Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from OSO-C [failed] launch cover, also front (and signature)
United States1965-10-05Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin?) cachet on OV1-2 launch cover"To detect ambient radiation environment, results of these experiments will be used in the design of future spacecraft to assure adequate protection for human occupants"
United States1965-10-14Vandenberg AFB, CA(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet on OGO-2 launch cover"to test the Earth's magnetic field, the mysterious causes of the northern lights and measure radiations"
United States1965-10-14Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from OGO-2 launch cover, also front"Solar winds" and "Earth's geomagnetic field"
United States1965-10-15Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on LCS-2 and OV2-1 launch [failed] cover"Probes for space hazards for manned flights"
United States1965-11-19Wallops Island VA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Explorer-30 (SolRad-8) launch cover, also insert"Will measure solar flares4 which produce intense hazardous problems to manned activities in space"
United States1965-11-19Wallops Island VA(Red printed) cachet on Explorer-30 (SolRad-8) launch cover"Study solar X-ray emissions"; "solar flare4 warning system"; "ionospheric condition forecast"
United States1965-12-06WSMR, NM(HJM black and Boudwin? purple and blue rubber-stamp) cachets on Gemini-7 event coverMSC-2/MSC-3 experiment11
United States1966-04-22Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin?) cachet on OV3-1 launch cover"Analysis of near-Earth charged-particle environment to guard our Moon shots"
United States1966-05-25Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers, no logo) cachet on Explorer-32 launch cover"Study upper atmosphere changes" and "Check solar storm radiation"
United States1966-06-06Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet on OGO-3 launch cover"radiation hazards"
United States1966-06-10Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on OV3-4 launch cover"Radiation test for manned spaceflight" and "to study the effects of radiation on astronauts in space"
United States1966-06-10Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers, no logo) cachet on OV3-4 launch cover"Radiation test for manned spaceflight"
United States1966-06-10Wallops Island VA(Blue printed) cachet on OV3-4 launch cover
United States1966-07-01Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-33 launch cover"Radiation test for manned spaceflight"
United States1966-08-04Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin?) cachet on OV3-3 launch cover"study various aspects of the composition and activities of the radiation belt, measuring the abundance of charged particles ... to learn more about how particles of radiation from the Sun and sources beyond the solar system are trapped in the Earth's magnetic field"
United States1966-08-17Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Pioneer-7 launch coverTo "study high energy solar particles ["solar wind" and "cosmic rays"] to protect Apollo astronauts"
United States1966-08-17Patrick AFB, FL(Sarzin) cachet on Pioneer-7 launch coverTo "learn about outer space and its possible hazard to our astronauts"
United States1966-08-17Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-7 launch cover, also insert"Forecaster of solar weather"; "To study the supersonic winds and deadly cosmic rays emanating from the Sun"
United States1966-08-17Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-7 launch cover, also insert
United States1966-08-17Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet on Pioneer-7 launch cover"Solar cosmic rays" and "Earth's magnetic field cavity in solar wind"
United States1966-08-17Kennedy Space Center FL(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet on Pioneer-7 launch cover
United States1966-08-17Kennedy Space Center FL(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet (slightly different) on Pioneer-7 launch cover
United States1966-12-07Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on ATS-1 launch cover, also insert or insert variation (slightly different labeling)"space environment"
United States1966-12-07Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on ATS-1 launch cover, also insert or insert variation (slightly different labeling)
United States1966-12-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin) cachet on OV1-9/10 launch cover"studying various types of space radiation"
United States1967-03-08Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on OSO-3 launch cover"To discover the origin of Sun spot explosions to protect our future space travelers"
United States1967-03-08Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OSO-3 launch cover, also insert"Observing sunspots [and] radio emissions from the Sun so scientists can study their effects on weather, communication and future manned space flights"
United States1967-03-08Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OSO-3 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-03-08Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on OSO-3 launch coverMeasuring "solar corona" and "ultra-violet light" and "cosmic gamma ray radiation"; also schematic diagrams showing the propagation of a solar flare's4 energetic particle wavefront and magnetic lines of force
United States1967-03-08Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on OSO-3 launch cover
United States1967-03-08Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on OSO-3 launch cover"launched to study secrets of the Sun and to help guard astronauts from deadly solar radiation during flights to the moon"
United States1967-03-08Cape Canaveral FL(HJM black and black typed) cachet on OSO-3 launch cover"launched to study secrets of the Sun and to help guard astronauts from deadly solar radiation during flights to the moon"
United States1967-04-28Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet from OV5-1+3 and ERS-18 and Vela-7/8 launch cover, also insert1 or insert1 variation (slightly different text) and insert2 and insert2 back"One of the trio of hitchhiking Environmental Research Satellites will be looking at some of the death-dealing radiation emitted by the Sun"; also (in insert2 text) "OV5-1 is an electronic research satellite to measure solar radiation, bremsstrahlung and X-ray radiation in the 8-14 Angstrom range. It will provide information for mapping radiation belts in space. ERS-18 will measure trapped radiation in the Van Allen belt"
United States1967-04-28Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet from OV5-1+3 and ERS-18 and Vela-7/8 launch cover, also insert1 or insert1 variation (slightly different text) and insert2 and insert2 back
United States1967-05-24Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Explorer-34 launch cover, also insert"To study cosmic and galactic energy in the Earth's magnetosphere and interplanetary space"; "particular emphasis is placed on how solar events influence the Earth's environment" (in insert); one goal is "the development of a solar flare4 prediction which will aid the Apollo manned Moon landing program" (in insert)
United States1967-05-24Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-34 launch cover"Solar flare4 data for Apollo program; interplanetary magnetic field meas[urement]"
United States1967-05-24Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet (different) on Explorer-34 launch cover
United States1967-05-24Vandenberg AFB, CA(Centennial) cachet on Explorer-34 launch cover"carried eleven experiments into orbit to measure solar and galactic cosmic rays in space"
United States1967-06-14Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Mariner-5 launch cover, also insert"to obtain scientific information ... on [the planet's] radiation and magnetic environment"
United States1967-06-14Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet (and signature) on Mariner-5 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-06-14Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Mariner-5 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-06-14Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet (and signature) on Mariner-5 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-07-19Cape Canaveral FL(HJM black and black typed) cachet Explorer-35 launch cover"into lunar orbit to study radiation hazards facing moon-bound astronauts"
United States1967-07-19Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Explorer-35 launch cover"It is programmed to send back information on radiation and magnetic fields around the Moon which might affect Apollo astronauts"
United States1967-07-19Cape Canaveral FL(Cyan rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on Explorer-35 launch cover"Moon orbit to study radiation hazards"
United States1967-07-19Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-35 launch cover"Radiation test for manned spaceflight; solar flare4 data for Apollo program"
United States1967-07-19Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Explorer-35 launch cover, also insert"IMP may help determine whether there would be any radiation hazard to astronauts on the Moon"
United States1967-07-19Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Explorer-35 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-07-19Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Centennial) cachet on Explorer-35 launch cover"into lunar orbit to study radiation hazards facing moonbound astronauts"
United States1967-07-19Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Centennial) cachet on Explorer-35 launch cover
United States1967-07-19Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Centennial) cachet (slightly different) on Explorer-35 launch cover
United States1967-07-19Cape Canaveral FL(Cyan rubber-stamp and magenta hand-printed) cachet on Explorer-35 launch cover"to study radiation hazards facing Moon-bound astronauts"
United States1967-07-28Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OGO-4 launch cover, also insert"To study the relationship between our Sun and the nature of the Earth's environment during periods of high solar activity"
United States1967-07-28Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OGO-4 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-07-28Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on OGO-4 launch cover"For spacecraft and airline radiation tests; study aurora and geomagnetic field; study relationship of Sun to Earth"
United States1967-09-07Kennedy Space Center FL(Centennial) cachet on Biosatellite-2 launch cover"carrying 10 million insects, plants and bacteria to study the effects of radiation and weightlessness in space"
United States1967-09-07Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Centennial) cachet on Biosatellite-2 launch cover
United States1967-09-08Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Centennial) cachet on Biosatellite-2 launch cover
United States1967-09-08Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Centennial) cachet on Biosatellite-2 launch cover
United States1967-10-18Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OSO-4 launch cover, also insert"Designed to monitor solar activities during a full 11-year solar cycle, when numerous [solar] flares4 spew spaghetti-like streamers of radiation into space"
United States1967-10-18Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OSO-4 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-10-18Patrick AFB, FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OSO-4 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-10-18Patrick AFB, FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OSO-4 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-10-18Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on OSO-4 launch coverMeasured "Sun outbursts", "Sun's influence on interplanetary space", "Sun's ultra-violet light" and "cosmic gamma-ray radiation"
United States1967-10-18Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on OSO-4 launch cover
United States1967-10-18Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers) cachet on OSO-4 launch cover"explore the solar influence in interplanetary space, measure cosmic gamma-ray radiation and [the] Sun's ultra-violet light"
United States1967-10-18Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet (different text font) on OSO-4 launch cover
United States1967-10-18Kennedy Space Center FL(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet on OSO-4 launch cover
United States1967-10-18Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers) cachet (different) on OSO-4 launch cover
United States1967-10-18Kennedy Space Center FL(Centennial black Orbiting Observatories and black text) cachet on OSO-4 launch cover"placed into orbit to study the Sun and its influence on the Earth's atmosphere"
United States1967-10-18Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial black Orbiting Observatories and black text) cachet on OSO-4 launch cover
United States1967-10-18Cape Canaveral FL(HJM black and black typed) cachet on OSO-4 launch cover"placed into orbit to study the Sun and its influence on the Earth's atmosphere"
United States1967-10-18Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin?) cachet on OSO-4 launch cover"carries 9 separate experiments to study the Sun and [its] effects on Earth"
Austria1967-10-18Gmünd(Red printed) cachet on Mariner-5 event coverSome details of space weather-related measurements near Venus
United States1967-10-19Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Mariner-5 event cover, also insert"returns data on the Venusian temperatures, magnetic field and radiation"
United States1967-10-19Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet (and signature) on Mariner-5 event cover, also insert
United States1967-10-19Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Mariner-5 event cover, also insert
United States1967-10-19Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Mariner-5 event cover, also insert
United States1967-12-13Kennedy Space Center FL(Centennial) cachet on Pioneer-8 and TETR-1 launch cover"warn astronauts of deadly solar radiation storms in space"
United States1967-12-13Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on Pioneer-8 and TETR-1 launch cover
United States1967-12-13Patrick AFB, FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-8 and TETR-1 launch cover, also insert"Interplanetary Weatherman - to monitor solar events as the Sun reaches the climax of its 11-year cycle in 1969"; the passage of the satellite "through Earth's protective magnetic envelope (magnetosphere) will help to measure its [the magnetosphere's] exact shape" (in insert text)
United States1967-12-13Patrick AFB, FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-8 and TETR-1 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-12-13Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-8 and TETR-1 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-12-13Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-8 and TETR-1 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-12-13Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Orbit Covers, no logo) cachet on Pioneer-8 and TETR-1 launch cover"Interplanetary radiation test for manned spaceflight"
United States1967-12-13Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Orbit Covers, no logo) cachet on Pioneer-8 and TETR-1 launch cover
United States1968-01-07Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Orbit purple and orange) cachet on Surveyor-7 launch cover"radiation ... tests; last Surveyor before astronaut Moon flight"
United States1968-01-07Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Orbit purple and orange) cachet on Surveyor-7 launch cover
United States1968-03-04Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on OGO-5 launch cover"Solar wind shock wave tests towards Earth"
United States1968-03-04Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on OGO-5 launch cover
United States1968-03-04Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial yellow Orbiting Observatories and black text) cachet on OGO-5 launch cover"To study radiation hazards of the Sun"
United States1968-03-04Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on OGO-5 launch cover"measure radiation, observe Sun, keep tabs on electronic particles of space"
United States1968-03-04Cape Canaveral FL(HJM black and black typed) cachet on OGO-5 launch cover"to study radiation hazards of the Sun"
United States1968-03-04Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slightly different text arrangement) from OGO-5 launch cover, also front"24 experiments and observations on particles which scientists will face in space"
United States1968-03-04Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slightly different text arrangement) from OGO-5 launch cover, also front
United States1968-03-04Patrick AFB, FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slightly different text arrangement) from OGO-5 launch cover, also front
United States1968-03-04Patrick AFB, FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slightly different text arrangement) from OGO-5 launch cover, also front
United States1968-03-04Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers) cachet on OGO-5 launch cover"obtain data during increased solar activity"
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-37 (SolRad-9) launch cover"Solar wind"; "protective magnetosphere"; "solar cosmic ray particles"; "solar flare4 tests for manned flight"; "monitor solar X-ray emissions"
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on Explorer-37 (SolRad-9) launch cover"A radiation explorer satellite"
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from Explorer-37 (SolRad-9) launch cover, also front"Information on solar X-rays "will be used in a warning system for major solar flares4 which may be hazardous to manned space activities"
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from Explorer-37 (SolRad-9) launch cover, also front
United States1968-04-06Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin?) cachet on OV1-13/14 launch cover"space experiments concerning radiation and density to enable the US to gain useful knowledge for flights of our Moon-bound astronauts"
United States1968-04-06Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? black rubber-stamp) cachet on OV1-13/14 launch cover"17 experiments to study [the] deep space environment"
United States1968-05-16Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on ESRO-2B launch cover"for cosmic study and solar radiation tests"
United States1968-05-16Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers, with missing "8" in "5-16-6") cachet on ESRO-2B launch cover
United States1968-05-16Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson orange) cachet on ESRO-2B launch cover, also insert or insert variation (slightly different line lengths)"To study solar and cosmic radiation", and "to perform an integrated study of the polar ionosphere with particular emphasis on auroral events" (in insert text)
United States1968-05-16Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson red) cachet on ESRO-2B launch cover, also insert or insert variation (slightly different line lengths)
United States1968-05-16Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on ESRO-2B launch cover, also insert or insert variation (slightly different line lengths)
United States1968-08-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin?) cachet on Explorer-39 and Explorer-40 launch cover"To make detailed scientific study of density and radiation in Earth's upper atmosphere at the time of high solar activity"
United States1968-08-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(Centennial) cachet on Explorer-39 and Explorer-40 launch cover"To study atmospheric density and radiation above the Earth"
United States1968-08-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-39 and Explorer-40 launch cover"To measure energy particle bombardment of (the) atmosphere"
United States1968-08-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from Explorer-39 and Explorer-40 launch cover, also front"records energetic particles and measures radiation of different kinds. These experiments help in planning for future space flights."
United States1968-08-08Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson sticker) insert from Explorer-39 and Explorer-40 launch cover, also front
United States1968-09-26Patrick AFB, FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on LES-6 and OV2-5 and OV-5-2/4 launch cover, also insert1, also insert2 and insert2 back"solar radiation" and "cosmic ray" studies
United States1968-09-26Patrick AFB, FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on LES-6 and OV2-5 and OV-5-2/4 launch cover, also insert1, also insert2 and insert2 back
United States1968-09-26Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on LES-6 and OV2-5 and OV-5-2/4 launch cover, also insert1, also insert2 and insert2 back
United States1968-09-26Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on LES-6 and OV2-5 and OV-5-2/4 launch cover, also insert1, also insert2 and insert2 back
United States1968-10-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on ESRO-1A launch cover, also insert1 and insert2 front and insert2 back"To study the northern lights and measure radiation during magnetic storms"
United States1968-11-08Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-9 and TETR-2 launch cover, also insert1, insert1 back, and insert2"Solar Weather Watcher"; "To improve radiation storm forecasts for Apollo astronauts flying to the Moon" (in cachet text); "to warn of solar radiation storms that might endanger astronauts on the Moon" (in insert1 text)
United States1968-11-08Patrick AFB, FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-9 and TETR-2 launch cover, also insert1, insert1 back, and insert2
United States1968-11-08Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-9 and TETR-2 launch cover, also insert1, insert1 back, and insert2
United States1968-11-08Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-9 and TETR-2 launch cover, also insert1, insert1 back, and insert2
United States1968-11-08Kennedy Space Center FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-9 and TETR-2 launch cover, also insert1, insert1 back, and insert2
United States1968-11-08Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on Pioneer-9 and TETR-2 launch cover"to help scientists devise an interplanetary weather map charting radiation from solar storms"
United States1968-11-08Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial black and blue) cachet on Pioneer-9 and TETR-2 launch cover"Place into orbit around the Sun to study solar radiation storms that could endanger astronauts on the Moon"
United States1968-11-08Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial black) cachet on Pioneer-9 and TETR-2 launch cover
United States1968-11-08Cape Canaveral FL(Blue printed) cachet on Pioneer-9 and TETR-2 launch cover"to measure the Sun's corona"
United States1968-12-05Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on HEOS-1 launch coverdrawing of solar wind and magnetosphere
United States1968-12-05Patrick AFB, FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from HEOS-1 launch cover, also front"scientific mission is to study interplanetary physics (particularly magnetic fields), cosmic radiation and solar winds outside of the magnetosphere, and the Earth's shock wave"
United States1968-12-05Patrick AFB, FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from HEOS-1 launch cover, also front
United States1968-12-05Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from HEOS-1 launch cover, also front
United States1968-12-05Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from HEOS-1 launch cover, also front
United States1968-12-05Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on HEOS-1 launch cover"To take precise measurements of the magnetic fields coming from the Sun"
United States1969-01-22Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on OSO-5 launch cover"To study maximum [solar] flare4 activity and to help warn astronauts on the Moon of radiation storms"
United States1969-01-22Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on OSO-5 launch cover"Solar wind"; "twisting magnetic filaments channel solar cosmic ray particles"; [Earth's] "protective magnetosphere"; "to scan solar corona"
United States1969-01-22Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on OSO-5 launch cover
United States1969-01-22Patrick AFB, FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OSO-5 launch cover, also insert1 or insert1 variation (slightly different line lengths) and insert2"To study how the Sun controls our weather, interferes with communications and alters the composition of the globe-circling radiation belt"
United States1969-01-22Patrick AFB, FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OSO-5 launch cover, also insert1 or insert1 variation (slightly different line lengths) and insert2
United States1969-01-22Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OSO-5 launch cover, also insert1 or insert1 variation (slightly different line lengths) and insert2
United States1969-01-22Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OSO-5 launch cover, also insert1 or insert1 variation (slightly different line lengths) and insert2
United States1969-01-22Kennedy Space Center FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on OSO-5 launch cover, also insert1 or insert1 variation (slightly different line lengths) and insert2
United States1969-01-22Cape Canaveral FL(HJM black and red typed) cachet on OSO-5 launch cover"To study the Sun during a period of maximum [solar] flare4 activity and to help warn astronauts on the Moon of radiation storms"
United States1969-01-22Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on OSO-5 launch coverTo "measure atomic particles streaming from the Sun's surface"
United States1969-01-29Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on ISIS-1 launch cover"'Polar blackout' ionosphere study; radio fadeout tests of hemisphere"
United States1969-01-29Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert2 back from ISIS-1 launch cover, also insert1 and insert2 front and front"When the ionosphere becomes disturbed following solar storms or other phenomena associated with the Sun, its reflecting properties are affected. Consequently, radio communications are disrupted, sometimes for long periods. Hence, there is a deep interest in studying the upper atmosphere in order to find methods of overcoming the effects of ionospheric disturbances. Perhaps the worst ionospheric condition, from the standpoint of communications, is the so-called 'polar blackout'".
United States1969-01-29Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert2 back from ISIS-1 launch cover, also insert1 and insert2 front and cover front
United States1969-05-23Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from OV5-5/6/9 and Vela-9/10 launch cover, also front"During future Apollo lunar flights these Velas will provide solar activity information".
United States1969-05-23Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from OV5-5/6/9 and Vela-9/10 launch cover, also front
United States1969-05-23Kennedy Space Center FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from OV5-5/6/9 and Vela-9/10 launch cover, also front
United States1969-06-05Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on OGO-6 launch cover"Solar wind shock wave tests towards Earth"
United States1969-06-05Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin) cachet on OGO-6 launch cover"to measure magnetic fields in the ionosphere, distribution and energy levels of energetic particles, radio propagation, interplanetary particles"
United States1969-06-05Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slightly different line lengths) from OGO-6 launch cover, and front"will sample radiation trapped in the Earth's magnetic field and will measure the intensity of solar flares4"
United States1969-06-05Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slightly different line lengths) from OGO-6 launch cover, and front (and signature)
United States1969-06-05Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slightly different line lengths) from OGO-6 launch cover, and front
United States1969-06-05Kennedy Space Center FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slightly different line lengths) from OGO-6 launch cover, and front
United States1969-06-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-41 launch cover"Radiation test for manned spaceflight; interplanetary magnetic field meas[urement]; solar flare4 data for Apollo program"; also drawing of interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere
United States1969-06-21Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Explorer-41 launch cover, also insertDepiction of Earth's magnetosphere; "development of [observational techniques] of solar flares4"; also "verification of solar winds" (in insert text)
United States1969-06-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Explorer-41 launch cover, also insert
United States1969-08-09Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on OSO-6 and PAC-1 launch cover"Solar flare4 tests for manned flight"; "monitor solar X-ray emissions"; "study aurora and geomagnetic field"; also schematic diagrams showing the propagation of a solar flare's4 energetic particle wavefront and magnetic lines of force
United States1969-08-09Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on OSO-6 and PAC-1 launch cover
United States1969-08-09Patrick AFB, FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from OSO-6 and PAC-1 launch cover, also front"With the launch occurring during a period of near-peak [solar] flare4 activity in the Sun's 11-year solar cycle, the satellite could lead to the best understanding yet of the solar radiation storms that disrupt radio communications on Earth and are a potential hazard to Moon-bound astronauts"
United States1969-08-09Patrick AFB, FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from OSO-6 and PAC-1 launch cover, also front
United States1969-08-09Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from OSO-6 and PAC-1 launch cover, also front
United States1969-08-09Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on OSO-6 and PAC-1 launch coverstudied "solar flares" and "radiation storms"
United States1969-08-12Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on ATS-5 launch cover"effects of the solar winds"
United States1969-08-27Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-E and TETR-3 [failed] launch cover, also insert"Solar Weather Station" (in cachet text); "Weather map of solar space"; "solar winds"; also [solar] "magnetic filaments" (in insert text)
United States1969-08-27Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-E and TETR-3 [failed] launch cover, also insert
United States1969-08-27Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-E and TETR-3 [failed] launch cover, also insert
United States1969-08-27Kennedy Space Center FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-E and TETR-3 [failed] launch cover, also insert
United States1969-10-01Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on ESRO-1B launch cover"Study northern lights and polar ionosphere; experiments ... co-ordinated with rockets from Kiruna, Sweden"
United States1969-10-01Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on ESRO-1B launch cover, also insert1 and insert2 front and insert2 back"to study the polar ionosphere, the northern lights and related phenomena"; observations were correlated with those "made simultaneously [by] sounding rockets launched from the ESRO launch site at Kiruna, Sweden" (in text of both inserts)
United States1969-10-01Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on ESRO-1B launch cover, also insert1 and insert2 front and insert2 back
United States1969-11-07Vandenberg AFB, CA(Vandy?/DuBeau? blue and red rubber-stamp) cachet on Azur launch cover"to study Earth's radiation belts, seven proton/electron spectra & flux experiments"
United States1969-11-07Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Vandy?/DuBeau? blue and red rubber-stamp) cachet on Azur launch cover
United States1969-11-19Houston TX(Multi-color printed) cachet on Apollo-12 lunar landing coverApollo-12 SWCE2 (at left)
United States1969-11-19Cape Canaveral FL(?) cachet on Apollo-12 lunar landing cover, also back"Solar Wind Spectrometer14 [SWS]: measures high-speed charged particles that Sun gives off"; "[Lunar Surface] Magnetometer [LSM]: measures magnetic field"; "Lunar Ionosphere Detector: measures gaseous elements" (actual name of instrument: Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE), which was designed to measure various properties of positive ions in the lunar environment, provide data on the plasma interaction between the solar wind and the Moon, and to determine the electrical potential of the lunar surface)
United States1970-01-23Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.2) cachet on TIROS-M and OSCAR-5 launch (airmail) cover, also back, also insert"Solar proton monitor for solar flare4 warnings"
United States1970-04-08Cape Canaveral FL(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.8) cachet on Vela-11/12 launch (airmail) cover"provide solar flare4 warning for Apollo astronauts"
United States1970-04-11Boulder CO(ESSA-SDL blue rubber-stamp) cachet on Apollo-13 launch cover"ESSA Space Disturbance Laboratory, Space Disturbance Forecast Services"; depiction of solar wind, magnetosphere, Van Allen belts, ionosphere and aurora
United States1970-04-14Honolulu HI(Black rubber-stamp, return address) cachet on Apollo-13 event cover"USAF Palehua Solar Observatory"
United States1970-12-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Space Voyage) insert from NOAA-1 and CEP-1 launch cover, also fronthad "the objective of determining the electron number density and temperature in the ionosphere". This was to test "the design of a similar experiment planned for the ISIS-B US-Canadian satellite"
United States1970-12-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Solar Covers no.7) insert from NOAA-1 and CEP-1 launch cover, also front"has been designed to determining the electron number density and temperature in the ionosphere" and "will test the design for a similar experiment planned for the ISIS-B scientific satellite"
United States1970-12-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on NOAA-1 launch coverSchematic magnetic field/magnetosphere
United States1971-02-05Honolulu HI(Black rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on Apollo-14 event cover"1st [Space] Weather Wing", "Palehua Solar Observatory" (for landing on Moon)
United States1971-03-13Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-43 launch cover, also insert"monitor cosmic rays, solar winds, radio waves, and magentic fields"
United States1971-03-13Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-43 launch cover, also insert
United States1971-03-13Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet (and signatures) on Explorer-43 launch cover, also insert
United States1971-03-13Kennedy Space Center FL(InterSpace Cover) cachet on Explorer-43 launch cover
United States1971-03-13Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage/InterSpace Cover black printed - Sarzin hybrid) cachet on Explorer-43 launch cover
French Guiana1971-04-15Kourou(Lollini magenta and brown) cachet on D-2A (Tournesol) launch cover"Solar and magnetic experiments" (in French text)
United States1971-07-09Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-44 (SolRad-10) launch cover"Study effect of solar flares4 on manned space travel"
United States1971-07-09Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-44 (SolRad-10) launch cover
United States1971-07-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson black rubber-stamp and printed - Sarzin hybrid) cachet on Explorer-44 (SolRad-10) launch cover"Fourteen experiments to monitor solar electromagnetic radiation. To aid as a sentinel during the forthcoming Apollo-15 mission"
United States1971-07-09Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-44 (SolRad-10) launch cover"Solar wind"; "protective magnetosphere"; "solar cosmic ray particles"; "solar flare4 tests for manned flight"; "monitor solar X-ray emissions"
United States1971-07-26Boulder CO(NOAA-SEL blue rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on Apollo-15 launch cover"NOAA Space Environmental Laboratory, Space Environment Services Center"3; depiction of solar wind, magnetosphere, Van Allen belts, ionosphere and aurora
United States1971-07-26Colorado Springs CO(Black typed) cachet (return address) on Apollo-15 launch cover"Solar Forecast Facility, 4th Weather Wing"
Japan1971-09-28Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on Shinsei launch cover"Measure magnetic waves, cosmic rays [and] ionosphere plasma"
Japan1971-09-28Uchinoura(Black printed) cachet on Shinsei launch cover"Observing the solar radiation in the shortwave range, cosmic rays and the plasma in the ionosphere"
United States1971-09-29Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on OSO-7 and TETR-4 launch cover"Sun observatory ... to study Sun influence over Earth's [space] weather conditions"
United States1971-09-29Titusville FL(Goldcraft) cachet on OSO-7 and TETR-4 launch cover"Looks at solar corona"
United States1971-09-29Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on OSO-7 and TETR-4 launch cover"To study solar corona" and "measure X-ray and ultraviolet radiation from [solar] plasma explosions causing disruptive communications in Earth's atmosphere"
United States1971-09-29Cape Canaveral FL(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.7) cachet on OSO-7 and TETR-4 launch (airmail) cover (incorrectly identified as "OSO-8"), also insert1 and insert2"Will study solar white light corona"
United States1971-09-29Kennedy Space Center FL(Solar Covers no.28) cachet on OSO-7 and TETR-4 launch cover, also insert"Creates artificial eclipses" (i.e. occults, or hides, the solar disk, to allow measurements of the solar corona); "The primary objective of OSO-7 is to study the solar corona, the faint outermost layer of the solar atmosphere normally seen only during solar eclipses. A circular occulting disk on a boom extending in front of the spacecraft will produce an artificial, man-made eclipse for an imaging camera" (on insert)
United States1971-09-29Cape Canaveral FL(Solar Covers no.28) cachet on OSO-7 and TETR-4 launch cover, also insert
United States1971-09-29Patrick AFB, FL(Solar Covers no.28) cachet on OSO-7 and TETR-4 launch cover, also insert
United States1971-09-29Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on OSO-7 and TETR-4 launch cover"Artificial eclipse disk" (occults, or hides, the solar disk, to allow measurements of the solar corona)
United States1971-09-29Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Space Voyage) cachet on OSO-7 and TETR-4 launch cover
United States1971-09-29Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Space Voyage) cachet on OSO-7 and TETR-4 launch cover
United States1971-10-17Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Space Voyage) cachet on FRUSA launch cover, also insert"Solar Storm Eye in Space"; "to determine [the] effect of solar storms on polar regions"
United States1971-10-17Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(InterSpace Cover) cachet on FRUSA launch cover, also insert
United States1971-10-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on ITOS-B [failed] launch cover"Detection of energetic solar particles in Earth's vicinity"
Kenya1971-11-15Malindi(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-45 launch cover, also insert"To investigate magnetic disturbances, inner magnetosphere and solar flares"4; also "The Earth's magnetosphere is an enormous teardrop-shaped region surrounding the Earth and is formed by the solar wind - a supersonic stream of particles - 'blowing' on the Earth's magnetic field" (in insert text)
United States1971-11-15Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on Explorer-45 launch cover"to study the dynamic processes occurring in the inner magnetosphere, from 2 to 5.4 Earth radii"
United States1971-12-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Space Voyage) cachet on Ariel-4 launch cover, also insert"Study of upper ionosphere and magnetic storms"
United States1971-12-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(InterSpace Cover) cachet on Ariel-4 launch cover, also insert
United States1971-12-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Solar Covers no.29) cachet on Ariel-4 launch cover, also insert"To expand our knowledge of the environment of the Earth's upper ionosphere, especially during magnetic storms ..."
United States1971-12-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.11) insert1 from Ariel-4 launch (airmail) cover, also front and insert2"Observing magnetic storms in the ionosphere"
United States1971-12-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.11) insert1 from Ariel-4 launch (airmail) cover (with signature), also front and insert2
United States1971-12-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.11) insert1 from Ariel-4 launch (airmail) cover (with different signature), also front and insert2
United States1971-12-11Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on Ariel-4 launch cover"investigate the interactions between electromagnetic waves, plasmas and energetic particles in the upper ionosphere"
Germany (West)1972-01-31Bochum(InterCover) cachet on HEOS-2 launch cover"designed to explore Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind" (in German text)
United States1972-01-31Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.15) cachet on HEOS-2 launch (airmail) cover, also insert1 and/or insert2and/or insert3"Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind" (in text and depicted)
United States1972-01-31Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Space Voyage) cachet on HEOS-2 launch cover, also insert"High latitude magnetosphere"
United States1972-01-31Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on HEOS-2 launch cover"magnetosphere"; drawing of solar wind and magnetosphere
United States1972-01-31Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Printed) cachet on HEOS-2 launch cover"High latitude magnetosphere"
United States1972-01-31Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Solar Covers no.34) insert from HEOS-2 launch cover, also front"The satellite will study the magnetosphere, the huge teardrop-shaped envelope surrounding the Earth. It is formed by the solar wind "blowing" on the Earth's magnetic field". It will also "investigate the strength and direction of the magnetic fields encountered, the energy distribution of protons and electrons [and] the nature of the solar winds"
United States1972-03-03Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) insert1 from Pioneer-10 launch cover, also insert2 and frontAfter exploring Jupiter, "Pioneer-10 will cruise on into the far reaches of the solar system to look for where the solar wind stops blowing. The solar wind is an extension of the atmosphere of the Sun and consists of hot, electrically-charged gases flowing out in all directions at average speeds of 1 million miles per hour"
United States1972-03-03Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) insert1 from Pioneer-10 launch cover, also insert2 and front
United States1972-03-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Printed) cachet on ESRO-TD1A launch cover, also insert"make measurements of high-energy X-ray spectrum of the Sun [and] investigate primary particles of cosmic and solar origin [and] solar proton fluxes"
United States1972-03-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers orange) cachet on ESRO-TD1A launch cover"Study high energy emissions from stellar and Sun sources, study X-rays and gamma rays without atmospheric interference, study composition of primary particles of solar and cosmic origin"
United States1972-03-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers gold) cachet on ESRO-TD1A launch cover
United States1972-03-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Space Voyage) insert from on ESRO-TD1A launch cover, also front"measure regions of the high-energy X-ray spectrum of the Sun, and ... measure composition of primary particles of cosmic and solar origin as well as proton fluxes"
United States1972-04-16USPS(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on Apollo-16 launch cover"4th Weather Wing ... Space Environment Division ... Air Weather Service ... Observe, Report, Analyze, Predict Solar Activity and Disturbances"
United States1972-04-20Washington DC(Smithsonian blue rubber-stamp) cachet on Apollo-16 event coverThe "lunar surface ultraviolet camera/spectrograph" mostly made astronomical observations, but also was pointed at Earth to study the upper atmosphere and the auroras.
Australia1972-04-21Two Wells SA(Green rubber-stamp) cachet on Apollo-16 event cover"Buckland Park, world's largest Ionoscope aerial array7"
United States1972-04-24Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Apollo-16 P&FS deployment cover"Solar wind" and diagram of magnetosphere
United States1972-04-24Kennedy Space Center FL (machine cancel)(Lunar Voyage Cachets) cachet on Apollo-16 P&FS deployment cover, also insert"To measure magnetic fields [and] solar wind particles"
United States1972-04-24Kennedy Space Center FL (hand cancel)(Lunar Voyage Cachets) cachet on Apollo-16 P&FS deployment cover, also insert
United States1972-04-24Titusville FL(Lunar Voyage Cachets) cachet on Apollo-16 P&FS deployment cover, also insert
United States1972-04-24Cape Canaveral FL(Lunar Voyage Cachets) cachet on Apollo-16 P&FS deployment cover, also insert
United States1972-04-24Houston TX(Lunar Voyage Cachets) cachet on Apollo-16 P&FS deployment cover, also insert
United States1972-04-25Patrick AFB, FL(Solar Covers no.39) insert from Apollo-16 event cover, also frontthe "experiment Microbial Response in Space Environment was designed to determine the response of selected microorganisms to [the] space environment"; "60 million microorganisms" were "exposed to the ultraviolet radiation of the Sun"; also, the "Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device (MEED) [was placed] outside the command module for 10 minutes of exposure to the direct rays of the Sun"
United States1972-09-22Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-47 launch cover, also insert"Measure changes in Earth's magnetic tail as affected by [the] solar wind"; measure the nature and effect of "cosmic rays" including the hypothesis that they are the "source of radiation trapped in the Van Allen Belts"; [the IMP satellites] "produced the first accurate measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field and the first mapping of Earth's magnetic tail. They have also served as an early-warning system for Apollo astronauts on dangerously high radiation doses resulting from solar eruptions" (from FDC and insert)
United States1972-09-22Kennedy Space Center FL(InterSpace Cover) cachet on Explorer-47 launch cover, also insert
United States1972-09-22Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-47 launch cover, also insert
United States1972-09-22Cape Canaveral FL(InterSpace Cover) cachet on Explorer-47 launch cover, also insert
United States1972-09-22Patrick AFB, FL (inverted)(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-47 launch cover, also insert
United States1972-09-22Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-47 launch cover"Study galactic & solar cosmic rays, plasma & electrical field tests, check solar flare4 danger to Apollo-17 launch"
United States1972-09-22Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on Explorer-47 launch cover"to survey interplanetary radiation, the solar wind and magnetic fields"
United States1972-09-25Kennedy Space Center FL(Centennial) cachet on Explorer-47 launch cover
United States1972-09-23Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on Explorer-47 launch cover"Studying solar and galactic cosmic radiation, solar plasma, solar wind, energetic particles, ..."
United States1972-09-25Kennedy Space Center FL(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.33) insert from Explorer-47 launch (airmail) cover, also front"will be able to measure the changes of Earth's magnetic tail as the changing solar wind 'weather' disturbs Earth's environment"; also "Continue solar flare4 detection" (on front)
United States1972-10-02Vandenberg AFB, CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Radcat-2 and Radsat launch covercarried "5 payloads" that made measurements related to space weather, including an "ionosphere particle identifier", a "gamma spectrometer" and an "ultraviolet radiation payload"
United States1972-10-15Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Polar Covers) cachet on NOAA-2 and OSCAR-6 launch cover, also back and insert and insert back"Solar Proton Monitor"
United States1972-10-15Lompoc CA(Polar Covers) cachet on NOAA-2 and OSCAR-6 launch cover, also back and insert and insert back
United States1972-11-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.41) cachet on ESRO-4 launch (airmail) cover, also insert1 and insert2"Polar ionosphere monitor; monitor Sun flares4; study high energy solar particles in polar regions"
United States1972-11-21Lompoc CA(Polar Covers) cachet on ESRO-4 launch cover"Studies ionosphere and solar particles"
United States1972-11-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin?) cachet on ESRO-4 launch cover"to study the Aurora Borealis and related phenomena of the polar atmosphere"
United States1972-11-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers orange) cachet on ESRO-4 launch cover"Six scientific and technological experiments to measure and investigate [the] polar [not "plora"] atmosphere"
United States1972-11-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers yellow) cachet on ESRO-4 launch cover
United States1972-12-16Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on Aeros-1 launch cover"To measure ... the solar ultraviolet radiation in the wavelength band of main absorption"
United States1973-04-05Patrick AFB, FL(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.44) cachet on Pioneer-11 launch cover, also insert"extensive survey of Jupiter's atmosphere, radiation, temperatures, magnetic fields and chemical composition"
United States1973-04-05Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers) cachet on Pioneer-11 launch coverTo measure Jupiter's "radiation and magnetic fields"
United States1973-04-06Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Pioneer-11 launch cover"To measure Jupiter's radiation [and] magnetic field"
Spain1973-04-06Cebreros (Ávila province)(Red printed) cachet on Pioneer-11 launch coverSolar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9
United States1973-05-14Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Skylab-16 launch cover"Solar telescope to study Sun"
United States1973-05-15Boulder CO(NOAA-SEL blue rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on Skylab6 launch cover"NOAA Space Environment Lab, Space Environment Forecast Center"; "Space Environment support to Skylab"; depiction of solar prominence; symbolic solar wind moving toward Skylab and Earth
United States1973-05-25Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Skylab-26 launch cover, also detailSolar prominence
United States1973-05-30Kennedy Space Center FL(Mission patch and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on Skylab-26 event cover"Solar [and] ERTS experiments" ("solar experiments" refers to solar flare4 observations)
United States1973-06-10Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-49 launch coverDepiction of solar wind interacting with Earth's magnetosphere
United States1973-06-15Houston TX(Red logo and black rubber-stamp) cachets on Skylab-26 event cover"solar flare"4 observations
United States1973-06-19Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet on Skylab-26 event cover"over 30,000 photographs taken by the solar telescope" (refers to the ATM (Apollo Telescope Mount))
United States1973-06-22Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Skylab-26 event cover"80% of [planned] solar telescope exp[eriments] ... completed" (refers to experiments using the ATM (Apollo Telescope Mount))
United States1973-07-16Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on ITOS-E [failed] launch cover"Solar wind" and solar "cosmic rays"
United States1973-08-10Houston TX(Blue logo and black rubber-stamp) cachet on Skylab-36 event cover"Sun radiation" observations (refers to observations of the solar corona using a coronagraph3)
United States1973-08-21Houston TX(Mission patch) cachet on Skylab-36 event coverobservation of a "Sun eruption"
United States1973-08-24Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Skylab-36 event coverAstronauts Lousma and Garriot "change film in solar telescope cameras [and] adjust doors on solar telescope" (the "solar telescope" is the ATM (Apollo Telescope Mount))
United States1973-09-03Houston TX(Blue logo and black rubber-stamp) cachet on Skylab-36 event coversolar "storm study"
United States1973-09-05Houston TX(Green printed) cachet on Skylab-36 event cover"Two solar flares observed"
United States1973-09-22Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers, no logo) cachet on Skylab-36 event coverSkylab's ATM (Apollo Telescope Mount) housed several instruments (including a "white light coronagraph8") that recorded "explosions on the Sun that interfere with Earth's weather and communications"
United States1973-09-25Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Skylab-36 landing covergathered "77,600 Sun photos" (using the ATM (Apollo Telescope Mount))
United States1973-10-25Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on Explorer-50 launch cover"Study the cislunar radiation environment over significant portion of solar cycle, interplanetary magnetic field and Earth's magnetosphere"
United States1973-10-25Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet on Explorer-50 launch coverStudy "Earth's magnetosphere" and "develop solar-flare4 prediction capability and determine radiation hazard for manned missions to the planets"
United States1973-10-25Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS and red logo) cachet on Explorer-50 launch cover
United States1973-10-25Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS and blue logo) cachet (and signature) on Explorer-50 launch cover
United States1973-10-25Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-50 launch cover"Study of magnetosphere"
United States1973-10-26Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-50 launch cover
United States1973-10-26Cape Canaveral FL(InterSpace Cover) cachet on Explorer-50 launch cover
United States1973-10-26Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-50 launch cover"Measuring energy particals (i.e. energetic particles), plasma & magnetic and electrical fields. To compare [with] data of Mariner and Pioneer spacecraft for separating the effects of [the] Sun from those of the galaxy"
United States1973-11-03Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet on Mariner-10 launch cover"Solar wind" and "Plasma shock front"
United States1973-11-06Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on NOAA-3 launch cover"Solar wind", solar "cosmic rays", and "solar proton monitor"
United States1973-11-16Washington DC (pictorial cancel)(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on Skylab-46 launch coverThe primary mission of the Naval Research Lab's "Far UV Observatory" (aka the Extreme UV Spectroheliograph) was to observe, from Skylab, the solar chromosphere, transition region and low corona in the wavelength range 150 - 615 Angstroms
United States1973-11-16Washington DC (text cancel)(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on Skylab-46 launch cover
United States1973-11-16USPS(NOAA-SEL blue rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on Skylab-46 launch cover"NOAA Space Environment Lab, Space Environment Forecast Center"; "Space Environment support to Skylab"; depiction of solar prominence; symbolic solar wind moving toward Skylab and Earth
United States1973-11-22Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Skylab-46 event coverAstronauts Pogue and Gibson "deploy cosmic ray experiments and replace film in five solar telescopes" (refers to film for the ATM (Apollo Telescope Mount))
United States1973-11-23Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Skylab-46 event cover"Reload solar telescope" (refers to film for the ATM (Apollo Telescope Mount))
Austria1973-12-03Gmünd(Red printed) cachet on Pioneer-10 event coverCarried instruments that could gather data useful in the study of space weather: "magnetometer, plasma analyzer, particle telescope, radiation meter, Geiger counter ... UV spectrometer, polarimeter" (in German text)
United States1973-12-15Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-51 launch coverDepiction of solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere
United States1974-01-17Houston TX(MSC yellow-gold printed) cachet on Skylab-46 event coverDepictions of "solar activity" including solar "surge[s]", a "rising [solar] prominence" and a solar "flare"4; "crew views prominence"
United States1974-01-20Houston TX(MSC brown printed) cachet on Skylab-46 event cover"Sun spot viewed" (part of mission of solar observation)
United States1974-01-24Houston TX(MSC yellow-gold printed) cachet on Skylab-46 event coverobservations of solar "surge", "flare"4 and "rising prominence"
United States1974-01-28Patrick AFB, FL(Orange-brown rubber-stamp) cachet on Skylab-46 event cover"Solar observations"; "Astronaut Ed Gibson observes solar activity"
United States1974-01-28Cape Canaveral FL(Orange-brown rubber-stamp) cachet on Skylab-46 event cover
United States1974-02-05Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Mariner-10 event coverstudied the "magnetic field" of Venus
United States1974-02-05Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Mariner-10 event cover
United States1974-02-05Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Mariner-10 event cover
United States1974-02-05Cape Canaveral FL(InterSpace Cover) cachet on Mariner-10 event cover
Germany (West)1974-02-05BerlinBack of Skylab-46 event cover, also annotated, and frontThe SWCE2 (set up to the right of the LEM)
United States1974-02-11Cape Canaveral FL(InterSpace Cover) cachet on Viking-DS and SPHINX launch cover"SPHINX15 satellite - Space plasma high voltage interaction experiment"
United States1974-02-11Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Viking-DS and SPHINX launch cover
United States1974-02-11Orlando FL, Kennedy Space Center Branch(SCPS ser.74/2 no.207) cachet on Viking-DS and SPHINX launch cover"SPHINX15 - "experimental spacecraft will test space plasma effect on high voltage insulating systems"
Austria1974-03-29Gmünd(Gmünder Weltraumfreunde) cachet on Mariner-10 event covercarried some instruments that could gather data useful in the study of space weather: "UV-Spektrometer, Magnetometer, Plasma Sonde, Teilchen Detektor [particle detector]"
United States1974-03-29Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Mariner-10 event covermeasured Mercury's "magnetic field" and its "solar wind interaction"
United States1974-05-17Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on SMS-1 launch cover"Monitor solar flare4 activity", "satellite monitors conditions of the Sun"
United States1974-06-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(Centennial) cachet on Explorer-52 launch cover"to investigate the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetic field"
United States1974-06-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-52 launch coverto "study interaction of solar wind conditions ... [and] Earth's magnetic field"
United States1974-06-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-52 launch cover"studies relevant to solar wind injection into the magnetosphere"
United States1974-06-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(InterSpace Cover) cachet on Explorer-52 launch cover
United States1974-06-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin?) cachet on Explorer-52 launch coverThe primary objective was "to investigate the interaction of the solar wind with emphasis on the North Polar [Ice] Cap"
United States1974-08-14Cape Canaveral FL(MoF no.18) insert back from Explorer-6 anniversary-of-launch cover, also insert front and cover frontstudied the "interaction between the outer region of the Van Allen radiation belts and the solar wind"
United States1974-11-15Vandenberg AFB, CA(Space Voyage) cachet on NOAA-4 and Intasat and OSCAR-7 and Intasat launch cover"measures electron content of ionosphere"
United States1974-11-15Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on NOAA-4 and Intasat and OSCAR-7 and Intasat launch cover"worldwide observation of the Total Electron Content (TEC), ionospheric irregularities and scintillations"
United States1974-11-15Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet (and signature) on NOAA-4 and Intasat and OSCAR-7 and Intasat launch cover
Spain1974-12-10Madrid(Blue printed) cachet on Helios-1 launch cover"Measures the solar wind [and] magnetic and electrical fields"
United States1974-12-10Cape Canaveral FL(InterSpace Cover) cachet on Helios-1 launch coverto "measure Sun's electric waves and particles"
United States1974-12-10Cape Canaveral FL(SCPS ser.74/19) cachet on Helios-1 launch cover, also back"will measure the direction and energy of sub-atomic particles, micrometeoroids, X-rays and magnetic fields that make up the solar wind"
United States1974-12-10Kennedy Space Center FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Helios-1 launch cover"measure solar wind, magnetic field, solar and galactic rays and electromagnetic waves"
United States1975-02-06Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on SMS-2 launch cover"measure proton, electron, solar X-rays and magnetic fields"
United States1975-02-06Cape Canaveral FL(InterSpace Cover) cachet on SMS-2 launch cover
United States1975-02-06Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on SMS-2 launch cover
United States1975-02-06Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on SMS-2 launch cover"monitoring space environment"
United States1975-02-06Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on SMS-2 launch cover"Monitor solar flare4 activity", "satellite monitors conditions of the Sun"
Australia1975-03-15Adelaide SA(Purple and red and green rubber-stamp) cachet on Helios-1 event cover"to measure magnetic fields, solar particles and cosmic rays from both the Sun and other parts of the universe"
United States1975-03-15Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-1 event cover"Measurements of Sun's surface and solar wind"
United States1975-03-15Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet (and signature) on Helios-1 event cover
United States1975-03-16Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Mariner-10 event cover"Investigation of solar wind and cosmic ray particles"
United States1975-03-16Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Mariner-10 event cover
Australia1975-04-21Adelaide SA(Black printed) cachet on Aryabhata launch cover"studies X-ray emission from outer space, solar neutrons and gamma rays emanating from the Sun"
Australia1975-09-10Adelaide SA(Green rubber-stamp) cachet on Viking-2 launch cover"World's largest Ionoscope aerial array7, Buckland Park, S.A."
United States1975-10-16Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on GOES-1 launch cover"monitor solar flare4 activity"
United States1975-12-05Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on DAD Explorer [failed] launch cover"Study rate atmosphere is escaping from Earth"
United States1975-12-14Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on DSP-5 launch cover"Plasma probe sensor"; "Faraday cup"; "Omnidirectional proton spectrometers"; "Directional particle detectors"; "Magnetometer sensor"
United States1976-01-15Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Helios-2 launch cover"measure solar wind, magnetic field, solar and galactic rays and electromagnetic waves"
United States1976-01-15Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet on Helios-2 launch cover"to study solar wind, solar and galactic cosmic rays"
United States1976-01-15Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage blue and red) cachet on Helios-2 launch cover"to investigate properties and processes in interplanetary space close to the Sun"
United States1976-01-15Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage blue and orange) cachet on Helios-2 launch cover
United States1976-01-15Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage blue and orange) cachet (slightly different) on Helios-2 launch cover
United States1976-01-15 (year inverted)Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on Helios-2 launch cover"to investigate ... the Sun's outer corona"
United States1976-01-15 (year inverted)Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on Helios-2 launch cover (no signatures)
United States1976-03-29Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-1 event cover"to study solar electric waves and particles"
United States1976-04-16Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-2 event cover"To measure [the] Sun's electric waves and particles"
United States1976-10-05Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-1 event cover"Measure Sun's electric waves and particles"
United States1977-04-20Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on ESA-GEOS-1 launch cover"To explore magnetic and electric fields 22,300 miles above Earth at the equator"
United States1977-04-20Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on ESA-GEOS-1 launch cover"study magnetic and electric fields surrounding Earth"
United States1977-04-20Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet on ESA-GEOS-1 launch cover"Designed to make integrated scientific studies of the magnetosphere"
United States1977-04-23Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-2 event cover"to investigate properties and processes in interplanetary space close to the Sun"
United States1977-07-14Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on GMS-1 launch cover"monitor solar flare4 activity"
United States1977-08-20Cape Canaveral FL(Space Master no.8) cachet on Voyager-2 launch cover, also back"Measure magnetosphere of Jupiter"
United States1977-09-05Cape Canaveral FL(Space Master no.9) cachet on Voyager-1 launch cover, also back"Measure magnetosphere of Jupiter"
Russia (USSR)1977-09-29Kosmodrome Baikonur(Red rubber-stamp) cachet on Prognoz-6 launch coverSymbolic solar storms, solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere
United States1977-10-21Pasadena CA(Space Voyage, no logo) cachet on Helios-1 event cover"study of Sun's electric waves and particles"
United States1977-10-22Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-56 and ISEE-2 launch coverDepiction of interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere
United States1977-10-22Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on Explorer-56 and ISEE-2 launch cover"will investigate solar-terrestrial relationships at the outermost boundaries of the Earth's magnetosphere and will examine in detail the solar wind near Earth and the shock wave which forms the interface between the solar wind and the Earth"
United States1977-10-22Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-56 and ISEE-2 launch cover"to obtain detailed Earth magnetosphere and solar data"
United States1977-10-25Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-56 and ISEE-2 launch cover
United States1977-10-25Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet on Explorer-56 and ISEE-2 launch cover"To study the magnetosphere and other phenomena in the near-Earth environment"
United States1978-01-31Pasadena CA(Gold printed) cachet on Explorer-1 anniversary-of-launch cover"discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts around the Earth"
United States1978-01-31Cape Canaveral FL(Blue printed) cachet on Explorer-1 anniversary-of-launch cover
United States1978-01-31Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Whitney blue) cachet on Explorer-1 anniversary-of-launch cover"Van Allan (sic) radiation belt"
United States1978-01-31Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Whitney blue) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) Explorer-1 anniversary-of-launch cover
United States1978-04-29Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-2 event cover"to study solar electric waves and particles"
United States1978-07-14Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on ESA-GEOS-2 launch coverInvestigate "waves and particles in magnetosphere"
United States1978-07-14Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on ESA-GEOS-2 launch cover
United States1978-07-14Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on ESA-GEOS-2 launch coverTo "study magnetic and electric fields surrounding Earth"
United States1978-07-14Kennedy Space Center FL(Centennial) cachet on ESA-GEOS-2 launch cover"This satellite will become a reference for ongoing international magnetospheric study"
United States1978-07-14Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on ESA-GEOS-2 launch cover
United States1978-07-14Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet on ESA-GEOS-2 launch cover"Will study magnetic field which surrounds Earth"
United States1978-07-14Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet (and signature) on ESA-GEOS-2 launch cover
United States1978-08-08Kennedy Space Center FL(KSC Philatelic Society) cachet on Pioneer-13 launch coverstudied the "interaction of atmosphere and solar wind"
Spain1978-08-12Madrid(Orange printed) cachet on Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE launch cover"Examines in detail the structure of the solar wind near the Earth"
United States1978-08-12Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE launch coverDepiction of interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere
United States1978-08-12Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE launch cover"aligned with ISEE 1 and 2 to obtain comparative magnetosphere and solar data"
United States1978-08-14Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE launch cover
United States1978-08-14Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet on Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE launch cover"Will join two other ISEE spacecraft in orbit to study effects of solar radiation on Earth's magnetic field
United States1978-08-12Cape Canaveral FL(Whitney orange and blue) cachet on Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE launch (airmail) cover"To study the Earth's magnetic field and gamma ray bursts"
United States1978-11-01Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-2 event cover"to investigate properties and processes in interplanetary space close to the Sun"
United States1978-11-05Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-1 event cover"study of properties & processes close to the Sun"
United States1972-12-18Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Apollo-17 event cover"Particles & Fields"; depiction of Earth's magnetosphere under the influence of the solar wind
United States1979-01-30Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on SCATHA launch cover"to prevent buildup of static electric charge on high altitude spacecraft"
United States1979-01-30Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on SCATHA launch cover
United States1979-01-30GSFC, MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on SCATHA launch cover"to measure the characteristics of the electron charging process during high altitude orbits, to determine the response of the satellite charging and to evaluate techniques which may correct the problem"
United States1979-01-30Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet on SCATHA launch cover"designed to find solutions to the problem of 'static charging' which has damaged previous satellites"
United States1979-01-30Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet (and signature) on SCATHA launch cover
United States1979-02-24Vandenberg AFB, CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Solwind launch cover"To determine the nature and extent of solar wind effects on the Earth's magnetosphere and near-Earth environment"
United States1979-02-241Vandenberg AFB, CA(Zaso silk/IASP no.9) cachet on Solwind launch covermade measurements of the solar wind in the Earth's magnetosphere and near-Earth environment; instrumentation included "solar flare4 ozone detectors"
United States1979-02-24Vandenberg AFB, CA(Zaso silk/IASP no.9) cachet on Solwind launch cover
United States1979-05-08Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-2 event cover"to investigate properties and processes in interplanetary space close to the Sun"
United States1979-07-11Washington DC(Smithsonian) cachet on Skylab re-entry cover"Skylab falls due to undue sunspot activity causing it to lose orbital capability10"
United States1979-11-07Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-2 event cover"to study solar electric waves and particles"
United States1980-02-14Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on SMM [rocket] launch cover"to provide scientists with observations of solar flares4 over many wavelengths to learn the causes of solar flares4 and how they might be predicted"; "solar flares4 are expected to occur most frequently near the maximum of the Sun's eleven-year cycle"
United States1980-02-14Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on SMM [rocket] launch cover
United States1980-02-14Greenbelt MD(Space Voyage) cachet on SMM [rocket] launch cover
United States1980-02-14Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet on SMM [rocket] launch coverto "monitor eruptions on the Sun during 1980, a peak year in solar disturbances"
United States1980-02-14Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on SMM [rocket] launch cover"to provide a facility for the study of solar activity during the next solar maximum and to gain a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of solar flares"4
United States1980-05-12Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-2 event cover"Measures Sun's magnetic fields, plasma particles and emissions"
United States1980-11-14Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-2 event cover"measures Sun's magnetic fields, plasma particles and emissions"
United States1980-12-05Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-1 event cover"measures Sun's magnetic fields, plasma particles and emissions"
United States1981-02-20Greenbelt MD(Space Voyage) cachet on Astro-A launch cover"scientific measurement of solar X-rays, magnetic fields and electron particles"
Japan1981-02-21Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on Astro-A launch cover
Japan1981-02-21Tsukubagakuen(Space Voyage) cachet on Astro-A launch cover
United States1981-08-03Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on Explorer-62 and Explorer-63 launch coverEarth's "magnetosphere" and "ionosphere, upper atmosphere and plasmasphere"; also depiction of magnetospheric field lines
United States1981-12-20Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-1 event cover"measures Sun's magnetic fields, plasma particles and emissions"
United States1982-03-22Kennedy Space Center FL(Orbit Cachets) cachet on STS-3 launch coverThe mission's OSS-1 (Office of Space Science 1) package included "plasma diagnostics", a "solar flare4 X-ray polarimeter", a "vehicle charging and potential experiment" and a "solar UV monitor"
United States1982-03-22Boulder CO(NOAA-SEL black rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on STS-3 launch cover"NOAA Space Environmental Laboratory, Space Environment Services Center"3; depiction of solar wind, magnetosphere, Van Allen belts, ionosphere and aurora
United States1982-03-22Kennedy Space Center FL (machine cancel)(pale green mission patch) cachet on STS-3 launch coverThe PDP (Plasma Diagnostic Package), held by the Canadarm, made various measurements of variables related to space weather
United States1982-03-22Kennedy Space Center FL (hand cancel)(grey mission patch) cachet on STS-3 launch cover
United States1982-03-22Kennedy Space Center FL (hand cancel)(blue mission patch) cachet on STS-3 launch cover
United States1982-03-26Kennedy Space Center FL(Quadracolor?) cachet on STS-3 event coverThe STS-3 mission tested the grappling and manipulation of the PDP (the "plasma diagnostic package") but did not deploy it. The PDP was finally deployed, in 1985, during shuttle mission STS-51F.
United States1982-11-11Boulder CO(NOAA-SEL black rubber-stamp) cachet on STS-5 launch and SBS-3 deployment (airmail) cover"NOAA Space Environmental Laboratory, Space Environment Services Center"3; depiction of solar wind, magnetosphere, Van Allen belts, ionosphere and aurora
United States1983-01-31Cape Canaveral FL(?) cachet on Explorer-1 anniversary card"Discovering the Van Allen radiation belts"
Japan1983-02-20Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on Astro-B launch cover"scientific measurement of solar X-rays, magnetic fields and electron particles"
United States1983-03-30Greenbelt MD(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE event cover"will study solar wind-comet interaction"
United States1983-04-04San Bernadino CA(Boudwin black and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on STS-6 launch and TDRS-1 deployment (airmail) cover"Big Bear Solar Observatory" (makes a wide variety of solar observations)
Spain1983-06-13Madrid(Space Voyage) cachet on Pioneer-10 event cover"Study of Sun's heliosphere (created by Sun's million MPH solar wind) continues"
United States1983-06-13Barstow CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Pioneer-10 event cover
United States1983-06-13
1981-05-21
Barstow CA
Kennedy Space Center FL
(Space Voyage) cachet on Pioneer-10 event coverDiagram of heliosphere with "solar wind" and "solar storm"; "Study of Sun's heliosphere (created by Sun's million MPH solar wind) continues"
Australia1983-06-14Canberra ACT(Space Voyage) cachet on Pioneer-10 event cover"Study of Sun's heliosphere (created by Sun's million MPH solar wind) continues"
United States1983-11-28Boulder CO(NOAA-SEL black rubber-stamp) cachet on STS-9 launch cover"NOAA Space Environmental Laboratory, Space Environment Services Center"3; depiction of solar wind, magnetosphere, Van Allen belts, ionosphere and aurora; Spacelab-1, flown aboard STS-9, was designed for five broad research areas, two of which were space plasma physics, and astronomy and solar physics
United States1983-11-28Houston TX(Pictorial) cancel and (Ranski) cachet on STS-9 launch cover"First Spacelab mission"; Spacelab-1, flown aboard STS-9, was designed for five broad research areas, two of which were space plasma physics, and astronomy and solar physics
United States1983-11-28Kennedy Space Center FL(Pictorial) cancel and (Ranski) cachet on STS-9 launch cover"Spacelab-1", flown aboard STS-9, was designed for five broad research areas, two of which were space plasma physics, and astronomy and solar physics
United States1984-02-03Boulder CO(NOAA-SEL black rubber-stamp) cachet on STS-41B and Westar-6 deployment (airmail) cover"NOAA Space Environmental Laboratory, Space Environment Services Center"3; depiction of solar wind, magnetosphere, Van Allen belts, ionosphere and aurora
Chile1984-08-16Santiago(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-65 launch cover"AMPTE - Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracking Explorer"
United States1984-08-16Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on Explorer-65 launch cover"Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers" studied solar wind energetic particles in the magnetosphere
United States1984-08-16Cape Canaveral FL(Printed) cachet on Explorer-65 launch cover"Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers"
United States1984-08-16Greenbelt MD(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-65 launch cover"Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers"
United States1984-08-16Merritt Island FL(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-65 launch cover
United States1984-12-27Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-65 launch cover
United States1985-02-02Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-1 event cover"measures Sun's magnetic fields, plasma particles and emissions"
Russia (USSR)1985-04-26Kosmodrome Baikonur(Multi-color printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on Prognoz-10 / IK-23 launch coverdepiction of magnetosphere
United States1985-07-29Kennedy Space Center FL(RSDSC) insert back from STS-26 (51F) launch cover, also insert front and cover front Carried a telescope "to investigate solar flares4, sunspots and solar wind through observations of ultraviolet wavelengths"; also measured "the composition of cosmic rays at high energies ... and the effects of the orbiter itself on the space plasma environment"; also, one solar physics experiment examined "the Sun's magnetic field and solar wind"
United States1985-08-01Kennedy Space Center FL(Zaso silk/IASP no.107) cachet on STS-26 (51F) event coverThe PDP (Plasma Diagnostic Package) was a sub-satellite deployed by the Space Shuttle "to study the effect of the shuttle on plasma in space"
United States1985-07-29Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on STS-26 (51F) launch cover"Cosmic Ray Nuclei Experiment"
United States1985-11-04Pasadena CA(Space Voyage brown and pink and red) cachet on Voyager-2 event cover"study of Uranus' magnetosphere"
Australia1986-01-24Canberra ACT(Space Voyage blue and tan and red) cachet on Voyager-2 launch cover"study of Uranus' magnetosphere"
United States1986-01-24Pasadena CA(Space Voyage green and pink and red) cachet on Voyager-2 event cover
United States1986-01-24Barstow CA(Space Voyage black and pink and red) cachet on Voyager-2 event cover
Japan1986-03-11Usuda(Colorano silk) cachet on MS-T5 event cover"measuring the speed, density and temperature of the solar wind as it blows against the tail of Halley's Comet"
Japan1986-03-11Usuda(Space Voyage purple and tan and orange) cachet on MS-T5 event cover"to measure effect of solar wind on [Halley's] comet's tail"
United States1986-03-14Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Helios-1 event cover"Measure Sun's electric waves and particles"
Australia1986-03-25Canberra ACT(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE event cover"Study of solar wind upwind from comet"
Spain1986-03-25Madrid(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE event cover
United States1986-03-25Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE event cover
United States1986-03-25Barstow CA(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE event cover
United States1986-03-25Greenbelt MD(Space Voyage) cachet on Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE event cover
United States1986-11-13Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Carsten Fuchs/Ken Havekotte) cachet on Polar BEAR launch cover"Polar Beacon Experiments and Auroral Research"
Japan1988-02-22Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on EXOS-D launch cover"Magnetosphere research" and observing "auroral particles and auroral emissions"
Japan1988-02-22Katsuura(Space Voyage) cachet on EXOS-D launch cover
Japan1989-08-25Usuda(Space Voyage) cachet on Voyager-2 event cover"Study of Neptune's magnetosphere, atmospheric composition and weather"
United States1990-04-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Boudwin black rubber-stamp, based on a Swanson design, and black rubber-stamp text) cachet on Stacksat-1/2/3 and PDD launch (airmail) coverThe mission of Stacksat-1 (also known as POGS, the Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Survey) was to "survey Earth's magnetic field"
United States1991-06-05Kennedy Space Center FL(Mission patch) cachet on STS-40 launch coverCarried the self-contained Getaway Special (GAS) G-616 canister, which included experiments to measure the effect of cosmic radiation on static computer media (such as floppy disks) and on plant seeds
United States1991-06-05
1991-06-05
Kennedy Space Center FL
Nassau Bay Branch, Houston TX
(Magenta and cyan rubber-stamp) cachets on STS-40 launch cover
United States1991-06-29Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Printed) cachet on REX launch covertested communications components in a high radiation environment of the ionosphere
United States1991-08-12Marshall Space Flight Center AL(Black rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on CRRES event (airmail) coversatellite and illustration of the Van Allen belts
United States1992-03-24 (in pencil)none(Lollini) cachet on STS-45 launch coverThe "ATLAS4-1" payload studied "Space Plasma" and "Atmosphere - Solar - Earth Science"
United States1992-03-24Kennedy Space Center FLInsert from STS-45 launch cover, also (mission patch) frontThe goals of the ATLAS4-1 payload included the study of "solar physics" and "space plasma physics"
United States1992-03-25Houston TX(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on STS-45 launch coverThe "ATLAS4-1" payload studied "Space Plasma" and "Atmosphere - Solar - Earth Science"
United States1992-10-22Sunspot NM(Text) cancel and (red rubber-stamp) cachet (return address) on LAGEOS-2 launch coverSunspot NM (post office); National Solar Observatory
United States1993-04-11
1993-04-13
Houston TX
Houston TX
(Cyan and black printed) cachet on STS-56 and SPARTAN-201-F1 cover"to study the Sun's corona and the solar wind".
French Guiana1993-07-22Kourou(KPS?) cachet on Insat-2B launch card"Solar wind" (in French text)
United States1994-09-09Kennedy Space Center FLInsert from STS-64 and SPARTAN-201-F2 event cover (mission patch cachet), also front"The second flight of the ... payload will gather further data on the acceleration and velocity of the solar wind, and measure aspects of the Sun's corona in support of the Ulysses spacecraft's south polar pass of the Sun"
United States1994-09-13Nassau Bay Branch, Houston TX(Black printed) cachet on STS-64 and SPARTAN-201-F2 event cover"[studying] sources of the solar wind"
United States1994-11-01Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on Wind launch cover"will study the properties of particles and waves in the region between the Earth and Sun"
United States1994-11-01Cape Canaveral FLInsert from Wind launch cover (with multi-color cachet), also front"will measure properties of the solar wind before it reaches the Earth"
United States1994-11-01Cape Canaveral FL(Black printed) cachet on Wind launch cover"Sun - Earth environment spacecraft"
United States1995-12-07Pasadena CAInsert from Galileo event cover, also insert back and cover front"Galileo will investigate "the structure and physical dynamics of Jupiter's complex magnetosphere"
United States1997-11-19Kennedy Space Center FLInsert from STS-87 and SPARTAN-201-F4 event cover (mission patch cachet), also front"a satellite that will take measurements of the solar wind"
United States1998-04-01Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(B&D) cachet on Explorer-73 launch coverTRACE satellite ("Transition Region and [Solar] Coronal Explorer")
United States1998-04-01Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Black printed) cachet on Explorer-73 launch cover
United States1998-04-01Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Red monochrome mission patch) cachet on Explorer-73 launch cover
United States2002-02-05Cape Canaveral FL(B&D) cachet on Explorer-81 (HESSI) launch cover"The spacecraft will take unique high-resolution images of solar flares4 in X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths"
United States2002-02-05Cape Canaveral FL(SCP) cachet on Explorer-81 (HESSI) launch cover"High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager"
United States2003-01-06Vandenberg AFB, Lompoc CA(Space Voyage/Lollini) cachet on Coriolis launch coverCarried the "SMEI" ("Solar Mass Ejection Imager"), whose solar wind measurements could be combined with other solar observations to create 3-D representations of CMEs5 and related solar phenomena
United States2003-01-06Vandenberg AFB, Lompoc CA(Multi-color printed) cachet on Coriolis launch cover
United States2003-01-06Vandenberg AFB, Lompoc CA(Multi-color printed) cachet (different) on Coriolis launch cover
China (People's Republic)2003-12-30Xichang, Sichuan?(Multi-color printed) cachet on TC-1 launch coverStudied "the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's magnetic field"
China (People's Republic)2004-07-25Kelan, Shanxi(Printed) cachet on TC-2 launch coverDepiction of solar wind, bow shock and magnetosphere
China (People's Republic)2004-07-25Kelan, ShanxiBack of TC-2 launch cover, also front"to study solar activity, interplanetary disturbance-triggered magnetospheric space storm, and physical process of disastrous Earth space weather"
United States2004-09-08Hill AFB, UT(Printed) cachet on GENESIS event cover"placed in space to capture [the] solar wind"
United States2006-01-19Kennedy Space Center FL(James Lee Roth) cachet on New Horizons launch coverCarries the instrument SWAP - "Solar Wind Around Pluto" (to observe the solar wind and magnetosphere around Pluto)
United States2006-03-22Vandenberg AFB, CA(Mission 57) cachet on ST-5-a,b,c launch cover"explore Earth's magnetosphere"
United States2006-04-14Vandenberg AFB, CA(Printed) cachet on Formosat-3A/3F launch cover"to study atmospheric conditions as well as to monitor space weather"
United States2006-03-24Colorado Springs CO, Peterson AFB(Mission 57) cachet on FalconSat-2 launch cover, also back"Exploring ionospheric plasma and its effects on trans-ionospheric communications"; also schematic drawing of Earth's magnetosphere
United States2006-09-22GSFC, Greenbelt MD(Multi-color printed) cachet on Solar-B and OSCAR-59 and SSSat-2 launch cover"to answer key questions about [the] Sun's magnetic field"
United States2006-10-25Kennedy Space Center FL(Printed) cachet on STEREO launch cover"study the nature of coronal mass ejections5 and why they happen. The ejections are a major source of the magnetic disruptions on Earth and are a key component of space weather"
United States2006-10-25Cape Canaveral FL(Mission 57) back of STEREO launch cover, also front"sensors for detecting and mapping in 3D the plasma characteristics of solar energetic particles" include the "SWEA - Solar Wind Electron Analyzer"; the SWAVES instrument is for "mapping the life cycle of radio disturbances generated by CMEs" (Coronal Mass Ejections)5
United States2006-11-04Vandenberg AFB, CA(Mission 57) back of DMSP-5D3-F17 launch cover, also front"data (are transferred to) the Air Force Weather Agency at Offutt AFB, NE; Navy Fleet Meteor. and Oceanographic Center at Monterey CA; and the Air Force's 556 Space Weather Squadron at Falcon AFB, CO"
United States2007-01-11Laurel MD(Printed) cachet on STEREO event coverHeliospheric Imagers "are designed to observe the space between the Sun and the Earth in order to watch solar storms as they head our way"; also, Comet McNaught ion tail, "which points along the direction of the solar wind"
United States2007-02-07Pasadena CA(Multi-color printed) cachet on Ulysses event cover"exploration of the heliosphere, the bubble in space blown out by the solar wind" and making "observations revealing the changing Sun and its effect on space during the ongoing minimum in the 11-year sunspot cycle"
United States2007-02-17Cape Canaveral FL(Mission 57) cachet on Explorer-85/89 (THEMIS) launch cover, also backDepiction of the solar wind interacting with the magnetosphere; the THEMIS9 mission was "to observe auroral activity and the Earth's magnetosphere" (on cover back)
United States2007-02-17Cape Canaveral FL(B&D) cachet on Explorer-85/89 (THEMIS) launch cover"to figure out the source of powerful geomagnetic substorms in the Earth's atmosphere that can damage communications satellites, disable power grids and produce high levels of radiation"
United States2008-01-31Cape Canaveral FL(Mission 57) back (different) of Explorer-1 anniversary-of-launch cover, also frontDrawing of solar wind and magnetosphere
United States2008-01-31Pasadena CA(Therome Cachets) cachet on Explorer-1 anniversary-of-launch coverVan Allen radiation belts and Earth's magnetic field
United States2008-01-31Pasadena CA(Personalized) stamp and (pictorial) cancel and (Therome Cachets) cachet (different) on Explorer-1 anniversary-of-launch coverDepiction of "Van Allen radiation belt"
United StatesNone (2008-10-19)None (Kwajalein)(Sarmiento) cachet on Explorer-91 (IBEX) launch (un-stamped and un-canceled) cover"Interstellar Boundary Explorer" ("IBEX"); the IBEX mission is to measure the interactions between the solar wind and the interstellar medium at the heliopause (the "outer edge" of the solar system)
Russia2009-01-30Plesetsk(Multi-color printed) cachet on KORONAS-Foton launch coversolar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9 (in background behind the satellite)
United States2009-06-27Cape Canaveral FL(Mission 57) back of GOES-14 launch cover, also front"Space Environment Monitor detects energetic particles, geomagnetic field activity and solar X-ray occurrences as part of Space Weather operations; EUV telescope observes solar extreme UV energy in 5 wavelength bands; Solar X-ray Imager: a soft X-ray telescope to monitor solar conditions and activity"
United States2009-08-07Cape Canaveral FL(Mission 57) back of Explorer-6 anniversary-of-launch cover, also frontscientific goals were "to map the radiation belt, measure solar flares4 and solar wind, study gamma rays, detect geomagnetism, test radio propagation in the upper atmosphere"
United States2009-10-18Vandenberg AFB, CA(Mission 57) back of DMSP-5D3-F18 launch cover, also front"data are transferred to the Air Force Weather Agency at Offutt AFB, NE; Navy Fleet Meteor. and Oceanographic Center at Monterey CA; and the Air Force's 556 Space Weather Squadron at Falcon AFB, CO"
United States2010-02-11Cape Canaveral FL(Mission 57) back of SDO launch cover, also front"first Space Weather Research Network" satellite with "a five-year mission that will study how solar activity such as solar wind, solar flares4 and coronal mass ejections5 are generated and how it [solar activity] affects space weather"; and in particular how solar energy is "converted and released into the heliosphere as solar wind ... with its energetic particles affecting Earth and near-Earth space"
United States2010-03-04Cape Canaveral FL(Mission 57) back of GOES-15 launch cover, also front"a Solar X-Ray Imager to observe solar weather conditions"; the "Space Environment Monitoring subsystem" includes a "Magnetospheric Proton Detector" and "Space Environment Monitor instruments" and will provide "X-Ray Sensor coverage to NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center"
French Guiana2011-02-16Kourou(Association Philatélique du C.E. SPS) cachet (with reproduction of Russia 5060) on ATV-2 launch coverMovement of charged particles following some of Earth's magnetic field lines in magnetosphere; also aurora (related to those movements) and upper atmospheric research rocket
United States2011-06-10Vandenberg AFB, CA(Mission 57) back of SAC-D launch cover, also frontThe CNES payload Carmen-1 includes an instrument that "will study the effect of cosmic radiation on electronics"
French Guiana2012-03-23Kourou(Association Philatélique du C.E. SPS) cachet on ATV-3 launch cover"Éruption solaire janvier 2012" (a solar flare4 is shown)
United States2012-08-30Cape Canaveral FL(Mission 57) back of RBSP launch cover, also frontDrawing of Van Allen radiation belts and "Radiation Belt Storm Probes" (on cover front and back). Also, "Both the solar wind and the Earth's ionosphere supply particles to the Van Allen belts which can disrupt satellites, cause power grid failures, skew GPS coordinates, and is lethal to astronauts" (on cover back)
French Guiana2012-11-10Kourou(Association Philatélique du C.E. SPS) cachet on Eutelsat-21B and StarOne-C3 launch coverSolar flares4 (white explosions); also a CME5 (large explosion from the bottom left of the Sun)
United States2013-06-27Vandenberg AFB, CA(Lollini) cachet on Explorer-94 (IRIS) launch coverThe "IRIS Solar Observatory" uses a solar telescope and spectrograph to explore the solar chromosphere. Data obtained will be useful in the studies of solar and plasma physics, space weather and astrophysics
United States2015-02-11Cape Canaveral FL(Colorano silk) cachet on DSCOVR launch cover"will be used to observe and provide advanced warning of extreme emissions from the Sun which can affect power grids, communications systems and satellites close to Earth"
United States2015-03-13Cape Canaveral FL(Printed) cachet on MMS launch cover"To Study the Earth's Magnetosphere"
United States2015-03-13Cape Canaveral FL(Lollini) cachet on MMS launch cover"Magnetospheric Multiscale" satellite
United States2017-06-29Pasadena CA(JPL printed) cachet on Cassini-Huygens event cover"observed the edge of Saturn's atmosphere, studying airglow [and] auroras"
Finland2017-08-13Helsinki(SVP) cachet on Dragon-CRS-12 pre-launch coverISS-"CREAM" instrument (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass) delivered to the ISS
Finland2017-08-16Kerava(SVP) cachet on Dragon-CRS-12 event cover
United States2017-08-20Pasadena CA(JPL printed) cachet on Cassini-Huygens event cover"observed Saturn's northern aurora" and also "Saturn's south polar aurora"
United States2017-09-02Pasadena CA(JPL printed) cachet on Cassini-Huygens event coverobserved "Saturn's sunlit north polar auroral region"
United States2017-09-12Pasadena CA(JPL printed) cachet on Cassini-Huygens event cover"magnetospheric and plasma science instruments" transmitted data to Earth "just seconds after each observation"
United States2017-09-17Hawthorne CA(Multi-color printed) cachet on Dragon-CRS-12 event coverISS-"CREAM" instrument (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass) delivered to the ISS
United States2018-05-18Kennedy Space Center FL(Multi-color printed) cachet on PSP pre-launch coverPSP8; "The probe will rely on measurements as imaging to revolutionize our understanding of the corona and the Sun-Earth connection"; also "magnetometer boom testing"
United States2018-05-19Kennedy Space Center FL(Multi-color printed) cachet on PSP pre-launch cover
United States2018-05-23Kennedy Space Center FL(Multi-color printed) cachet on PSP pre-launch cover
United States2018-07-06Kennedy Space Center FL(Multi-color printed) cachet on PSP pre-launch coverPSP8
United States2018-08-12Kennedy Space Center FL(Multi-color printed) cachet on PSP launch coverPSP8; "to help scientists figure out what makes the corona hotter than the Sun's visible surface and what accelerates charged particles to enormous velocities, producing the solar wind that streams away from the corona in all directions"; "Eugene Parker, the University of Chicago astrophysicist who first theorized the existence of the solar wind in 1958, watched the launch"
United States2018-08-12Cape Canaveral FL(Lollini) cachet on PSP launch coverSolar CME (Coronal Mass Ejection)9
United States2018-10-19GSFC, Greenbelt MD(Red Eagle) cachet on BepiColombo launch cover"the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO)" will study Mercury's "magnetic field [and] magnetosphere"
United States2018-12-21Pasadena CA(Red Eagle) cachet on JUNO event coverJupiter's aurora in its north polar region
United States2019-02-13GSFC, Greenbelt MD(Red Eagle) cachet on JUNO event cover
United States2019-02-13Pasadena CA(Red Eagle) cachet on JUNO event cover
United States2019-04-07Pasadena CA(Red Eagle) cachet on JUNO event cover
United States2019-03-05Sagamore Beach MA(Coverscape) cachet on Voyager-1 event cover"first spacecraft to sail past the heliopause" (on 25 August 2012)
United States2019-10-10Cape Canaveral FL(Red Eagle) cachet on Explorer-96 (ICON) launch cover"designed to investigate changes in Earth's ionosphere, the dynamic region high in our atmosphere where terrestrial weather from below meets space weather from above. ICON studies the interaction between Earth's weather systems and space weather driven by the Sun, and how this interaction drives turbulence in the upper atmosphere".
United States2019-10-12Sagamore Beach MA(Coverscape) cachet on Explorer-7 anniversary covermeasured "solar X-ray and Lyman-alpha flux, trapped energetic particles and heavy primary cosmic rays"
United States2019-12-10Monument Beach MA(Coverscape) cachet on Helios-1 anniversary coverSolar flares4 (e.g. on the right side of the Sun)
United States2020-01-28Houston TX(Red Eagle) cachet on STPSat-4 deployment cover"space weather sensors"
United States2020-02-09Cape Canaveral FL(Mission 57) back of Solar Orbiter launch cover, also front"To study the Sun, its magnetic fields and the solar wind"
French Guiana2020-02-10Kourou(Lollini) cachet on Solar Orbiter launch cover"ESA - NASA mission" to study "solar [and] heliospheric physics"
Finland2020-07-14Kerava(SVP) cachet on Al-Amal / Hope scrubbed launch coverto "understand the structure and variability of hydrogen and oxygen in the [Martian lower and] upper atmosphere, as well as identifying why Mars is losing them into space", including how Martian weather might be influencing that loss
Finland2020-07-19Kerava(SVP) cachet on Al-Amal / Hope launch cover
United States2020-07-10Pasadena CA(Red Eagle) cachet on PSP event coverGround-based observations and PSP data during this Venus flyby will provide "an unprecedented look at the interactions between Venus and the solar wind"
United States2020-07-19Boulder CO(Mission 57) back of Al-Amal / Hope launch cover, also frontUAE "Mars Atmospheric Probe" with UV Spectrometer to measure "Mars' thermosphere and hydrogen/oxygen coronae".
United States2021-02-20Pasadena CA(Red Eagle) cachet on PSP event coverPSP "relies on the planet [Venus] to reduce its orbital energy, which in turn allows it to travel closer to the Sun - and inspect the properties of the solar wind closer to its source"
United States2022-02-03Kennedy Space Center FL(Ranski) cachet on Starlink-v1.5_G4-7-1/49 launch cover, also backUp to 40 out of 49 satellites in this mission were lost due to a solar storm that warmed the atmosphere, increasing its density at the level of the satellites and thereby significantly increasing the drag on them.
United States2022-02-13Houston TX(Red Eagle) cachet on INSPIREsat-1+INS-2TD+RISat-1A launch cover"Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer 3" instrument for "Solar Flare" observation
United States2022-08-20Cape Canaveral FL(Ranski) cachet (different) on Voyager-2 anniversary cover, also back"Both Voyagers kept on flying, all the way to the edge of the heliosphere, the huge bubble of charged particles and magnetic fields that the Sun creates around itself. Voyager-1 crossed the heliopause, which marks the end of the heliosphere, in August 2012, becoming the first human-made object to enter interstellar space. Voyager-2 did so in November 2018".
United States2022-09-05Kennedy Space Center FL (black cancel)(Ranski) back of cachet on Voyager-1 anniversary cover, also front"Voyager-1 crossed the heliopause and entered interstellar space on August 25, 2012, making it the first spacecraft to do so"
United States2022-09-05Kennedy Space Center FL (red cancel)(Ranski) back of cachet on Voyager-1 anniversary cover, also front
United States2022-09-05Cape Canaveral FL(Ranski) back of Voyager-1 anniversary cover, also front"Both Voyagers kept on flying, all the way to the edge of the heliosphere, the huge bubble of charged particles and magnetic fields that the Sun creates around itself. Voyager-1 crossed the heliopause, which marks the end of the heliosphere, in August 2012, becoming the first human-made object to enter interstellar space. Voyager-2 did so in November 2018".

1This Solwind cover should have a 1979 "Feb" 24 cancel date, instead of 1979 "Mar" 24 as incorrectly given.
2The Solar Wind Composition Experiment (SWCE) was deployed on the Moon during five Apollo missions (Apollo-11, 12, 14, 15, and 16). The goal of the SWCE was to sample and measure the solar wind at a location outside of Earth's magnetosphere. It provided the first accurate measurements of the He, Ne, and Ar isotopic components of the solar wind. The experiment consisted of a sheet of pure metal foil, 1-foot wide and 4.6 feet high, mounted on a pole inserted into the soil of the Moon's surface. The foil was exposed for various amounts of time in the different Apollo missions and was then stowed and returned to Earth for analysis. This photo shows Apollo-11 astronaut Edwin Aldrin beside the mounted SWCE sheet; this photo shows a close view of the similar SWCE sheet from the Apollo-12 mission; this diagram provides a few details for the deployed sheet.
3A coronagraph is a special telescope equipped with a disk that blacks out ("occults") the solar disk, thereby making possible daylight observations of the solar corona.
4A solar flare is a sudden massive eruption of energy from the Sun, mostly in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which reaches Earth in around 8 minutes and can affect wireless communications through its interactions with the ionosphere. Solar flares are often accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs)5, which dramatically strengthen the solar wind, which can result in other significant space weather effects on and near Earth if they strike the Earth.
5A CME (Coronal Mass Ejection) is a massive eruption of matter from the solar corona that moves away from the Sun in a huge "cloud" of energetic solar particles. CMEs can cause significant space weather effects.
6The four Skylab missions are identified on the Skylab-mission Earth imagery page.
7The Buckland Park Ionoscope Aerial Array is a large antenna array 40 km north of Adelaide, South Australia. The name "Ionoscope" refers to "viewing" the ionosphere ("iono" plus the suffix "scope"). The array was constructed from 1965 to 1968 and upgraded from 1991 to 1995. It consists of a 1-km diameter array of 89 individually-accessible north-south and east-west aligned half-wave dipole antennas. The Buckland Park Medium Frequency (BPMF) radar operates through the array and conducts upper atmospheric research in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region (approximately 50 to 110 km), which corresponds to the ionospheric D region and the lower part of the ionospheric E region. The system can observe wind velocities, turbulence intensities, atmospheric structure, electron densities and collision frequencies, and ionization rates in the MLT region. Some of those measurements are useful in space weather studies.
8PSP is the Parker Solar Probe, launched 12 August 2018. Its mission is to try and answer three basic questions about the Sun:
1. How is the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona, heated to temperatures about 300 times higher than the visible surface below?
2. How is the solar wind accelerated so quickly to the high speeds we observe?
3. How do some of the Sun's most energetic particles rocket away from the Sun at more than half the speed of light?
For more information, see https://earthsky.org/space/parker-solar-probe-1st-image-from-inside-suns-atmosphere.
9THEMIS studied how the solar wind can interact with the Earth's magnetosphere in such a way that magnetic field lines are concentrated on the night side until they suddenly release large amounts of energy in bursts of magnetic reconnection. That release, known as a "magnetic substorm", is believed to be the cause of the aurora.
10Skylab re-entered Earth's atmosphere and burned up on 11 July 1979. This was earlier than was expected when the station was operational in 1973 and 1974. The reason is that solar activity after the last Skylab mission was greater than forecast. This heated the outer layers of the atmosphere more than originally expected, which caused the atmosphere to expand so that Skylab experienced more drag than forecast, so that it came down sooner than it otherwise would have done. This is an example of a subtle but real space weather effect.
11MSC-2 was a proton-electron spectrometer and MSC-3 was a triaxial magnetometer. The goal of the MSC-2/MSC-3 experiment was the simultaneous measurement of the external radiation environment and the radiation dose received by the Gemini-7 crew, for shield verification and dose prediction.
14The Solar Wind Spectrometer (SWS) was deployed on the lunar surface by Apollo-12 and Apollo-15. Although the solar wind contains ions of most chemical elements (including the noble gases measured by the Solar Wind Composition Experiment (SWCE)), over 95% of the particles in the solar wind are electrons and protons, in roughly equal numbers. The SWS measured the flux of protons and electrons as a function of particle velocity. The measurements were made in a set of seven detector cups with different orientations in order to determine the direction of particle motion. Most of the measured flux was in the detector that was oriented most directly toward the Sun.
15SPHINX: Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment


CountryCancel DateCancel LocationType of ItemNotes on Content
Space Weather (on Launch Covers, sub-orbital rocket-related)
United States1959-07-14Lompoc CA(Historical Space Covers) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Asp rocket solar X-ray/solar flares12 mission (Project Sunflare II); Point Arguello launch; reached 200 km; "fired to gather scientific data on solar flares"12 and "recorded [solar] radiation to 150 mi. alt."
United States1959-07-14Lompoc CA(Historical Space Covers) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) cover
United States1959-07-14Lompoc CA(Highway Stamp Club?) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1960-08-23Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella 1959) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAerobee-150A cosmic rays mission
United States1960-09-19Vandenberg AFB, CA(Zaso printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverArgo-D8 (Journeyman) cosmic rays mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 1884 km
United States1960-09-20Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlue Scout Jr magnetospheric and radiation probe 1 mission; Cape Canaveral launch (on 21 September); reached 27,600 km, but no data were received due to telemetry failure
United States1960-09-21Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1960-10-04Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverScout-X1 radiation probe magnetospheric plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 5600 km
United States1960-10-04Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1960-12-08Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Cajun Langmuir probe ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 152 km
United States1960-12-12Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverJavelin magnetosphere and magnetic fields mission (carried the first rubidium-vapor magnetometer into the ionosphere); Wallops Island launch; reached 1140 km
United States1960-12-12Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1961-01-07Patrick AFB, FL(Jim Fitzpatrick magenta and black rubber-stamp and hand-written) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlue Scout HETS8 A1-1 plasma/radio astronomy mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1600 km
United States1961-01-07Patrick AFB, FL(DuBeau? magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) cover
United States1961-01-07Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson magenta and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) cover
United States1961-03-03Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson black and magenta and cyan rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlue Scout HETS8 A2-1 plasma mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 2540 km; "to study the potential radiation threat to manned space flight"
United States1961-03-03Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1961-03-26Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAerobee-300A ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 386 km
United States1961-06-26Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) Topside Sounder9 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch on June 24; reached 1018 km
United States1961-06-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1961-06-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) cover, also back
United States1961-07-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverNike-Apache magnetic fields/magnetospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 193 km
United States1961-10-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) mission to study electrically-charged helium atoms in the upper atmosphere; Wallops Island launch; reached 1544 km
United States1961-10-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) Topside Sounder9 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1055 km
United States1961-10-19Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverScout plasma study mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 6855 km
United States1961-10-19Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) cover
United States1961-11-15Vandenberg AFB, CA(Goldcraft) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverexperiments included measuring radiation effects on "biological specimens"
United States1961-11-18Lompoc CA(Sarzin) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch covercarried "a variety of small organisms including human blood to test radiation on living matter to avoid danger in space for our space men of the future"
United States1961-12-04Lompoc CA(Sarzin?) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlue Scout Jr magnetospheric/solar proton mission; Point Arguello launch; reached 44,400 km
United States1961-12-21Wallops Island VA(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAerobee-300A ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 365 km
United States1962-04-12Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson blue and black rubber-stamp) cachets on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlue Scout-1 radiation measurement and re-entry test mission (failed when the second stage did not ignite); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 30
United States1962-04-12Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1962-04-12Patrick AFB, FL(AB Covers/Boerger) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1962-04-12Port Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft Type-C general-purpose) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
Sweden1962-08-07Kabdalis(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Cajun air sample aeronomy, magnetic storms and noctilucent clouds mission; Kronogard (Sweden) launch; reached 120 km; "the rocket brought 40 kilos of instruments 120 km up to study the bright night clouds and the magnetic storms"
Norway1962-08-18Andenes(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Cajun air sample aeronomy, magnetic storms and noctilucent clouds mission; Kronogard (Sweden) launch (on 7 August); reached 120 km; "Purpose (was) to study the magnetic storms north of the Polar circle"
Norway1962-08-18Andenes(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverIonosopheric mission "to study what causes the radio blackouts during periods of sunspots and northern lights eruptions"; reached 100 km
United States1962-10-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Apache Langmuir probe/ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 166 km
Norway1962-12-11Andenes(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Cajun-Ferdinand-2 polar ionospheric mission; joint NASA-Norway-Denmark project; Andoya, Norway launch; reached 123 km; "Purpose (was) to study the cosmic particles north of the Polar circle"
United States1963-02-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and red and green rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverArgo-D8 (Journeyman) electron spectrometer magnetospheric mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 1675 km
United States1963-04-12Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAerobee-150A CSIRO4 VLF ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 198 km
United States1963-07-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverJavelin (Argo-D4) Topside Sounder9 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 934 km
United States1963-07-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
Norway1963-09-12Andenes(Pre Bon) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"First successful Nike-Cajun firing, 1963" (but records show that a Nike-Apache rocket was actually fired); mission was to study ionospheric and solar effects on radio blackout; Andoya launch; reached 136 km; carried "apparatus to register what causes radio "black-outs" in Polar regions"
United States1963-09-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverJavelin (Argo-D4) Topside Sounder9 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch on 28 September; reached 1037 km
United States1963-09-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1964-01-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Apache auroral mission for Rice University; Wallops Island launch (on 14 January); reached 90 km
United States1964-01-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1964-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAerobee-300A thermosphere probe mission; Wallops Island launch (on 28 January); reached 309 km
United States1964-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1964-03-13Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlue Scout USAF OAR14 / AFCRL6 magnetospheric mission; Cape Canaveral launch; unsuccessful despite reaching 600 km because a fourth stage failure prevented the rocket from reaching the planned 37,000 km
Iceland1964-08-01Vik(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover(French rocket) Dragon-D10 ionospheric and Van Allen belt mission; launched from Myrdalssandur (Iceland); reached 440 km
United States1964-10-08Wallops Island VA(Swanson and Goldcraft hybrid black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric ion composition mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1004 km
United States1964-10-08Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (sub-orbital) rocket launch on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1964-10-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 840 km
United States1964-10-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1964-10-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1965-01-13Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) "mother-daughter" ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1006 km
United States1965-01-13Wallops Island VA(Sarzin printed and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1965-04-09Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlue Scout USAF OAR14 / AFWL15 magnetospheric mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 25,422 km
United States1965-05-12Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Sarzin) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlue Scout rocket magnetospheric mission; reached 13,586 km; "probing [Van Allen] radiation belt data obtained to protect men in space"
United States1965-05-12Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Swanson blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1965-05-12Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Celestial) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1965-09-23Wallops Island VA(Printed and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 805 km; "NASA space experiment flight leading towards manned flights to the planets"
United States1965-09-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 805 km
United States1966-02-17Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Apache E / B currents (Electricity / Birkeland currents) plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 186 km
United States1966-03-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAerobee-150A solar extreme UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 228 km
France1966-03-17Poste aux Armées(JG) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverVéronique solar radiance measurement mission; Hammaguir launch; altitude reached unknown
United States1966-08-26Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverTwo Nike-Tomahawk Thermosphere Probe aeronomy missions; Wallops Island launch; reached 287 km and 308 km
United States1966-08-26Wallops Island VA(HJM blue and Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1966-08-26Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAerobee-150A Extreme UV/Solar mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 212 km
United States1966-11-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Tomahawk particles and plasma mission (for the University of New Hampshire); Wallops Island launch; reached 359 km
United States1967-01-24Kennedy Space Center FL(Swanson red rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Tomahawk diurnal thermosphere/ionosphere aeronomy mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 325 km
United States1967-01-24Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Centennial) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSix Nike-Tomahawk diurnal thermosphere/ionosphere aeronomy missions; Cape Canaveral launches; reached from 320 to 336 km
United States1967-01-24Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Centennial) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1967-02-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAstrobee-1500 solar radio frequencies mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 2380 km
United States1967-02-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAstrobee-1500 solar radio frequencies mission; Wallops Island launch (on 24 February); reached 2380 km
United States1967-03-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAerobee-150A OSO-3 calibration and extreme UV mission for AFCRL6; Wallops Island launch; reached 205 km
United States1967-03-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) cover
United States1967-03-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAerobee-150A OSO-3 calibration and solar extreme UV mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 229 km
United States1967-03-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1967-03-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverNike-Tomahawk GCA Corp. ion probe ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 237 km
United States1967-03-31Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on (sub-orbital) Nike-Tomahawk rocket launch cover"to test ... electrical fields [and] atomic oxygen"
United States1967-06-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ISIS-X (Explorer-31) overflight and ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 792 km
Sweden1967-07-31Kiruna(Black printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverCentaure-2B ionospheric mission; Kiruna launch; reached 130 km
Italy1967-09-27Perdasdefogu(Green and red and orange rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSkylark ionosphere/solar X-rays mission; Salto di Quirra launch; reached 183 km; studied "the D-layer of the ionosphere and the intensity of the ionising radiations from the Sun"
Norway1968-09-23Andenes(Black rubber-stamp and hand-written) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Tomahawk ionospheric plasma mission; Andoya launch; reached 321 km
Norway1968-10-01Andenes(Black rubber-stamp and hand-written) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Tomahawk ionospheric plasma mission; Andoya launch; reached 228 km
Australia1969-04-02Glenelg SA(Black and red rubber-stamp) cachets on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverTwo Skylark missions for ionospheric and X-ray measurements: SL724 (Skylark-5C, 1 April, reached 192 km); and SL502 (Skylark-6AC, 2 April, reached 273 km); Woomera launches
Australia1969-04-02Woomera SA(Black and purple rubber-stamp) cachets on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverTwo Skylark-3 missions for solar UV and X-ray measurements; SL604 (22 April, reached 181 km) and SL606 (17 April, reached 202 km); (cancel date on cover apparently incorrect, should read 22 April); Woomera launches
United States1970-03-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverThirty-two sounding rockets of various types (Aerobee-170, Tomahawk Sandia, ARCAS2, Javelin and several with the Nike booster (Iroquois, Tomahawk, Apache, Cajun)) for solar eclipse/cessation studies1; Wallops Island launches on March 6, 7, and 8; altitudes reached varied from the lowest (around 65 km, ARCAS2 and Nike-Cajun) to the highest (829 km, Javelin)
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.4) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) cover, also insert
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.4) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) cover, also insert
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(NASA? black printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1970-03-07Colorado Springs CO(R.E. Nichol black and blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, also back
United States1970-03-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda Space Cover no.5) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverAerobee-150 solar eclipse/cessation studies1 mission (observed the "solar flash spectrum" of the solar corona in the far UV); 1:36PM launch from Wallops Island; reached 142 km
Australia1970-07-14Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSkylark-B5 solar corona study mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km
Australia1970-07-17Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSkylark-B5 solar corona study mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km
United States1970-09-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverJavelin aeronomy/exosphere mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 800 km
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"To study communication blackouts in space"
United States1970-10-05Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.17) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverBarium ion cloud release mission "to aid in research of Earth's magnetic and electric fields"
United States1971-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBoosted ARCAS2 plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 122 km
United States1971-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) cover
United States1971-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1971-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1971-06-10Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAerobee-350 airglow and aeronomy ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 328 km
United States1971-06-10Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1971-06-10Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverScout plasma/barium release joint NASA/MPE5 Barium Ion Cloud (BIC) mission "to measure magnetic and electric fields in space"
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.6) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover, also insert
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.6) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) cover, also insert
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet (and "cancel delayed" rubber-stamp) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
Australia1971-12-10Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSkylark SL903 solar X-ray mission; Woomera launch; reached 198 km
United States1972-03-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Tomahawk plasma physics mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 243 km
United States1972-10-09Chatanika AK(Red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverTomahawk-Sandia rocket mission "to map magnetic field lines"
United States1972-10-09Chatanika AK(Red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
Australia1972-10-19Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSkylark SL1022 ionospheric composition and scattering mission; Woomera launch; reached 150 km
United States1972-10-21Chatanika AK(Red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Tomahawk plasma/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 270 km
Australia1972-10-26Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSkylark SL1003 solar spectrum and X-ray measurement mission; Woomera launch; reached 195 km
Japan1973-02-23Uchinoura(JapanCover no.15) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverKappa-9M-42 cesium release3 ionospheric mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 306 km; also measured "number density of electrons, temperature of electrons and magnetic field"
Australia1973-03-14Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSkylark SL1004 imaging spectrograph solar X-ray mission; Woomera launch; reached 225 km
United States1973-03-16Chatanika AK(Red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverNike-Tomahawk plasma/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 249 km
Australia1973-03-20Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSkylark SL1102 diffraction grating specgtrograph solar UV mission; Woomera launch; reached 225 km
United States1973-03-21Chatanika AK(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades3 magnetic field mapping mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 225 km
United States1973-03-21Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet (slightly different) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1973-03-21Chatanika AK(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverAstrobee-D airglow/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 78 km
United States1973-03-21Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1973-03-22Chatanika AK(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverBlack-Brant aeronomy/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 183 km
United States1973-03-22Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1973-03-30Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Tomahawk plasma/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 243 km
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(Lollini) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverVéronique-61M solar extreme UV mission; Kourou launch; reached 200 km
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(Lollini) cachet (slightly different) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(CPK and ship Croix du Sud rubber-stamp) cachets on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(Green printed and ship Croix du Sud rubber-stamp) cachets on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1973-06-04WSMR, NM(Szostek/Swanson red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet (the red part is based on Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose cachet) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover, also insertAerobee-170A solar observation mission (2 June, reached 175 km) and Black Brant solar extreme UV rocket calibration mission (4 June, reached 132 km [but mission failed]); both launches, from WSMR, were part of a joint WSMR-Skylab series of experiments
United States1973-06-11WSMR, NM(Szostek red-brown printed/WSMR Cover no.13) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover, also backAerobee-200A joint WSMR-Skylab solar data calibration mission; "solar activity" including solar "surge[s]", a "rising [solar] prominence" and a solar "flare"12 is depicted
United States1973-08-30WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.23) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"Solar flare"12; "instrumentation launched to determine [the] accuracy of Skylab's Apollo Telescope Mount and [space] weather observation system" (alternatively, "weather observation system" may refer to Skylab's Earth Resources Experiments Package (EREP)16)
United States1973-09-18Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverUte-Tomahawk Polar Disturbed Ionosphere mission with rocket balloon; Poker Flat 6 AM launch; reached 127 km
United States1973-09-18Chatanika AK(Magenta and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverUte-Tomahawk Polar Disturbed Ionosphere mission with rocket balloon; Poker Flat 8 AM launch; reached 129 km
United States1973-12-10WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.25) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlack-Brant-5C CALROC-3 (Calibration Rocket 3) solar extreme UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 269 km; (cameras "photograph areas of solar activity while astronauts in Skylab use their telescope mount to photograph the same regions")
United States1973-12-19WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.26) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"Skylab Solar Work Station" (controlled the ATM (Apollo Telescope Mount))
United States1974-03-22Chatanika AK(Purple and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverStrypi Acanta-Contiga aurora and "magnetospheric dumping" mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 200 km [but mission failed]
United States1974-03-22Chatanika AK(Magenta and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1974-04-12Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverAstrobee-D ionospheric mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 129 km; part of the "Icecap Aurora Program"
Australia1974-04-23Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSkylark SL1207 ionospheric physics mission; Woomera launch; reached 178 km
Japan1974-09-15Uchinoura(JapanCover no.43) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverKappa-9M-46 ionospheric plasmas mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 336 km; "the aim of the experiment was the night observation of solar and terrestrial plasmas"
Japan1974-09-20Uchinoura(JapanCover no.45) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverKappa-9M-48 ionospheric X-ray/UV mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 340 km; "the experiment aimed at the observation of ultra-high temperature[s] of [radiation in] the ionosphere in the Terrestrial Corona"
Japan1975-01-17Uchinoura(JapanCover no.47) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverKappa-9M-49 airglow aeronomy mission; measurements of ozone, oxygen and ionospheric plasmas; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 363 km
United States1975-01-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverPaiute-Tomahawk ALADDIN11 -'75 sphere aeronomy/plasma mission; Wallops Island launch on 17 June at 6:35 PM; reached 190 km
United States1975-01-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
Japan1975-01-23Uchinoura(JapanCover no.49) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverKappa-9M-50 X-ray astronomy and plasmas mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 350 km
United States1975-03-17Chatanika AK(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Tomahawk plasma/electric fields/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 270 km
Australia1975-03-18Woomera SA(Blue and brown printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSkylark launched on 14 March for solar X-ray measurements at the time of Helios-A solar perihelion; Woomera launch; reached 270 km; payload was recovered on 18 March
Russia (USSR)1975-09-07Baikonur Karaganda Oblast(Purple and red and green printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on (known fake10) (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverVertikal-3 solar UV/X-ray mission; Kapustin Yar launch on 2 September; reached 502 km
Japan1975-09-24Uchinoura(JapanCover no.62) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverKappa-10-11 X-ray astronomy and solar UV mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 196 km
Japan1976-01-18Uchinoura(JapanCover no.65) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverKappa-10-12 ionospheric IMS (International Magnetic Systems) mission in advance of EXOS-A and EXOS-B launches; Uchinoura launch; reached 350 km ("216 km" in text possibly is in miles rather than kilometers)
United States1976-01-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverAstrobee-D plasma physics mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 76 km
United States1976-01-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSuper-ARCAS2 ion densities plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 70 km
United States1976-01-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1976-02-24WSMR, NM(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverAerobee-170 solar X-ray/extreme UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 221 km
Japan1976-08-21Uchinoura(JapanCover no.69) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverS-310-3 ionization and electron temperature and number density mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 195 km
Japan1976-09-16Uchinoura(JapanCover no.72) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverKappa-9M-55 ionospheric temperature and electron density mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 359 km
Australia1976-11-10Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlack-Brant (not "Brandt", as in the cachet text) APD-VB42 "cosmic X-ray" and "plasma winds" mission; Woomera launch; reached 215 km
United States1976-11-17WSMR, NM(Boudwin? blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverBlack-Brant-5C solar X-ray mission
United States1977-01-08Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Tomahawk plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 138 km
United States1977-01-08Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
Japan1977-08-16Uchinoura(JapanCover no.81) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverL-3H-9 ionospheric radio wave mission in advance of EXOS-A and EXOS-B launches; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 1294 km
Japan1977-09-15Uchinoura(JapanCover no.87) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverS-210-12 aeronomy mission; measurements of ozone, aerosols and ionospheric electron density; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 114 km
Japan1978-01-22Uchinoura(JapanCover no.90) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverKappa-9M-62 electron temperature and solar X-ray mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 369 km
United States1978-01-31WSMR, NM(Two-part black rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlack-Brant solar corona X-ray mission; WSMR launch; reached 273 km; also Explorer-1 anniversary-of-launch cover (the satellite provided the first observations of what came to be known as a Van Allen radiation belt)
United States1978-06-11Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Apache (Wallops Island launch; reached 220 km) and MR-12 (Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 170 km) JASPIC7 intercomparison plasma/ionization missions
United States1978-06-20Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverNike-Apache (Wallops Island launch; reached 184 km) and MR-12 (Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 175 km) JASPIC7 intercomparison plasma/ionization missions; "Nike-Tomahawk" rockets, launched from Wallops Island, were also used in the program; see, for example, 1978-06-25
United States1978-06-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverMR-12 JASPIC7 intercomparison plasma/ionization mission; Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 168 km
United States1978-06-23Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverMR-12 JASPIC7 intercomparison plasma/ionization mission; Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 168 km; "Nike-Apache" rockets, launched from Wallops Island, were also used in the program; see, for example, 1978-06-11 and 1978-06-20
United States1978-06-25Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverMR-12 (Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 165 km) and Nike-Tomahawk (Wallops Island launch; reached 315 km) JASPIC7 intercomparison plasma/ionization missions; "Nike-Apache" rockets, launched from Wallops Island, were also used in the program; see, for example, 1978-06-11 and 1978-06-20
United States1978-08-14WSMR, NM(Swanson blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet (design based on Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose cachet) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlack-Brant HRTS (High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph) solar UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 220 km [but mission failed]
Japan1978-08-20Uchinoura(JapanCover no.97) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverKappa-9M-64 aurora and IR/UV/X-ray astronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 319 km; [what appears to be a three-axis-stabilized satellite is a Galactic X-ray instrument (on cover2)]
Japan1978-08-20Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1978-09-27Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverlast JASPIC7 launches: Nike-Apache (from Wallops Island on 27 September; reached 183 km) and MR-12 (from Soviet research ship Professor Vize on 26 June; reached 165 km); JASPIC7 intercomparison plasma/ionization missions
Japan1979-01-21Uchinoura(JapanCover no.104) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverKappa-9M-66 barium release3 and plasma and electron energy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 336 km
Canada1979-02-24Ear Falls ON(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverSeven solar eclipse preparatory missions with rockets of several types (Super Loki, Nike Tomahawk, ARCAS, and Super ARCAS) were launched at Red Lake ON on 24 and 25 February. Altitude reached was generally around 80 km. The eclipse took place on 26 February, when three eclipse/aeronomy rocket missions were launched (two Taurus Orions and one Nike Iroquois). All three reached around 200 km.
Japan1980-01-18
1980-01-18
Uchinoura (text cancel)
Uchinoura (scenic cancel)
(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverS-520-1 mission to measure "ionosphere plasma [and] electron temperature"; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 18 Jan 1980; reached 329 km
Japan1980-09-02Uchinoura(Space Voyage red and blue and pink) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverOne Kappa-10 and three Kappa-9M rockets launched from Uchinoura (Kagoshima); the 17 Jan 1979 Kappa-9M mission was for aeronomy/ionosphere/"electron density" and "electron temperature" and reached 353 km
Japan1981-01-29
1981-01-29
Uchinoura (scenic cancel)
Uchinoura (text cancel)
(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverS-520-1 mission to measure "ionosphere plasma [and] electron temperature"; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 18 Jan 1980; reached 329 km
United States1981-08-10Wallops Island VA(Black rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverTaurus-Orion plasma mission; Wallops Island launch on 8 August; reached 200 km
United States1981-09-24Wallops Island VA(Black rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverOrion plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 71 km
Japan1982-02-18Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverKappa-9M-72 ionospheric radio waves mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 13 February 1982; reached 328 km;
Kappa-9M-73 ionospheric/plasma/fields mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 15 January 1982; reached 303 km;
Kappa-9M-74 UV/X-ray astronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 18 February 1982; reached 315 km; [what appears to be a three-axis-stabilized satellite is a Galactic X-ray instrument]
Japan1987-02-22Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverS-310-16 E-region ionospheric mission with "study of aurora activity and plasma"; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 1 February 1986; reached 201 km
S-310-17 Airglow aeronomy mission with "study of aurora phenomena and plasma"; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 6 September 1986; reached 202 km
Japan1991-02-16Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverThree S-520 rockets launched from Uchinoura (Kagoshima); the 18 Feb 1993 mission was for ionosphere/active "plasma study"/"electron density" and reached 272 km
Japan1992-02-02Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverThree S-520 rockets launched from Uchinoura (Kagoshima); the 18 Feb 1993 mission was for ionosphere/active "plasma study"/"electron density" and reached 272 km
United States2006-02-08WSMR, NM(Printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverTerrier-Black-Brant MOSES (Multi-order Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph) solar extreme UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 282 km; (studied "solar flares12 and explosions from the corona" and "other electromagnetic bursts from the Sun [that] can really disrupt satellites, cell phones, power grids and related technologies"
United States2007-11-06WSMR, NM(Multi-color printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverBlack-Brant-9 solar extreme UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 300 km; studied "the physical properties of the solar corona"; observations provided calibrations for data from the "SOHO, TRACE and Solar-B" satellites
United States2018-09-07GSFC, Greenbelt MD(Red Eagle) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"FOXSI is the first instrument built specially to image high-energy X-rays from the Sun by directly focusing [on] them" (from an observing position "above the shield of Earth's atmosphere")
United States2019-09-30WSMR, NM(Multi-color printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverResearch rocket mission to observe solar eruptions

1When a solar eclipse occurs, there is a sudden cut-off, or cessation, of solar radiation, followed by a sudden resumption of that radiation. Solar eclipses therefore present the opportunity to investigate the effects of fast-varying solar flux on the structure, photochemistry and electrodynamics of various parts of the upper atmosphere. This includes examination of anomalies in ionization, temperature and winds. Characteristics of the solar corona can also be observed (often in the far ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum). Rockets have been used to carry instruments which can make such measurements into the upper atmosphere.
2The ARCAS (All-purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) was developed by the Atlantic Research Corporation for the Office of Naval Research with support from the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. It was launched with a launching tube. It was first used in July 1959, and has undergone various modifications and improvements since then.
3In these experiments, grenades of barium or other chemicals were carried aloft to explode in the upper atmosphere; the resulting clouds could be observed and tracked to estimate upper atmospheric winds, turbulence and cloud radiance properties. Also, by using the times of arrival of the sound waves created by the explosions at an array of ground stations, calculations estimating the upper winds could be made.
4CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia's national science agency)
5MPE: Max Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik
6AFCRL: Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (Cambridge MA)
7JASPIC: Joint American Soviet Particle InterCalibration
8HETS: Hyper Environmental Test System (USAF missions to investigate radiation in the magnetosphere)
9A Topside Sounder is a satellite designed to determine ion concentration within the ionosphere as measured from above the ionosphere.
10Known fake cover, with a made-up Baikonur postmark, suspected to have been created by Boris Khoroshev from Moscow, and sold by a stamp dealer in Western Europe. There were no Baikonur Cosmodrome official postmarks until 1975 for the Apollo-Soyuz events. Reference the article written by Russian collector Oleg Vaisberg published as an Appendix called "Russian (Soviet) Space Covers" to Bruce Cranford's book Space Covers: Dictionary and Identifier. See also, an analysis of the situation in a book published in 2008 called Commemorative Space Covers from Collector Clubs of the Soviet Union, 1957 to 1980. Another indicator on these fakes is the use of a "first day" cachet that appears on most, but not all, of these fakes.
11ALADDIN: Atmospheric Layering and Density Distribution of Ions and Neutrals
12A solar flare is a sudden massive eruption of energy from the Sun, mostly in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which reaches Earth in around 8 minutes and can affect wireless communications through its interactions with the ionosphere. Solar flares are often accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs)13, which dramatically strengthen the solar wind, which can result in other significant space weather effects on and near Earth if they strike the Earth.
13A CME (Coronal Mass Ejection) is a massive eruption of matter from the solar corona that moves away from the Sun in a huge "cloud" of energetic solar particles. CMEs can cause significant space weather effects.
14OAR: Office of Aeronautical Research
15AFWL: Air Force Weapons Laboratory
16The Earth Resources Experiments Package (EREP) on Skylab took a comprehensive and systematic image survey of the Earth from space, taking some 36,000 photos from 1973 to 1974. Imaging was done by several cameras, the main one with six spectral bands.


CountryCancel DateCancel LocationType of ItemNotes on Content
Space Weather (on Launch Covers, balloon-related)
United States1967-08-29Palestine TX(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on stratospheric balloon launch cover"Flight to measure gamma radiation"
United States1971-05-25Palestine TX(Riser cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on stratospheric balloon launch coverMission to measure neutrons produced during solar flares1
Australia1973-03-02Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet on isentropic balloon recovery coverrecovery of Boomerang-13 isentropic balloon launched 24 January 1973
Australia1973-03-02Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet (slightly different) on isentropic balloon recovery cover
United States1975-05-17Palestine TX(Riser blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on stratospheric balloon launch coverMission with "spectrograph for solar observations"
United States1973-05-29Palestine TX(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on stratospheric balloon launch cover"measure cosmic particles"
United States1976-05-20Palestine TX(Riser green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on stratospheric balloon launch covercosmic rays study
United States1976-09-24Palestine TX(Riser green and red rubber-stamp) cachet on stratospheric balloon launch cover"spectroradiometer to measure Sun spectral distribution"
United States1976-10-13Palestine TX(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on stratospheric balloon launch cover"Investigation of solar corona in the near infrared"

1A solar flare is a sudden massive eruption of energy from the Sun, mostly in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which reaches Earth in around 8 minutes and can affect wireless communications through its interactions with the ionosphere. Solar flares are often accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs)2, which dramatically strengthen the solar wind, which can result in other significant space weather effects on and near Earth if they strike the Earth.
2A CME (Coronal Mass Ejection) is a massive eruption of matter from the solar corona that moves away from the Sun in a huge "cloud" of energetic solar particles. CMEs can cause significant space weather effects.
3Boomerang-1 was an isentropic research balloon that circled the world twice in 36 days at an altitude of 24.4 km (80,000 feet). It was launched from and recovered in Australia. It carried a 41 kg payload of cosmic ray detectors, biological specimens (to study the effects of cosmic rays on corn seedlings and other plants) and micrometeorite detectors. The project was conducted by NCAR (the National Center for Atmospheric Research) of Boulder CO, USA. A second Boomerang mission was also undertaken at about the same time.
4ATLAS: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science


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