wx-rocket

(Sub-orbital)
Atmospheric and
Other Scientific
Research Rockets

rocketry

This page contains philatelic information on (sub-orbital) Atmospheric and other scientific research rockets. Catalog numbers, years of issue, and notes on the items featured are given when available. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page.

Distinction between atmospheric layers is made for the rocket launch covers, but not for the other postal items, according to the following definitions:

A separate category of rockets is used in weather modification. They are small rockets, often based on military designs. The goal of such rockets is to deliver silver iodide into clouds in an attempt to modify their structure and therefore to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from them. These rockets carry no instrumentation. Rather, they carry their load of silver iodide and an explosive charge that makes the rocket blow up inside the targeted cloud. These rockets do not fly to high altitudes; they deliver their payload to portions of clouds in the lower or middle parts of the troposphere. Philatelic items featuring weather-modification rockets are found in the weather modification page.

Launch covers
(including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers)
(farther below)
Other postal items
(stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.)
(immediately below)
(Sub-orbital) Research rockets in the LOWER atmosphere
(troposphere and stratosphere)
(Sub-orbital) Research rockets
(both LOWER and UPPER atmosphere)
(Sub-orbital) Research rockets in the UPPER atmosphere
(mesosphere and ionosphere)
Atmospheric and other scientific research rockets
(on other than rocket launch covers)


Below is a list of (sub-orbital) Atmospheric research rocket postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.).

CountryCatalog NumberType of ItemYear of IssueNotes on Content
(Sub-orbital) Research rockets (both LOWER and UPPER atmosphere)
Afghanistan632 (Mi732)1962
Afghanistan633 (Mi733)
Afghanistan632-633 fdcTwo stamps and (C.G. Junior III) cachet on FDC
Afghanistan633a (BL38)SS1
Afghanistan633a fdcSS1 and (C.G. Junior III) cachet on FDC
Afghanistan648 (Mi767)1963
Afghanistan645-648 fdcOne of four stamps and (C.G. Junior III) cachet on FDC
Afghanistan649 (Mi768)
AfghanistanC48 (Mi772)
Afghanistan649+C48-C49 fdcTwo of three stamps and cachet on FDC
AfghanistanC50a (BL42)SS1
AfghanistanC50a fdcSS1 and cachet on FDC
AfghanistanC50b (BL41)Imperforate SS1
AfghanistanC50b fdc1Imperforate SS1 on FDC
AfghanistanC50b fdc2Imperforate SS1 and cachet on FDC
ArgentinaC98 (Mi863)1965"various scientific experiments with rockets [including] measurement of winds in the atmosphere, and ionospheric investigations" (in Spanish in folder text)
ArgentinaC98 fdc1Stamp and cachet on FDC (hand cancel)
ArgentinaC98 fdc2Stamp and cachet (same) on FDC (machine cancel)
ArgentinaC99 fdcCachet (same) on FDC
Argentina772 fdcCachet (same) on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc1One of three stamps on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc2One of three stamps and cachet on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc3One of three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc4One of three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC (hand cancel)
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc5One of three stamps and cachet (same) on FDC (machine cancel)
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc6One of three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc7One of three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 folderFDC folder
ArgentinaC105 (Mi898)1966Project Matienzo13: Gamma Centaur rocket; also typical track of rising instrumented balloons (dashed line in stamp) that were part of the project
ArgentinaC105 fdc1Stamp and (black printed) cachet on FDC
ArgentinaC105 fdc2Stamp and (black printed) cachet on FDC card
ArgentinaC105 fdc3Stamp and (hand-colored) cachet (same, except for the coloring) on FDC card
ArgentinaC105 fdc4Stamp and (red and cyan and black printed) cachet on FDC
ArgentinaC105 fdc5Stamp and (black and blue and red printed) cachet on (airmail) FDC
ArgentinaC105 folder1FDC folder
ArgentinaC105 folder2Inside of folder (different)
ArgentinaB156 (Mi2110)1991Castor rocket
AustraliaNone(Brown and black printed) cachet on cover1970Research rockets for solar studies
Barbados305 (Mi273)1968"HARP11 gun"
Barbados305 varVariety: White spot on barrel
Barbados512 (Mi482)1979HARP11 gun
Barbados513 (Mi483)
Barbados514 (Mi484)
BeninUnknown a (Mi none)
Unknown ia
One of MS4 (a-d) [known illegal issue]
One of imperforate MS4 (a-d)
2014"Europa 1"-F1 launch on "5 juin 1964" (this was the first in the Europa rocket series, a test flight from Woomera, Australia of a Blue Streak rocket, which broke up near the apogee of 157 km)
BeninUnknown a-d fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
BeninUnknown a proof
Unknown ia proof
One of MS4 proof (a-d)
One of imperforate MS4 proof (a-d)
BeninUnknown ms proofSigned-proof MS4 (a-d)
BeninUnknown ms proof fdc
Unknown ims proof fdc
MS4 proof on FDC
Imperforate MS4 proof on FDC
Bhutan118A (Mi413)Simulated-3D plastic-overlay1970V-2 rocket (was the basis of the American research rocket program in the years after the end of WWII2)
Bhutan118Cm (BL41)On one of MS4 (118-118C) (Mi412-415), simulated-3D plastic-overlay
Brazil1035 (Mi1128)From MS25 (1035a (25x 1035))1967
Brazil1035 fdc1Stamp on FDC (Brasil Cover cachet; see this larger but incomplete image)
Brazil1035 fdc2Stamp and (blue printed) cachet on FDC
Brazil1035 fdc3Stamp on FDC (blue printed cachet, different)
Brazil1035 fdc4Stamp on (airmail) FDC
Brazil2295 (Mi2393)From MS24 (2295a (24x 2295))199025th anniv. first Brazilian launch of Nike-Apache research rocket
Brazil2295 fdcStamp and (pictorial) cancel and cachet on FDC
British Indian Ocean Territory377 (Mi486)2009Early research rockets: Corporal and Private
British Indian Ocean Territory377-381 fdcOne of five stamps on FDC
Canada376 fdc1 (Mi323 fdc1)(Blue and red printed) cachet on FDC (machine cancel)1957
Canada376 fdc2 (Mi323 fdc2)(Blue and red printed) cachet on FDC (hand cancel)
Canada445 fdc (Mi389 fdc)(H&E) cachet on FDC1966
CanadaNone(Sarzin black printed and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1967?USAF launches of atmospheric research rockets at Fort Churchill RRF (Rocket Research Facility); (one digit in the year in the cancel appears to be inverted: "97" should be "67")
CanadaNone(Red pictorial) meter on cover1970The "Churchill Research Range" in northern Manitoba, Canada, ideally located for high latitude scientific rockets, was active as a research rocket launch site from 1955 through 1989
Canada1562 (Mi1493)1995Research rocket at the Churchill Research Range (Churchill, Manitoba, Canada)
Cape Kennedy FL (USA)LocalLocal post1965"Nike-Apache sounding rocket program"
Cape Kennedy FL (USA)Local fdcLocal post FDC
Central African Republic1060a (Mi?)One of strip of 3 (1060 (a-c))1994Bumper-WAC7,9 (WAC Corporal atop V-2) launch
Chad710b (Mi1518A)
i710b (Mi1518B)
One stamp and in selvedge of MS6 (710 (a-f)) (Mi1517A-1522A)
One stamp and in selvedge of imperforate MS6 (i710 (a-f)) (Mi1517B-1522B)
1997"Aerobee" atmospheric research rocket
China (People's Republic)None(Cyan and red and black printed) cachet on cover, also annotated, and back1991atmospheric research rocket
China (People's Republic)NonePostal card2002Atmospheric research rocket; 50th anniv. Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Comoro Islands783 (Mi989)
i783

Imperforate
1992"Redstone rocket launched with chimp 'Ham' in 1960" (but the launch was on 31 Jan 1961, not 1960 as in the stamp)
Comoro Islands783b (BL366)
i783b
Stamp and in (upper-right and left) margins of SS1 (783)
Stamp and in (upper-right and left) margins of imperforate SS1 (i783)
(As above for stamp); "Aerobee rocket launched in 1952 with a macaque" (in upper-right margin); "Little-Joe rocket launched with rhesus monkey 'Sam', January 1960" (in left margin); (Sam is shown in his space suit, similar to the image in Comoro Islands Unknown d 2005)
Comoro Islands785 (Mi991)
i785

Imperforate
"Felix the Cat aboard Véronique research rocket - October 1963" (in French text)
Comoro Islands785b (BL368)
i785b
On stamp of SS1 (785)
On stamp of imperforate SS1 (i785)
Comoro Islands788b (BL371A)
i788b (BL371B)
In (left and upper-right) margins of SS1 (788)
In (left) margin of imperforate SS1 (i788)
(possibly an R-series) "research rocket (USSR)" (in French text, in left margin); (possibly an R-series) "research rocket carrying a dog (USSR)" (in French text. in upper-right margin) (such flights took place from 1951 to 1960)
Comoro Islands788a (Mi989+991+994)
i788a
On one of MS3 (783+785-788)
On one of imperforate MS3 (i783+i785-i788)
(As above for stamps)
Comoro Islands789 (BL365)
i789
In (left) margin of SS1
In (left) margin of imperforate SS1
1992"Monkeys 'Able' and 'Baker' - 29 May 1959" flew in a Jupiter rocket (not depicted) to 483 km and were recovered unharmed
Comoro IslandsUnknown d (Mi?)One of MS5 (a-e)2005Upper half (from this photo): squirrel monkey Miss Baker (on 28 May 1959, flew with rhesus monkey Miss Able in a Jupiter rocket (not depicted) to 483 km - they were recovered unharmed); Lower half (from this photo): rhesus monkey Sam in space suit (similar to the image of Miss Sam in Comoro Islands 783b); (on 21 January 1960 Sam flew in a Little Joe rocket to an altitude of 85 km, and was recovered unharmed in the Atlantic Ocean)
Comoro IslandsUnknown_d-e fdcOne of two stamps and (multi-color printed) cachet on FDC(As above for stamp); also in the cachet rhesus monkey Able and squirrel monkey Baker who flew to 483 km on 28 May 1959 in a Jupiter rocket, and were recovered unharmed; the cachet image is from a photograph that was also featured as the cover article of an issue of Life magazine
Comoro IslandsUnknown_ms5 fdcMS5 on FDC(As above for the ms5)
Congo (People's Republic)C161 (Mi378)1973
Congo (People's Republic)C161 proof1Trial color proof pair
Congo (People's Republic)C161 proof2Trial color proof pair (different)
Congo (People's Republic)C161 proof3Signed proof
Congo (People's Republic)C161 fdcStamp and cachet on FDC
Congo RepublicUnknown ss (BL none)In (upper-right) margin of SS1 [known illegal issue]2014Research rocket at Hermann Oberth Museum
Congo RepublicUnknown ms (Mi none)In (upper-left) margin of MS2 (a-b) [known illegal issue]2016"V-2" research rocket
Costa RicaC325 (Mi592)1961Meteorological rocket and exhaust forming part of the stylized compass rose which is part of the WMO emblem
Costa RicaC324-C325 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC (Asociación Filatélica de Costa Rica cachet), also back
Cuba962 (Mi1024)1965
Cuba961-963 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Dubai123 (Mi367)1970
Dubai124 (Mi368)
France1100 (Mi1480)
i1100
From MS8 (1100a (8x 1100 + 8 labels))
From imperforate MS8 (i1100a (8x i1100 + 8 labels))
1964Research rocket (the drawings are similar to the French Monica sounding rockets); (see also Hungary 2367 and Germany (West) cover 1964, and Monaco 580)
France1100 maxiMaxicard
France1100a_half fdc1100a half-sheet and (multi-color printed) cachet on FDC
France1100+label fdcStamp and (PJ no.496) cachet on FDC, also back(As above for stamp); Véronique research rocket (in the cachet)
France1100+label cover (Mi1480+label cover)Stamp and (PJ) cachet on cover1964Research rocket (the drawing is similar to the French Monica sounding rockets); (see also Hungary 2367 and Germany (West) cover 1964)
FranceB465 cover (Mi1834 cover)(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover1973Research rocket launched from the "Centre d'Essais des Landes".
FranceNonePostcard back, also front1977"Dauphin sounding rocket" (in postcard photo and in French text)
FranceNone(Association philatélique du CNES) cachet on cover1977Dragon rocket
FranceNoneStamp-on-stamp (reproduction of Russia 5060) in (lower-right) margin of SS1 cinderella2010Eridan sounding rocket (see the entry for Russia 5060 for details)
France
India
4798-4799 folder1
2725-2726 folder1
Dual-country folder inside, also outside2015"France provided India with licenses for the Centaure rockets, on which Indian launchers are based"
France
India
4798-4799 folder2
2725-2726 folder2
Dual-country FDC folder inside, also outside
French Southern and Antarctic Territories29 (Mi38)
i29

Imperforate
1967"First sounding rocket launch [of Dragon rockets] in Adélie Land: January 1967" (in French text); auroral studies; (see also FSAT C11 cover)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories29 fdc1Stamp and (Éditions J.F.) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic Territories29 fdc2Stamp and (PJ) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic Territories29 fdc3Stamp and (black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) FDC, also back
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC11 cover (Mi? cover)(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover1967"First scientific rocket launch [of Dragon rockets] in Antarctica, Adélie Land, January 1967" (in French text); (see also FSAT 29 FDC3)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(J.G.) cachet on cover1967"First launch of the Dragon scientific rocket in Antarctica, on 26 January 1967, in Adélie Land)" (in French text); (but Diamant launch rocket depicted)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories19 cover (Mi22 cover)(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover1968"First scientific rocket launch [of Dragon rockets] in Antarctica, Adélie Land, January 1967" (in French text); (see also FSAT 29)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC16a (Mi42-43)
iC16a
Strip of 2 (C16a (C15-C16 + label))
Imperforate strip of 2 (iC16a (iC15-iC16 + label))
1968"Dragon ionospheric research rockets, 1967 - 1968" (in French text)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC16a fdc1Strip of 2 and (PJ) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC16a fdc2Strip of 2 and (Éditions J.F.) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a (Mi96-97)Strip of 2 (C40a (C39-C40 + label)) (Mi96-97) from MS10 (C40b (5x (C39-C40 + label)))1975Two Eridan sounding rockets (launched 26 January and 15 February 1975) and "magnetospheric research - Franco-Soviet program ARAKS" (in French text). The ARAKS (Artificial Radiation and Aurora between Kerguelen and Sogra) experiment was dedicated to auroral studies. As part of the program, Super-ARCAS4 rockets were launched in advance of the Eridan launches, to gather X-ray data at 30-60 km altitude; Russia 5060 and Mali Unknown c 2018 also commemorate the ARAKS experiment
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc1Two stamps and label and (pictorial) cancel on FDC (FSAT PO official embossed cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc2Two stamps and label and (pictorial) cancel and (Lollini) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc3Two stamps and label and (pictorial) cancel and (PJ) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc4Two stamps and label and (pictorial) cancel and (Éditions J.F.) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc5Two stamps and label and (Lollini) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a dsDeluxe sheet (C40a)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC39 dsDeluxe sheet (C39)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC39 proofSigned proof (C39)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories622 (Mi1068)2020Dragon research rocket and Bernard Morlet
French Southern and Antarctic Territories622 proofDie proof (622)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories622 artfinal-design art (622)
GabonC10 fdc (Mi178 fdc)(PJ) cachet on FDC1962Véronique research rocket
Germany (Berlin)None(Red printed) cachet on cover1961(possible) Cirrus-1 research rocket (see Paraguay C525 for an illustration of the Cirrus-2 rocket)
Germany (East)None(Pictorial) cancel on postal card1963Research rocket above a map of Antarctica (possibly representing the 28 ARCAS4 rocket launches that took place at McMurdo base (Antarctica) from 19 June 1962 to 3 October 1963)
Germany (East)None(Black printed) cachet on cover1964Antarctic ("Antarktis") research rockets for meteorology, astronomy and geophysics (possibly representing the 28 ARCAS4 rocket launches that took place at McMurdo base (Antarctica) from 19 June 1962 to 3 October 1963)
Germany (East)1898 (Mi2310)1978M-100 rocket. From 1969 through 1990, 1104 M-100s were launched from Molodezhnaya station (Antarctica). (See also Germany (East) cover 1979 below)
Germany (East)1898-1899 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
Germany (East)1898-1900 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Germany (East)None(Orange and blue printed) cachet on cover1979Atmospheric physics; "[M-100] rocket launch from Antarctic station Molodezhnaya" (in German text). (See also Germany (East) 1898 for M-100 detail)
Germany (West)844 card (Mi367 card)(Orange and yellow-brown and black printed) cachet on card1961"Cirrus"-1/2; "Kumulus"-1/2 research rockets; (Kumulus rocket is illustrated)
Germany (West)None(Pictorial) cancel and (red printed) cachet on cover1962Experimental Cirrus6 research rockets
Germany (West)None(Pictorial) cancel and (green printed) cachet on cover
Germany (West)None(Pictorial) cancel and (black and grey printed and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1963Experimental Cirrus6 research rockets launched from Cuxhaven (West Germany); ("Cirrus-B" is noted in the cachet text)
Germany (West)None(Pictorial) cancel and (tan and black printed and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, also back1963"Cirrus B" rocket
Germany (West)None(Pictorial) cancel and (tan printed and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, also back1963"Cirrus B" rocket
Germany (West)None(Pictorial) cancel and (multi-color printed) cachet on cover, also back1963Cirrus rockets
Germany (West)None(Pictorial) cancel and (multi-color printed) cachet (different) on cover, also back1963Cirrus rockets
Germany (West)None(Black printed) cachet (with black monochrome reproduction of France 1100) on cover1964Research rocket (the drawing is similar to the French Monica sounding rockets); (see also Hungary 2367)
Germany (West)None(Pictorial) cancel and cachet on cover1967French research rockets Eridan, Dragon, and Centaure (from left to right); (see also Sputnik-1 anniversary cover)
Germany (West)None(Pictorial) cancel and cachet on cover1979Research rocket
GermanyNone(Pictorial) cancel and (DLR) cachet on cover1994Upper atmospheric research rocket and mobile launcher (also in cachet instrument package (probably from a rocket) descending by parachute)
Germany2052 cover (Mi2073 cover)(Pictorial) cancel on cover2000"Erich Regener, extraterrestrial physics pioneer" and his A-4 research rocket and ejected instrument package
GermanyB857 cover (Mi2097 cover)(Pictorial) cancel and (black printed) cachet on cover2000"A-4 rocket with the 'Regener canister' for high atmospheric research" (in German text and also illustrated in the cachet); also "Erich Regener, extraterrestrial physics pioneer" and A-4 research rocket and ejected instrument package (in the cancel)
GermanyNone(Pictorial) cancel2003(100th anniv.) Alfred Maul's3 "photorocket" (the first instrumented rocket)
GermanyNone(Pictorial) cancel2003100th anniv. Alfred Maul's3 "photorocket" (the first instrumented rocket); depiction of the rocket and a parachute carrying the camera
Great Britain2317a folder (Mi2341 folder)Folder front with MS10 (2317a (10x 2317 + 10 labels)), also back2009"Skylark ... sounding rockets"
Great BritainNone(Maia, The Band private advertising) cinderella2012Design similar to Russia 2235
Guinea Republic925a (BL136A)
i925a (BL136B)
In (left) margin of SS1 (926)
In (left) margin of imperforate SS1 (i926)
1985"German rocket A4/V-22" (in French text)
Guinea RepublicMi15503-15506_ms4MS4 (Mi15503-15506)2021Astrocat "Félicette" (launched by Véronique rocket on 18 Oct 1963); also in stamp 'a' of the MS4 is the space rat "Hector" who, on 22 Feb 1961, was carried to an altitude of 145 km by a Véronique rocket launched from Hammaguir, Algeria
Guinea RepublicBL3462SS1 (Mi15507)
Hungary1660 (Mi2102A)
i1660 (Mi2102B)

Imperforate
1965Ionospheric research rocket
Hungary1661 (Mi2103A)
i1661 (Mi2103B)

Imperforate
Research rocket (and Van Allen radiation belts)
Hungary1659+1661+1666-1667 fdc
i1659+i1661+i1666-i1667 fdc
One of four stamps on FDC
One of four imperforate stamps on FDC
(As above for stamps)
Hungary1660+1662-1665 fdc
i1660+i1662-i1665 fdc
One of five stamps on FDC
One of five imperforate stamps on FDC
HungaryC256 (Mi2197A)
iC256 (Mi2197B)

Imperforate
1965(probable) "two stage" atmospheric research rocket; two launches of such rockets took place on "1965.VI.17" (date in text) - Aerobee-150 from Fort Churchill, Canada, and Nike-Apache from Wallops Island, USA.
Hungary2367+lab (Mi3043)Stamp (stamp-on-stamp: France 1100) and label, from MS3 (2367a (3x 2367 + 3 labels))1975Research rocket (the drawing is similar to the French Monica sounding rockets); (see also Germany (West) cover 1964)
Ireland2062 (Mi?)One of pair (2062a (2061-2062))2015Symbolic research rocket (in the context of the "Young Scientist & Technology Exhibition")
India567 (Mi?)1972Sounding rocket launched from Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (India)
India567 fdcStamp and (pictorial) cancel and cachet on FDC
India567 folderFDC folder
IndiaNone(Pictorial) cancel and cachet on cover1977RH-560 research rocket
India1746 (Mi1685)1999research rocket
India2725-2726 brochure1Brochure inside, also outside2015"The first French-Indian space cooperation agreement signed in May 1964 covered licences to build Bélier and Centaure sounding rockets in India ... 50 French rockets were built locally and launched from 1965 onwards at the Thumba equatorial launch site in the State of Kerala"
India2725-2726 brochure2FDC brochure
Indonesia821 (Mi709)1972The Kartika-1 rocket, Indonesia's first sounding rocket, was tested in a launch in August 1964. Its sister rocket Kartika-2 was launched in 1965 as part of Indonesia's contribution to IQSY research.
Indonesia819-821 fdcOne of three stamps and (pictorial) cancel on FDC (Indonesia Post cachet)
Indonesia2274b (Mi2903)One of pair (2274 (a-b)) (Mi2903-2904), or ten of MS20 (2274c (10x 2274) + 4 labels)2011Indonesian rocket "RPS"-420 ("Roket Pengorbit Satelit"-420), also known as the RX-420, as seen in this photo. On 2 July 2009, it was tested in a launch from Pameungpeuk, West Java, and reached around 50 km. The mission was considered a success.
Indonesia2274 fdcStamp and (pictorial) cancel and (Indonesia Post) cachet on FDC
Ivory CoastUnknown ms (Mi none)In (lower-right) margin of MS4 (a-d) [known illegal issue]2012Véronique rocket
Ivory CoastUnknown ms proof
Unknown ims proof
In (lower-right) margin of proof MS4 (a-d)
In (lower-right) margin of imperforate proof MS4 (a-d)
Ivory CoastUnknown proof fdc
Unknown imp proof fdc
MS4 proof on FDC
Imperforate MS4 proof and cachet on FDC
Japan637 cover (Mi669 cover)(Pictorial) cancel and (Fleetwood) cachet on cover1958(possible) Japanese Kappa research rocket (in cancel); (see also the similar (pictorial) cancel 1993); "IGY Rocket Project - Michikawa Rocket Center" (in cachet)
JapanNone(Pictorial) cancel and (Hitoshi?) cachet on cover1971Japanese S-160 or S-210 research rocket. Nine ionospheric missions for auroral studies using these rockets took place between 10 Feb 1970 and 3 Dec 1971, from Syowa base (Antarctica); altitudes reached were 80-90 km for the S-160s and 115-140 km for the S-210s.
JapanNone(Pictorial) cancel on cover1972Japanese S-160 or S-210 research rocket. Nine ionospheric missions for auroral studies using these rockets took place between 10 Feb 1970 and 3 Dec 1971, from Syowa base (Antarctica); altitudes reached were 80-90 km for the S-160s and 115-140 km for the S-210s.
JapanNone(Black and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1977"JARE (Japan Antarctic Research Expedition) Rocket Project"
JapanNone(Pictorial) cancel on postal card1993(possible) Japanese Kappa research rocket; (see also 637 (pictorial) cancel 1958)
LebanonC416 (Mi878)1964Artistic depiction of a two-stage rocket similar to the Nike-Apache sounding rocket
LebanonC417 (Mi879)
Libya276 (Mi185)1965
Libya277 (Mi186)
Libya278 (Mi187)
Libya276-278 fdc1Three stamps and (brown printed) cachet on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc2Three stamps and (red-brown printed) cachet on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc3Three stamps and (black printed) cachet on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc4Three stamps and (black printed) cachet (different) on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc5Three stamps and (red printed) cachet on FDC (Tripoli cancel)
Libya276-278 fdc6Three stamps and (red printed) cachet on FDC (Tripoli 2 cancel)
Libya276-278 fdc7Three stamps and (red and blue and gold printed) cachet on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc8Three stamps on FDC (black printed cachet), also insert
Libya276-278 fdc9Three stamps on FDC (black printed cachet, slightly different)
Libya276-278 fdc10Three stamps on FDC (red and black and green printed cachet)
Libya276-278 fdc11Three stamps on FDC (multi-color printed cachet)
MaliUnknown a (Mi none)
Unknown ia
Two stamps and in (upper-right) margin of MS3 (a-c) [known illegal issue]
Two stamps and in (upper-right) margin of imperforate MS3 (a-c)
2015Astrochimp "Ham" (launched by Redstone rocket on 31 Jan 1961)
MaliUnknown b (Mi none)
Unknown ib
Astrocat "Félicette" (launched by Véronique rocket on 18 Oct 1963) (in stamp and also in upper-right margin of the MS3)
MaliUnknown ss (BL none)In (upper-left) margin of SS1 [known illegal issue]Astrocat "Félicette" (launched by Véronique rocket on 18 Oct 1963)
MaliUnknown c (Mi none)One of MS4 (a-d) [known illegal issue]2018Eridan sounding rocket (first one launched 26 January; second one on 15 February 1975) as part of the Franco-Soviet magnetospheric research program "ARAKS". The ARAKS (Artificial Radiation and Aurora between Kerguelen and Sogra) experiment was dedicated to auroral studies. As part of the program, Super-ARCAS4 rockets were launched in advance of the Eridan launches, to gather X-ray data at 30-60 km altitude; Russia 5060 and FSAT C40a also commemorate the ARAKS experiment.
MaliUnknown ims fdcImperforate MS4 on FDC
MauritaniaC134 (Mi457)
iC134

Imperforate
1973Aerobee-170 launched for solar cessation studies1 in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
MauritaniaC134 dsDeluxe sheet (C134)
MauritaniaC134 varC134 with slight color variation
MauritaniaC133-C135 fdcOne of three stamps and (multi-color printed) cachet (design like stamp) on FDC
MauritaniaC135a (BL11)
iC135a
MS3 (C133-C135) (Mi459-461)
Imperforate MS3 (iC133-iC135)
MauritaniaC142 (Mi468)C134 overprinted in black1973Aerobee-170 launched for solar cessation studies1 in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
MauritaniaC142 varC134 overprinted in black, color variation
Monaco580 (Mi772)1964Research rocket (the drawings are similar to the French Monica sounding rockets); (see also France 1100, Hungary 2367, and Germany (West) cover 1964)
Monaco580 fdcStamp and (Philatec) cachet on FDC
Montserrat863a (Mi929)From gutter-pair, or from pair (863 (a-b)) (Mi929-930)1995"Atmospheric sounding experiments using rockets"; also a parachute and instrument package (in some early rocket research, the rocket carried data recording instruments which were returned to Earth by parachute)
New Mexico (USA)Local fdcLocal post FDC, also back1975Research rocket launch from WSMR
New Zealand370 fdc1 (Mi439 fdc1)(Red and green printed) cachet on FDC (Ellerslie NZ cancel)1965Europa-1 rocket
New Zealand370 fdc2 (Mi439 fdc2)(Red and green printed) cachet on FDC (Takapuna North NZ cancel)
NigerC42 (Mi76)1964Véronique research rocket
NigerC42 fdcStamp and (magenta and blue and black printed) cachet (design like stamp) on FDC
Niger1035a (Mi1725)From MS4 (1035 (a-d)) (Mi1725-1728)1999Astrochimp "Ham" (launched by Redstone rocket on 31 Jan 1961)
Niger1035c (Mi1727)Astrocat Félicette (not "Felix") (launched by Véronique rocket on 18 Oct 1963)
Norway990 (Mi1063)1991Rocket for auroral studies launched from Andoya Island Rocket Range (Norway)
Norway989-990 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
NorwayNonePhonecard2001Research rocket launch at Andoya Island Rocket Range
Pakistan570 fdc (Mi571 fdc)(Pictorial) cancel on FDC1982Shahpar sounding rocket (the Pakistan version of the French Dragon rocket); (see also Shahpar being prepared for launch); this rocket is also featured in the cancel in Pakistan 771-772 FDC
Pakistan771 (Mi847)199230th anniv. launch of Nike-Cajun Rehbar-1, Pakistan's first weather research rocket. (See also Pakistan 1150 cover (2011) and Pakistan rocket launch cover (1962) in the LOWER atmospheric rockets table below.)
Pakistan771-772_fdcOne of two stamps and (pictorial) cancel on FDC, also back(As above for stamp); Shahpar sounding rocket (the Pakistan version of the French Dragon rocket) (in the cancel); (see also Shahpar being prepared for launch); this rocket is also featured in the cancel in Pakistan 570 FDC
Pakistan1150 cover (Mi1378 cover)(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover2011Nike-Cajun Rehbar-1/2. (Rehbar-1 was launched 7 June 1962; Rehbar-2 was launched two days later. They were Pakistan's first weather research rockets, and provided information on winds and layer structure in the troposphere and stratosphere). (See also Pakistan 771 and Pakistan rocket launch cover (1962) in the LOWER atmospheric rockets table below.)
Panama469B (Mi894)
469B+selvedge
i469B
i469B changed-colors (Mi899)

On selvedge also
Imperforate
Imperforate with changed colors
1966San Marco sub-orbital test 2 (on "2 August 1963" the Shotput rocket depicted in the stamp carried an 80 kg test version of the San Marco satellite to an altitude of 294 km)
Panama472A (Mi934A)
i472A (Mi934B)

Imperforate
1966"English Blue Streak rocket" (in Spanish text); (this was one of Europa-1-F1/F2/F3)
Panama472B (Mi935A)
i472B (Mi935B)

Imperforate
"Europa-1 rocket, launched from Woomera 1966-05-23" (in Spanish text); (that date is for Europa-1-F4, aka ELDO-A-F4, which consisted of a Blue Streak first stage with upper stage mockups including a dummy satellite)
Panama472Bc (BL59, Mi934C-935C)
i472Bc (BL60, Mi936-937)
MS2 (472A-472B), contains two stamps similar to 472A and 472B except with different perforations
In (right) margin of imperforate MS2 (i472A-i472B), contains two stamps similar to i472A and i472B except with changed colors
1966(As above for 472A and 472B)
Panama492A (Mi1106Aa)472A overprinted in black1968(As above for 472A and 472Bc)
Panama492A_var (Mi1106Ab)472A overprinted in gold
Panama492B (BL99a, Mi1106Ca+1107a)
i492B (BL100a, Mi1108a+1109a)
MS2 (492+492x), contains two stamps similar to 492A and 492x except with different perforations, 472Bc overprinted in black
Imperforate MS2 (i492+i492x), contains two stamps similar to i492A and i492x except with changed colors, i472Bc overprinted in black
Panama492B_var (BL99b, Mi1106Cb+1107b)
i492B_var (BL100b, Mi1108b+1109b)
MS2 (492_var+492x_var), contains two stamps similar to 492A_var and 492x_var except with different performations, 472Bc overprinted in gold
Imperforate MS2 (i492_var+i492x_var), contains two stamps similar to i492A_var and i492x_var except with changed colors, i472Bc overprinted in gold
Paraguay835 (Mi340)
i835 (Mi348)

Imperforate
1964"Europa-1" rocket
Paraguay835a (BL58)
i835a (BL59)
On stamp of SS1
On stamp of imperforate SS1
Paraguay835a muestra
i835a muestra
On stamp of SS1, overprinted "muestra"
On stamp of imperforate SS1, overprinted "muestra"
Paraguay835 fdc
i835 fdc
Stamp and (multi-color printed) cachet on FDC
Imperforate stamp and (multi-color printed) cachet on FDC
Paraguay943 (Mi559)
i943 (Mi567)
Stamp-on-stamp: reproduction of Paraguay 835 in red-orange
Imperforate
1966"Europa-1" rocket
Paraguay950 (Mi566)
i950 (Mi574)
Stamp-on-stamp: reproduction of Paraguay 835 in red-orange
Imperforate
Paraguay950a (BL83)
i950a (BL84)
SS1 stamp-on-stamp: reproduction of Paraguay 835 in red-orange
Imperforate SS1
ParaguayC523 (Mi3604)1983"First launch of an A4 rocket, 3 October 1942" (in Spanish text)
ParaguayC525 (Mi3606)Cyrus-B6 (developed in Germany as Cirrus-B/Cirrus-2) research rocket; (see Germany-Berlin cover 1961 for a possible Cirrus-1 rocket)
ParaguayC525 fdcStamp and (pictorial) cancel (reproduces the A4 rocket in C523) on FDC (Dirección General de Correos del Paraguay cachet)
Qu'aiti State in Hadhramaut (South Arabia)Mi215One of pair (Mi214-215)1968French research rocket Véronique
Qatar353 (Mi567)1973
Ras Al KhaimaBL_E95A
BL_E95B
In (left) margin of SS1
In (left) margin of imperforate SS1
1970"Europa-1" rocket
Ras Al KhaimaMi438A+444A+450A_strip3+BL_E95A fdcSS1 on FDC
RomaniaC73 (Mi1824)1959A Soviet R-2a aeronomy and biological mission was launched from Kapustin Yar on 2 July 1959. It carried the dog Otvazhnaya and the rabbit Marfusha (depicted in the stamp, whose design is partially based on this photo) and also the dog Snezhinka (not in the stamp) to an altitude of 220 km. All three animals are seen in this photo. They were safely recovered.
RomaniaC73 errorC73 extra-dot error
RomaniaC120 (Mi2087)Stamp-on-stamp: C73, C74, C751962(As above for the Romania C73 stamp)
RomaniaC119-C122 fdcOne of four stamps and (blue printed) cachet on FDC
RomaniaC122a (BL53)Imperforate MS4 (C119-C122)), stamp-on-stamp: C49, C51, C56, C73, C74, C75, 1200 or 1201, C58, C88, C104, C109, C110
RomaniaC122a fdcMS4 and (yellow printed) cachet on FDC
RomaniaNone(Blue printed) cachet on cover1982
Russia (USSR)1959 (Mi1992)1957
Russia (USSR)2235 (Mi2261)1959(See also Great Britain cinderella 2012)
Russia (USSR)NoneQSL card, also back1960A Soviet R-2a aeronomy and biological mission was launched from Kapustin Yar on 2 July 1959. It carried the dog Otvazhnaya and the rabbit Marfusha (seen in the image side of the QSL card, which is based on this photo) and also the dog Snezhinka (not in the QSL card image) to an altitude of 220 km. All three animals are seen in this photo. They were safely recovered.
Russia (USSR)2495 (Mi2500)1961Research rocket for auroral and ionospheric studies
Russia (USSR)2722 (Mi2737)
i2722

Imperforate
1963
Russia (USSR)None(Multi-color printed) cachet on stamped envelope1963Research rocket launch from ship Lenin
Russia (USSR)None(TKK/AA8 no.12 grey printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on (un-stamped and un-canceled) cover1964IQSY upper atmospheric research rockets
Russia (USSR)None(TKK/AA8 no.12 black printed and green rubber-stamp) cachets on (un-stamped and un-canceled) cover
Russia (USSR)None(TKK/AA8 no.12 grey printed and purple rubber-stamp) cachets on (un-stamped and un-canceled) cover
Russia (USSR)3288-3289 fdc (Mi3312-3313 fdc)(Kniga International black printed) cachet on FDC1966Research rocket
Russia (USSR)3700 (Mi3728)1970
Russia (USSR)None(Red and grey printed) cachet on (un-stamped and un-canceled) envelope1971M-100 rocket launch from Antarctica
Russia (USSR)None(Pictorial) cancel on cover1972M-100 rocket launch from Molodezhnaya base (Antarctica)
Russia (USSR)None(Black rubber-stamp) cachet (same as the cancel in preceding item) on (airmail) cover, also back
Russia (USSR)None(Black rubber-stamp) cachet (same as in preceding item) on cover
Russia (USSR)4084 card (Mi4123 card)(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on card1974Atmospheric research rocket (part of Franco-Soviet cooperation in meteorology, aeronomy and space studies)
Russia (USSR)4666 (Mi4730)From MS36 (4666a (36x 4666))1978
Russia (USSR)4666 fdc1Stamp and (multi-color printed) cachet on FDC, also back
Russia (USSR)4666 fdc2Stamp and (Fleetwood) cachet on FDC
Russia (USSR)4666 pinReproduction of stamp as metal pin
Russia (USSR)4898 (Mi5029)From MS36 (4898a (36x 4898))1981
Russia (USSR)4898 fdcStamp and (Soviet Ministry of Postal Services and Telecommunications) cachet on FDC, also back
Russia (USSR)None(Multi-color printed) cachet on stamped envelope1981Research rocket launch from a Russian Antarctic base
Russia (USSR)5060 (Mi5191)From MS8 (5060a (8x 5060))1982Eridan sounding rocket (two were launched, on 26 January and 15 February 1975, as part of the Franco-Soviet ARAKS (Artificial Radiation and Aurora between Kerguelen and Sogra) experiment, which was dedicated to auroral studies; the stamp is reproduced in a French cinderella 2010; FSAT C40a and Mali Unknown c 2018 also commemorate the ARAKS experiment.
Russia (USSR)5241 (Mi5371)1984M-100 rocket; at least 1161 M-100s were launched from the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS, India), each week from 1970 to 1993
Russia (USSR)None(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on stamped envelope1986Research rocket launch from research ship Professor Zubov
Russia (USSR)None(Red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1989Research rocket launch from hydrometeorological research ship Professor Vize
RussiaNone(Pictorial) cancel on cover1992M-100 rocket launch from Molodezhnaya base (Antarctica)
RussiaNone(Pictorial) cancel on cover2001Russian research rocket launched from Molodezhnaya base (Antarctica)
RussiaNone(Blue pictorial) cancel on cover2008Russian research rocket launched from Molodezhnaya base (Antarctica)
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsMi8739One of MS4 (Mi8737-8740)2020"Lambda-4S" rocket
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsMi8737-8740_ms4 fdcMS4 on FDC (St. Thomas Post cachet)
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsBL1590SS1 (Mi8741)
St. Thomas and Prince IslandsBL1590 fdcSS1 on FDC (St. Thomas Post cachet)
St. Vincent4231a (Mi?)From MS4 (4231 (a-d))2021The rhesus monkey Miss Able (in stamp 'a', based on this photo) and the squirrel monkey Miss Baker (in stamp 'c', based on this photo) were launched into space by a Jupiter rocket in a sub-orbital mission on 28 May 1959
St. Vincent4231c (Mi?)
St. Vincent4233 (BL?)SS1Press conference with rhesus monkey Miss Able and squirrel monkey Miss Baker, who were launched into space by a Jupiter rocket in a sub-orbital mission on 28 May 1959, with the stamp design based on this photo
SpainNone(Tu sello) private-post stamp~2013"French Véronique-AGI sounding rocket No 47, October 18, 1963"; (see also USA 2018-10-18 rocket launch cover)
Sweden857 (Mi680)One of strip of 5 (857b (853-857)) (Mi676-680), or two of booklet pane of 10 (857c (2x (853-857)), or complete booklet (857a) (MH25)1970Launch of rocket for auroral studies; "The [ESRO] sounding rocket programme comprises studies of auroral particles, polar cap absorptions and galactic X-rays" (in 853 FDC text)
Sweden853-857 fdc1One of five stamps on FDC, also insert
Sweden853-857 fdc2One of five stamps and (pictorial) cancel on FDC
Sweden853 fdc(Pictorial) cancel and cachet on FDC
Sweden1515 (Mi1306)1984Ionospheric rocket for auroral studies, launched from the Esrange Rocket Base (near Kiruna, Sweden)
Sweden1515 maxiMaxicard
Sweden1514-1515 fdc1One of two stamps on FDC, also insert
Sweden1514-1515 fdc2One of two stamps on FDC (different)
SwedenNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on postal card1986Research rocket from the Esrange Rocket Base (near Kiruna, Sweden)
TongaUnknown ss (BL145, Mi2433)SS12021Launch of Goddard's A-series rocket in Roswell NM in 1935
Turkey1673 (Mi1969)Left of three stamps-on-stamp: unknown1965(possible) research rockets
United States976 (Mi589)1948V-2 rocket launch at Fort Bliss2, part of the Bumper-WAC7,9 program (e.g. "Bumper-4"); some related details are specified in the cachets of FDC5, FDC13, FDC14, and FDC15
United States976 essayEssay
United States976 fdc1Stamp and (Smartcraft) cachet on FDC
United States976 fdc2Stamp and (Smartcraft and hand-written text added in 1965 by von Braun) cachet on FDC (added in 1965 by von Braun) cachet on FDC
United States976 fdc3Stamp on FDC (Artmaster cachet)
United States976 fdc4Stamp on FDC (ArtCraft cachet)
United States976 fdc5Stamp on FDC (red printed cachet)
United States976 fdc6Stamp and (black printed) cachet on FDC
United States976 fdc7Stamp on FDC (Kolor Kover cachet)
United States976 fdc8Stamp on FDC (blank/no cachet)
United States976 fdc9Stamp on FDC (HF cachet)
United States976 fdc10Stamp on FDC (Ken Boll/Cachet Craft cachet)
United States976 fdc11Stamp on FDC (blue and red cachet)
United States976 fdc12Stamp on FDC (black and blue cachet)
United States976 fdc13Stamp and (Fluegel Cover) cachet on FDC (3-line cancel)
United States976 fdc14Stamp and (Fluegel Cover) cachet on FDC (4-line cancel)
United States976 fdc15Stamp and (sticker and red-brown rubber-stamp) cachet on FDC (4-line cancel)
United States976 fdc16Stamp and (sticker and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on FDC (3-line cancel)
United States976 fdc17Stamp and (photo/sticker and red-brown rubber-stamp) cachet on FDC (3-line cancel)
United States976 fdc18Stamp and (photo/sticker and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on FDC (4-line cancel)
United States976 fdc19Stamp and (multi-color printed) cachet (reproduction of stamp) on FDC
United StatesSC27(BEP/15th Interpex) Souvenir Card of 4 (4x 976)1973V-2 rocket launch at Fort Bliss2, part of the Bumper-WAC7,9 program (e.g. "Bumper-4")
United States1107 fdc1(Kolor Kover) cachet on FDC1958(Un-identified) research rockets (as part of the IGY program)
United States1107 fdc2(ArtCraft) cachet on FDC
United States1107 fdc3(ArtCraft) cachet on FDC (different Chicago cancel)
United States1107 fdc4(ArtCraft) cachet on FDC (Compex Station text cancel)
United States1107 fdc5(ArtCraft) cachet on FDC (Pole Station, Antarctica cancel)
United States1107 fdc6(ArtCraft and J. Kaplan bio) cachet on FDC
United States1107 fdc7(ArtCraft colorized) cachet on FDC
United States1107 fdc8(Harris Cachet) cachet on FDC
United States1107 fdc9(Orange and black printed) cachet on FDC
United States1107 fdc10(Ken Boll/Cachet Craft) cachet on FDC (Washington DC machine cancel)
United States1107 fdc11(Ken Boll/Cachet Craft) cachet on FDC (Washington DC hand cancel)
United States1107 fdc12(Ken Boll/Cachet Craft) cachet on FDC (Chicago IGY pictoriaL cancel)
United States1107 fdc13(Ken Boll/Cachet Craft) cachet (and signature) on FDC (IGY pictorial cancel)
United States1107 fdc14(Fleetwood) cachet on FDC
United States1107 sc/fdc (Mi727 sc/fdc)FDC with (Fleetwood) cachet on (PCS) souvenir cardDuring the IGY, "high-altitude rockets were launched by the United States and Russia. They carried instruments to study cosmic rays, [the] magnetic field, meteors and sunlight"
United States1107 card (Mi727 card)(Orange and black printed) cachet on FDC (souvenir?) card(possible) Aerobee research rocket. 210 rockets of various types (Aerobee, Nike-Cajun, Nike-Deacon, Loki-Dart and Nike-Asp) were fired in 1957 and 1958 as part of the US contribution to IGY research. The Aerobees were launched from Churchill (Canada), White Sands and Guam.
United StatesNone1Cinderella, from (11th National Postage Stamp Show) cinderella strip of 21959Generic rockets (for scientific or other purposes)
United StatesNone2
United StatesNone(Interpex 1960) cachet on cover1960"rocket similar to the Army's 'Sergeant'10 missile"
United States1193 fdc1 (Mi822 fdc1)(Multi-color printed) cachet on FDC1962The Mercury-MR-2 sub-orbital rocket mission carried "astrochimp 'Ham'" on "31 Jan 1961"
United States1193 fdc2 (Mi822 fdc2)(Black and blue printed) cachet on FDC"A squirrel monkey named 'Gordo' was launched into space aboard a US Army Jupiter rocket on December 13, 1958"
United StatesNone(Rank silkscreened) cachet on cover1962The Scout rocket was mainly used to lift small satellites into orbit, but variants were also used in some scientific research missions, particularly when high altitudes had to be achieved (the third cover is also a USA C76 FDC)
United StatesNone(Rank velvet) cachet on cover
United StatesNone(Rank velvet) cachet on cover
United States1196 cover (Mi? cover)(Alaskan Collectors' Club) cachet on cover1962
United StatesNone(Ship patch) cachet on cover1964Rockets represent launches from the USS Norton Sound5, including atmospheric research rockets Viking and Aerobee
United StatesNone ss(Interpex orange) cinderella SS11965IQSY upper atmospheric research rocket
United StatesNone ss(Interpex yellow) cinderella SS11965IQSY upper atmospheric research rocket
United StatesNone(USCS no.6927) cachet on cover1965"USNS Croatan in 1964, fitted out for rocket launch and telemetry as NASA Mobile Range during the International Year of the Quiet Sun"
United StatesNone(Red pictorial) meter on cover1966The "Saturn S-IVB" was the second stage of the launch rockets in sub-orbital missions AS-201 (26 Feb 1966) and AS-202 (25 Aug 1966) and orbital mission AS-203 (5 July 1966)
United StatesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1967Rocket represents launches from the USS Norton Sound5, including atmospheric research rockets Viking and Aerobee
United StatesNone(Interpex/Day of Aero and Astro Philately red printed) cachet on (airmail) cover (machine cancel)1967Symbolic depiction of research rocket
United StatesNone(Interpex/Day of Aero and Astro Philately red printed) cachet on (airmail) cover (hand cancel)
United StatesNone(Interpex/Day of Aero and Astro Philately blue rubber-stamp) cachet on postcard, also back1968Symbolic depiction of research rocket
United StatesNone(R.E. Nichol) cachet on cover, also back1969"350 sounding rocket launches Wallops Isl. VA" (tracked in 1969 by NORAD from Colorado Springs)
United StatesNone(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1970Rocket represents launches from the USS Norton Sound5, including atmospheric research rockets Viking and Aerobee
United StatesNoneUn-gummed cinderella197020th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,9 launch (in text and left image of cinderella and in cover cachet); [the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km]; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the right-hand image is a reproduction of USA 976; the image at the left is based on this photo of the launch)
United StatesNone(Blue and red printed) cachet on (airmail) cover1970Symbolic depiction of research rocket
United StatesNone(Black printed) cachet on cover1970Symbolic depiction of research rocket
United States1431 fdc (Mi? fdc)(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover1971"French Antarctic rocket launch" and "USA Antarctic rocket launch"
United StatesSC18(BEP/14th Interpex) Souvenir Card of 4 (4x 1173, background includes 976, 1435b, and C69)1972V-2 rocket launch at Fort Bliss2, part of the Bumper-WAC7,9 program (in US 976)
United States1529 fdc1 (Mi1136 fdc1)(Space Voyage green and red) cachet on cover1974"Aerobee-200 rockets launched for Skylab atmospheric study"
United States1529 fdc2 (Mi1136 fdc2)(Space Voyage brown and red) cachet on cover"Minuteman rocket launch for Skylab atmospheric study"
United States1529 fdc3 (Mi1136 fdc3)(GSFC Operation Kohoutek cyan rubber-stamp) cachet on FDCResearch rocket (possibly Nike-Cajun)
United States1529 folder (Mi1136 folder)(Fleetwood) FDC folder (with extra 976 canceled stamp)V-2 rocket launch at Fort Bliss2
United StatesNone(GSFC Operation Kohoutek blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1974Research rocket (possibly Nike-Cajun)
United States1570a fdc (Mi1179-1180 fdc)(Pasted on) cachet (with black-and-white reproduction of USA 976) on FDC1975V-2 rocket launch at Fort Bliss2, part of the Bumper-WAC7,9 program (e.g. "Bumper-4")
United States1759 fdc
1710 cover
(Aeropex 1977) cachet on FDC, also annotated1978
1977
The "Scout" launch rocket was also used as a research rocket
United StatesNone(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1978Rocket represents launches from the USS Norton Sound5, including atmospheric research rockets Viking and Aerobee
United StatesNone(GSFC multi-satellite blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1979"S/Rocket" (Sounding Rocket) - Nike-Apache research rocket; also "Robert H. Goddard - American Rocket Pioneer"
United StatesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1983Rocket represents launches from the USS Norton Sound5, including atmospheric research rockets Viking and Aerobee
United StatesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1983(probable) Nike-Cajun or Nike-Apache, for magnetospheric research
United StatesNone(Milcopex) cachet on cover1983A Bumper-WAC7,9 rocket
United StatesNone(Space Voyage) cachet on cover (Parforex Station pictorial cancel)1993"DC-X"12 reusuable rocket prototype
United StatesNone(Cencopex 1984) cachet on cover1984"Scout" rocket (in text only; used in several roles, including as a scientific research rocket)
United States2699 (Mi2313)Also partial sheet with selvedge1992A Bumper-WAC7,9 rocket (design similar to the rocket in this photo of the launch)
United States2699 fdc1Stamp on FDC (multi-color cachet)
United States2699 fdc2Stamp and (pictorial) cancel (design like stamp) on FDC (blank/no cachet)
United States2699 fdc3Stamp on FDC (ArtCraft/PCS cachet)
United States2699 fdc4Stamp on FDC (ArtCraft cachet)
United States2699 fdc5Stamp on FDC (Fleetwood cachet), also back
United States2699 fdc6Stamp and tab1 on FDC (Fleetwood cachet, same), also back
United States2699 fdc7Stamp and tab2 on FDC (Fleetwood cachet, same), also back
United States2699 fdc8Stamp and tab3 on FDC (Fleetwood cachet, same), also back
United States2699 fdc9Stamp and tab1 on FDC card (Fleetwood cachet, same)
United States2699 fdc10Stamp on FDC (Artmaster cachet), also back
United States2699 fdc11Stamp on FDC (Robert C. Graebner Chapter #17 AFDCS cachet)
United States2699 fdc12Stamp and (PCS) cachet on FDC, also insert
United States2699 fdc13Stamp on FDC (? hand-painted cachet)
United States2699 fdc14Stamp on FDC (HF cachet)
United States2699 fdc15Stamp on FDC (Therome Cachets cachet)
United States2699 fdc16Stamp and (Edken) cachet on FDC (with extra stamps)
United States2699 fdc17Stamp on FDC (Steve Wilson cachet)
United States2699 fdc18Stamp on FDC (Collage cachet)
United States2699 fdc19Stamp on FDC (Elmer Otto cachet), and insert
United States2699 fdc20Stamp on FDC (Fridson hand-painted cachet)
United States2699 fdc21Stamp on FDC (Geerlings cachet)
United States2699 fdc22Stamp on FDC (Kribbs cachet)
United States2699 fdc23Stamp and (David Peterman) cachet on FDC
United States2699 fdc24Stamp and (Collins) cachet on FDC (Landing NJ cancel)
United States2699 fdc25Stamp on postcard FDC (Fleetwood cachet), also back
United States2699 fdc26Stamp and (Space Voyage/First Rank orange and cyan) cachet (and signature) on FDC (with extra stamp), also detail of rocket
United States2699 fdc27Stamp and (pictorial) cancel (design like stamp) and (Space Voyage/First Rank orange and cyan) cachet (and signature) on FDC, also detail of rocket
United States2699 fdc28Stamp and (Space Voyage/First Rank orange and cyan) cachet (and signature) on FDC (different extra stamp), also detail of rocket
United States2699 fdc29Stamp and (Space Voyage/First Rank orange and magenta) cachet (and signature) on FDC (with extra stamp), also detail of rocket
United States2699 fdc30Stamp and (Space Voyage/First Rank orange and green) cachet (and signature) on FDC (different extra stamp), also detail of rocket
United States2699 fdc31Stamp and (pictorial) cancel (design like stamp) and (Space Voyage/First Rank orange and green) cachet (and signature) on FDC, also detail of rocket
United States2699 fdc32Stamp on FDC (Colorano silk cachet)
United States2699 fdc33Stamp and (purple pictorial) cancel (design like stamp) on FDC card
United States2699 fdc34Stamp on FDC (Ranto cachet), also back
United States2699 fdc35Stamp on FDC (Ranto cachet, different), also back
United States2699 fdc36Stamp on FDC (Ranto cachet, different), also back
United States2699 fdc37Stamp on FDC (Ranto cachet, different), also back
United States2699 fdc38Stamp on FDC (KMC Venture cachet, Washington DC cancel), also back
United States2699 fdc39Stamp and (pictorial) cancel (design like stamp) on FDC (KMC Venture cachet. Houston TX cancel), also back
United States2699 fdc40Stamp and (LRC) cachet on FDC (Washington DC cancel)
United States2699 fdc41Stamp and (photo/sticker) cachet on FDC
United States2699 fdc/sdoiStamp on FDC/SDOI (Second Day of Issue) cover (JPL Stamp Club cachet and signature)
United States2699 sdoi1Stamp and (Space Voyage/First Rank orange and magenta) cachet (and signature) on SDOI (Second Day of Issue) cover, also detail of rocket
United States2699 sdoi2Stamp on SDOI (Second Day of Issue) cover
United States2699 sc(PCS) souvenir card (or commemorative panel?)
United StatesSP1022(USPS) souvenir page (2699)
United StatesCP400(USPS no.392) commemorative panel (2699)
United States2741 fdc (Mi? fdc)(Mystic Stamp Company) back of FDC, also front1993"Robert H. Goddard published a paper in 1919 explaining how rockets could be fired to the Moon and used to explore the upper atmosphere"
United States5342 cover (Mi? cover)(Ranski) cachet on cover2020Several rockets at Patrick SFB, Florida
Upper VoltaC21 (Mi161)Also detail1965
Upper VoltaC21 dsDeluxe sheet (C21)
Upper VoltaC21 proofSigned proof
Upper VoltaC21 imperf-pairImperforate pair
Upper VoltaC21 fdcStamp on FDC (Éditions So.Ge.Im. cachet)

1When a solar eclipse occurs, there is a sudden cut-off, or cessation, of solar radiation, followed by a sudden resumption of that radiation. Solar eclipses therefore present the opportunity to investigate the effects of fast-varying solar flux on the structure, photochemistry and electrodynamics of various parts of the upper atmosphere. This includes examination of anomalies in ionization, temperature and winds. Rockets have been used to carry instruments which can make such measurements into the upper atmosphere.
2Werner von Braun and a team of German scientists and engineers conducted rocket research with around 60 V-2 rockets at the Fort Bliss/WSMR launch site after WWII and until 1952. They developed rocket flight techniques and control procedures, including telemetry, and conducted atmospheric measurements in some flights. They also experimented with mounting a small rocket, the WAC9 Corporal, atop the V-2. This combination was known as the Bumper-WAC7,9. Unfortunately the V-2 was heavy and complicated, and failures were common. Under the leadership of James Van Allen, a new small and inexpensive combination of an Aerojet booster and a Bumblebee second stage (dubbed the "Aerobee") was developed to replace the V-2. It would become a mainstay of American upper atmospheric rocket research.
3Alfred Maul (1865 - 1942) was a German engineer who in 1903 succeeded in obtaining aerial photographs of the ground from an altitude of about 600 m through the use of a camera mounted in a gunpowder rocket. The top of the rocket sprang open at 600 m, the camera descended by parachute and a timer tripped the shutter as the camera descended. Maul's rocket was the first instrumented rocket. By 1912 he had improved the technique so that the rocket carried a 20 by 25 cm photographic plate stabilized by a gyroscope. His experiments were discontinued when airplanes took over the task of aerial reconnaissance.
4The ARCAS (All-purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) was developed by the Atlantic Research Corporation for the Office of Naval Research with support from the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. It was launched with a launching tube. It was first used in July 1959, and has undergone various modifications and improvements since then.
5After WWII, the USS Norton Sound was converted into an R&D platform for missile tests. Some of the launches from this ship were of the atmospheric research rockets Viking and Aerobee. The ship was decommissioned in 1986.
6The "Cirrus" (also known as "Cyrus" - see Paraguay C525) rockets were tested at Cuxhaven, Germany, where a little-known series of experimental scientific sounding rocket launches took place from 1957 to 1964.
7At White Sands Missile Range, von Braun and his team experimented with a small WAC9 Corporal research rocket mounted on a V-2. Six launches took place between 13 May 1948 and 22 April 1949. Four were failures. This combination, called the "Bumper-WAC9", was designed to investigate problems of stage separation and ignition at high altitude, and also to allow the WAC9 Corporal to attain a much higher altitude than would be possible if it was launched by itself. It could then make scientific measurements at those high altitudes. Two later Bumper-WAC9 launches took place at Cape Canaveral in 1950. Those missions were designed to allow the smaller rocket to obtain high altitude hypersonic aerodynamic data. The July 24 launch failed, but the July 29 launch (the last Bumper-WAC9 flight) worked as planned: the WAC9 Corporal reached Mach 9 at 35 km altitude.
8AA no.: Tartuski Klub Kollektsionerov (TKK) [Tartu Collector Club] "Astronautika Annaalid" number. See Jim Reichman's Philatelic Study Report on Tartu Space Club Covers, 1962-1978, 2011. (e-mail: jgreichman (at) datawest.net).
9The early US sounding rockets were named for enlisted ranks in the US Army: Private, Corporal and Sergeant10. The plan was that each in the series would be bigger than the previous one and so would get a higher rank name. However, after the development of the Corporal, the pattern was broken: the next rocket supplied by the developers was smaller than the Corporal. As a result, the new rocket was named the WAC-Corporal, after the Women's Army Corps (WAC).
10The Sergeant was an American single-stage solid-propulsion tactical ballistic missile developed for the US Army in 1956-1962. Surplus rockets and the Sergeant's rocket motor (known commercially as Castor) became the basis for many sounding rockets and test vehicles.
11The HARP (High Altitude Research Project) gun was used to launch projectiles or rockets into the atmosphere. The HARP-5-1 projectile was 116 cm long and had a mass of 10.4 kg. It was launched by a 5-inch HARP gun at various locations including Wallops Island, Barbados, Yuma, WSMR, Fort Greely (Alaska), and Highwater (Québec) from 1963 through 1968 (and again from 2002 through 2008 at Wallops Island and WSMR). It carried a meteorological payload which was deployed near the projectile's apogee (often around 60 km) and provided data as it descended, in some cases slowed by a parachute. 7-inch HARP guns and associated HARP-7 projectiles were developed but funding dried up and the authors have not found any records of their use. However, the much larger 16-inch HARP gun was developed and deployed in Barbados, Highwater and Yuma. It was designed to launch the Canadian Martlet. Martlets (some with integrated rocket motors, some without) were used to conduct atmospheric research at altitudes of up to 180 km. Around 200 flights were conducted between 1963 and 1967. The low cost per flight made the Martlet ideal for a wide variety of applications. Typical mission payloads included chemical ejection to produce an observable atmospheric trail and assorted sensors with multi-channel telemetry.
12The DC-X (Delta Clipper eXperiment) was an uncrewed prototype of a reusable, single-stage-to-orbit rocket built by McDonnell Douglas in conjunction with the US DoD Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) from 1991 to 1993. In 1994 and 1995, testing of the DC-X was able to continue through NASA funding. There were 8 test flights of DC-X at WSMR, the first on 18 August 1993 and the last on 7 July 1995. Most were very low, reaching altitudes between 0 and 1 km. The 7 July 1995 flight reached 2.5 km. After a test flight of an updated DC-XA in 1996 resulted in a fire, the whole project was canceled. Despite that, the program inspired later reusable launch systems. Elon Musk stated that the SpaceX Falcon-9 development was a continuation of "the great work of the DC-X project".
13This document describes briefly Project Matienzo.


Below is a list of (sub-orbital) Atmospheric research rocket launch covers (including anniversary-of-launch covers).

CountryCancel DateCancel LocationType of ItemNotes on Content
(Sub-orbital) Research rockets in the LOWER atmosphere (troposphere and stratosphere)
United States1946-03-15US Navy(Black-and-white photo and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverStatic-fire test of the first American-assembled V-2 rocket; also "June 28, 1946 marked the first successful launch at White Sands of a V-2 rocket fully instrumented for upper-air research [for the NRL55]. The rocket attained a height of 67 miles [108 km]"; also "on October 24 [1946] [V-2] rocket #13 was launched, carrying a camera that took motion pictures of Earth from an altitude of approximately 65 mi [105 km]" (as part of a solar UV/cosmic radiation/chemical release mission)
United States1947-09-08USS Amphion(Color photo) cachet on coverOperation Sandy V-2 test launch from the USS Midway at Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 10 (27N,60W); mission failed when the rocket exploded at 1 km altitude
United States1959-02-16Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverDraco (not "Green Quail") mission to test the hypersonic glide characteristics of the rocket; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 30 km
United States1960-01-09Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella2 1959) on coverSergeant 5-stage Mercury model re-entry vehicle test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 34 km
United States1960-01-21Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverLittle-Joe-1B Project Mercury systems test and biological mission (included physiological observations of the rhesus monkey 'Miss Sam'); Wallops Island launch; reached 14 km
United States1960-04-19Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club) cachet on coverScout-X test mission; first Scout rocket launched from Wallops Island; reached 48 km; [mission failed when vehicle broke up after first-stage burnout]
United States1960-04-19Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1960-05-09Wallops Island VA(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverMercury-LES (Launch Escape System) test (the "Beach Abort-1" mission, in which the escape, landing and recovery systems of the first production model of a Mercury spacecraft were tested); Wallops Island launch; the capsule separated from the rocket at 775 m, descended by parachute, and was recovered by helicopter
United States1960-07-13Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 28 km
United States1960-07-13Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella 1959) on (airmail) cover
United States1960-11-08Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta and red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) coverMercury LJ-5 mission with a Mercury capsule to test an abort simulating the most severe launch conditions; Wallops Island launch; reached 16 km but the mission failed
United States1960-11-08Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1961-01-20Port Canaveral FL(Multi-color printed and black typed) cachet on coverTitan-1 test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; mission failed on the launch pad
United States1961-01-20Port Canaveral FL(C. Swanson magenta rubber-stamp and hand-printed) cachet on cover
United States1961-03-18Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft) cachet on coverLittle-Joe LJ-5A mission [failed] to test the escape system and the structural integrity of the Mercury capsule; Wallops Island launch; reached 12 km
United States1961-03-18Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1961-03-18Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1961-04-28Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson/DuBeau? magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLittle-Joe LJ-5B mission to test the Mercury escape system under maximum dynamic pressure conditions (despite the lower-than-planned trajectory, the mission was a success); Wallops Island launch; reached 4 km
United States1961-04-28Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson/DuBeau? magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1961-05-09Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson black and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue-Scout HETS25 A1-2 plasma mission [failed]; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 10 km
United States1961-06-01Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella2 1959) on coverMatador test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 12 km
United States1961-11-10Patrick AFB, FL(Sarzin?) cachet on coverAtlas-E R&D mission with squirrel monkey 'Goliath' in the capsule; Cape Canaveral launch; mission failed when the rocket had to be destroyed at 10 km altitude
United States1961-11-10Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft) cachet on cover
United States1961-11-10Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft) cachet (and signature)on cover
United States1961-11-10Patrick AFB, FL(Harry Gordon? sticker) cachet on cover
United States1961-11-10Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1961-11-10Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail, different) cover
United States1962-04-12Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue-Scout-1 radiation measurement and re-entry test mission (failed when the second stage did not ignite); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 30 km
United States1962-04-12Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-04-12Patrick AFB, FL(A.B.Covers/Boerger) cachet on cover
United States1962-04-12Port Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft Type-C general-purpose and red typed) cachet on cover
United States1962-05-08Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAtlas-Centaur R&D test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; failed when the Centaur stage blew up at 6 km
United States1962-05-18Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet (see also 1959-11-19 launch cover and USA 1556 fdc) on coverNike-Smoke aeronomy mission (the separable nose cone filled with a titanium tetrachloride solution left a smoke trail in the sky, allowing the upper level winds to be determined by optical measurement); Cape Canaveral launch; probably reached around 14 km
United States1962-11-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A ionospheric mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 29 km
United States1962-11-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp and sticker) cachet on cover
United States1963-05-29Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson/DuBeau? purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTitan-2 R&D mission; Cape Canaveral launch; failed due to a first stage failure; altitude reached not known
United States1963-08-28WSMR, NM(Rank velvet) cachet on coverLittle-Joe-2, first mission to test Apollo spacecraft launch escape system and Command Module parachute recovery system; WSMR launch; reached 8.4 km
United States1964-05-13WSMR, NM(Blue printed and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLittle-Joe-2 test mission with Apollo Command Module (CM) boilerplate BP-12 (a CM mass simulator); WSMR launch; reached 5 km
United States1964-05-13WSMR, NM(SpaceCraft, no logo) cachet on cover, also insert
United States1964-05-13WSMR, NM(H.D.W.) cachet on (airmail) cover, also back
United States1964-09-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson grey and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Biospace-6 biological mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 35 km
United States1964-12-09WSMR, NM(Goldcraft) cachet on coverLittle-Joe-2 boilerplate mission to test launch abort capability and launch escape vehicle performance; WSMR launch; reached 5 km
United States1965-03-17Waimea HI(DuBeau magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 aeronomy mission; Pacific Missile Range (Kauai) launch; altitude reached not known
United States1965-05-19Las Cruces NM, WSMR Branch(Boudwin? cyan rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on coverLittle-Joe-2, fourth mission to test Apollo spacecraft launch escape system and Command Module parachute recovery system; WSMR launch; reached 5.9 km; partial failure
United States1965-07-24Cape Canaveral FL(Brown printed) cachet on cover15th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; [the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km]; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cachet design includes a drawing of the rocket (identified in this annotated image) which is similar to this photo of the launch)
United States1965-08-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Biospace biological mission; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 35 km
United States1965-08-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Biospace biological mission; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 35 km
United States1965-08-24Wallops Island VA(Black and magenta printed and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Biospace biological mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 40 km
United States1965-09-10Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 and HASP4 meteorological missions; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; 15 launches took place from 3-10 September 1965; the HASP4 launches probably reached around 29 km; the ARCAS2 launches reached around 60 km
United States1965-10-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) "mother-daughter" ionospheric mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch (on 9 October); reached 32 km
United States1965-10-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1965-10-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-10-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1965-10-11Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-05-13Wallops Island VA(Black printed and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 and HASP4 meteorological missions; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; 18 launches took place from 10-13 May 1966; the HASP4 launches probably reached around 29 km; the ARCAS2 launches reached around 60 km
United States1967-08-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 biological mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 40 km
United States1967-08-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1969-10-10Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAtlas-F ABRES31 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached only 10 km because of a stage 1 failure ("secret testing")
United States1969-10-10Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover (different)
Argentina1970-02-06BA Filatelia(Pictorial) cancel and (cyan printed) cachet on cover5th anniv. Gamma Centaur X-ray measurement mission from Matienzo Base (Antarctica) on 6 February 1965; reached 35 km
United States1970-07-24Patrick AFB, FL (hand cancel)(Whitney green) cachet on cover20th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; [the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km]; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cachet design of the Whitney covers includes a drawing of the rocket which is similar to this photo of the launch)
United States1970-07-24Patrick AFB, FL (machine cancel)(Whitney green) cachet on cover
United States1970-07-24Cape Canaveral FL(Whitney green) cachet on cover
United States1970-07-24Cape Canaveral FLUn-gummed cinderella and (Orbit Covers) cachet on cover)
United States1970-08-04Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 biological mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 40 km
Australia1971-06-21Woomera SA(Magenta and yellow-orange printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H9 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
Australia1971-07-14Woomera SA(Black and yellow printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H10 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
Australia1971-07-27Woomera SA(Magenta and yellow printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H11 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
Australia1971-10-22Woomera SA(Purple and green printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H14 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
Australia1971-11-05Woomera SA(Magenta and yellow printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H15 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
French Guiana1971-11-05Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverEuropa program flight F10; Europa program flight F10; Europa-2 mission to launch boilerplate satellite STV-4 (mass 360 kg); Kourou launch; failed at 27 km due to a structural failure of the third stage
French Guiana1971-11-05Kourou(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover
French Guiana1971-11-05Kourou(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover
Australia1971-11-17Woomera SA(Purple and yellow printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H18 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
Australia1972-02-23Woomera SA(Green and black printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H66 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
United States1972-02-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson grey and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 11 km
United States1972-06-13Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-170 CHASER ABM IR sensor technology mission; Vandenberg AFB launch (on 20 June, not 13 June as in the cancel); mission failed at an altitude of 8 km
United States1972-06-20Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Vandy?/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-170 CHASER ABM IR sensor technology mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; mission failed at an altitude of 8 km
Australia1972-08-22Woomera SA(Pink and black printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H88 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
United States1973-11-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTATER (TAlos-TErrier-Recruit) test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 4 km (apparent failure)
Argentina1974-02-06BA Filatelia(Pictorial) cancel and (magenta and black printed) cachet on cover9th anniv. Gamma Centaur X-ray measurement mission from Matienzo Base (Antarctica) on 6 February 1965; reached 35 km
United States1974-05-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTATER (TAlos-TErrier-Recruit) low altitude rocket test mission; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 5 km
Australia1974-09-06Woomera SA(Yellow and blue printed) cachet on coverTest flight of Jabiru-2 rocket; Woomera launch; reached 30 km
United States1975-07-24Cape Canaveral FL(Whitney magenta and blue) cachet on cover25th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; [the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km]; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cachet design includes a drawing of the rocket which is similar to this photo of the launch)
United States1976-06-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike research rocket test; Wallops Island launch; reached 20 km
United States1977-06-16WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on cover27th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; [the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km]; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cachet design showing the launch is similar to this photo)
United States1977-06-16Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet (different) on cover
United States1980-01-21Moffett Field CA(NASA Ames Research Center) cachet on cover20th anniv. Little-Joe-1 Project Mercury systems test and biological mission (included physiological observations of the rhesus monkey 'Miss Sam'); Wallops Island launch; reached 14 km
United States1980-01-21Wallops Island VA(Red rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1980-07-24Kennedy Space Center FL(MoF no.90) cachet on cover30th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; [the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km]; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cachet design includes a drawing of the rocket which is similar to this photo of the launch)
United States1980-07-24Satellite Beach FL(Whitney blue) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1985-07-24Cape Canaveral FL(Missile Stamp Club) cachet on cover35th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; [the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km]; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cachet design includes a drawing of the rocket which is similar to this photo of the launch)
United States1988-11-17Cape Canaveral FL(E'PRIME Aerospace Corporation) cachet on cover, also insertLOFT40-1 test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 4 km
United States1989-10-05Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Boudwin purple and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAMROC-SET1 test mission at Vandenberg; this was the American Rocket Company's (AMROC) first (and only) test launch of a planned commercial rocket; it failed on the pad
United States1991-06-18Kennedy Space Center FL(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverProspector Joust42-1 microgravity mission; Cape Canaveral launch; veered off course and was aborted by range safety officer at 1 km altitude
United States1999-08-05Wallops Island VA(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverOrion Student Outreach Program education mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 40 km
United States2000-07-24Cape Canaveral FL(Pictorial) cancel and (?) cachet on cover50th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; [the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km]; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cancel and the cachet designs include either a drawing of the rocket based on this photo of the launch, or part of the photo itself)
United States2000-07-24Cape Canaveral FL(Pictorial) cancel and (?) cachet (different) on cover
United States2000-07-24Cape Canaveral FL(Pictorial) cancel and (?) cachet (different) on cover
United States2004-07-17Wallops Island VA(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover"Pathfinder sounding rocket" mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 4 km
United States2006-03-25Army Postal Service(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverFalcon-1 test flight (the very first of the SpaceX rocket flights); Omelek (Marshall Islands) launch; altitude reached not known but relatively low (the mission failed at T+25 seconds when a fuel leak caused a fire in the first stage engine area)
United States2009-10-28Kennedy Space Center FL(Ranski) cachet on coverAres-1X NASA technology test mission; Kennedy Space Center launch; reached 45 km
United States2009-10-28Cape Canaveral FL(Ranski) cachet on cover
United States2015-07-24Sagamore Beach MA(Coverscape) cachet on cover65th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; [the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km]; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude
United States2018-03-29Caddo Mills TX(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover"SARGE46 hover test" (on 17 March 2018) at Caddo Mills TX
United States2018-05-05Las Cruces NM(Red Eagle) cachet on coverSARGE46 test mission at Spaceport America NM, delayed until August
United States2018-08-25Las Cruces NM(Red Eagle) cachet on coverSARGE46 test mission (failed when an onboard GPS guidance system failed); Spaceport America NM launch; reached 28 km
United States2019-06-29Las Cruces NM(Red Eagle) cachet on coverSARGE46 test mission (failed when the navigation and directional control system failed); Spaceport America NM launch; reached 4 km
United States2019-10-26Truth or Consequences NM(Black printed and multi-color logo) cachet on coverSARGE46 test mission (failed due to a materials stress failure); Spaceport America NM launch; reached 12 km
United States2020-01-21Monument Beach MA(Coverscape) cachet on cover60th anniv. Little-Joe-1 Project Mercury systems test and biological mission (included physiological observations of the rhesus monkey 'Miss Sam'); Wallops Island launch on 21 January 1960; reached 14 km
(Sub-orbital) Research rockets in the UPPER atmosphere (mesosphere and ionosphere)
Germany1945-10-03Bremen(Black printed) cachet on postal card, also backAllied Forces Operation Backfire V-2 rocket test (on 2 and 4 Oct); rocket was launched from Cuxhaven into the North Sea; the operational personnel were composed of a German field unit; altitude reached is unknown; typical V-2 long-range launches reached around 80 km
United States1948-06-11El Paso TX(Black-and-white sticker and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover, also backV-2 Blossom-III Biology/Ionosphere/Aeronomy mission ("carried pressure, temperature, composition, ionosphere, sky brightness and solar radiation experiments for the Air Research and Development Command. Also carried Albert, the first American primate in space, who died of suffocation"); White Sands Proving Ground launch; reached 62 km
United States1950-03-31Las Cruces NM(Black-and-white sticker and red printed) cachet on (airmail) coverV-2 mission (on 17 February, not on the cancel date) with "cosmic and solar radiation, pressure (and) temperature experiments"; WSMR launch; reached 149 km
United States1958-04-23Patrick AFB, FL(H. Flick) cachet on coverThor-Able RTV (Re-entry Test Vehicle) flight, with the mouse "Mia"; Cape Canaveral launch; the mission failed at 80 km; the mouse "Mia" was lost
United States1958-12-13Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets orange-brown) cachet on coverJupiter Bioflight-1 biological mission (carried the squirrel monkey 'Gordo'); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 500 km
United States1958-12-13Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets red-brown) cachet on cover
United States1958-12-16Lopoc CA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverThor-DM-18A Series IV R&D mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 520 km
United States1958-12-23Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverAtlas-C R&D mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 900 km
United States1959-02-06Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverTitan-1 test mission with dummy second stage; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1000 km
United States1959-05-28Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverJupiter-IRBM Bioflight-2 mission to test the effects of cosmic radiation, increased gravity and weightlessness on live passengers (rhesus monkey 'Able' and squirrel monkey 'Baker') and biological samples (yeast, corn, mustard seeds, fruit-fly larvae, human blood, mould spores and fish eggs) housed in the nose cone. Able and Baker were recovered unharmed within one and a half hours after lift-off. The launch was from Cape Canaveral and the rocket reached 483 km.
United States1959-05-28Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets and red rubber-stamp and photo/sticker) cachet on cover
United States1959-07-14Lompoc CA(Historical Space Covers) cachet on coverNike-Asp solar X-ray/solar flares mission (Project Sunflare II); Point Arguello launch; reached 200 km
United States1959-07-14Lompoc CA(Historical Space Covers) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1959-07-14Lompoc CA(Highway Stamp Club) cachet on cover
United States1959-07-21Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverRedstone R&D mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 90 km (but mission failed because of a guidance control system failure)
United States1959-09-09Port Canaveral FL(Blue rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on (airmail) coverAtlas-D BJ-1 (Big Joe-1) mission (test of a boilerplate model of the Mercury capsule and its re-entry characteristics); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 153 km
United States1959-09-17Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet on coverJupiter Bioflight-3 biological mission; Cape Canaveral launch on 15 Sept; reached 500 km but failed when the rocket exploded
United States1959-10-29Port Canaveral FL(Picture) postcard as coverAtlas-D R&D/photography mission (a nose cone camera took a series of photos of cloud cover from an altitude of 500 km); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1800 km
United States1959-10-29Port Canaveral FL(Picture) postcard as cover, also back
United States1959-10-29Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverShotput test 1 of prototype Project Echo balloon; Wallops Island launch; reached 400 km; (this was the first test of an inflatable aluminum-coated Mylar-plastic sphere as a passive electronic reflector in space)
United States1959-11-02Port Canaveral FL(Picture) postcard as coverThor DM-18A R&D/Meteorites mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 520 km
United States1959-11-19Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella 1959) on coverNike-Asp sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 255 km
United States1959-11-19Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet (different) on cover
United States1959-11-19Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet (different) on cover; (see also 1962-05-18 launch cover and USA 1556 fdc)
Canada1959-11-19Port Churchill MB(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverAerobee-150 B-field profile ionosphere mission; Churchill launch; reached 106 km [but the mission failed] (the "Sparrow-B" in the cachet text is probably a misinterpretation of the "Aerobee" name)
United States1959-11-20Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella2 1959) on coverNike-Asp sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 236 km
United States1959-11-20Wallops Island VA(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1959-12-01Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverThor DM-18A photo mission with film camera; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 520 km
United States1959-12-01Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft) cachet on (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella 1959) coverTrailblazer-1 re-entry vehicle test; Wallops Island launch; reached 260 km
United States1959-12-04Wallops Island VA(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverMercury Little-Joe mission 2 (LJ-2) (tested Mercury systems and the effects of acceleration on the rhesus monkey 'Sam'); Wallops Island launch; reached 89 km
United States1959-12-04Wallops Island VA(Magenta rubber-stamp and hand-written) cachet on cover
United States1959-12-04Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1959-12-22Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverJavelin mission to measure galactic radio noise; Wallops Island launch; reached 901 km
United States1960-01-15Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverJavelin test and astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1200 km
United States1960-01-26Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverJavelin (Argo-D4) test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 951 km
United States1960-02-29Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft) cachet on coverShotput test 3 of prototype Project Echo balloon; "Project Echo lights up Eastern sky" (but unknown/fantasy spacecraft depicted); Wallops Island launch; reached 400 km; (in this mission, radio transmissions from Holmdel NJ were reflected by the sphere to Round Hill MA)
United States1960-03-25Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella 1959) on (airmail) coverAerobee-150A (Aerobee-Hi) test and micrometeorite impact count mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 212 km
United States1960-03-25Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets/Space Age Cover) cachet on (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella2 1959) cover
United States1960-04-02Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverShotput test 4 of prototype Project Echo balloon (but Bomarc missile depicted); Wallops Island launch; reached 400 km
France1960-05-05Île du Levant(Rocket) cinderellas and (blue printed) cachet on coverStromboli test mission; Île du Levant launch; reached 150 km
United States1960-06-01Wallops Island VA(Magenta rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on coverShotput test 5 of prototype Project Echo balloon; Wallops Island launch; reached 400 km (in this mission, the test payload consisted of the balloon and two beacon transmitters)
United States1960-06-24Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) coverAerobee-150A (Aerobee-Hi) UV star photometer UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 211 km
United States1960-07-13Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverStrongarm ionospheric mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 670 km
United States1960-07-13Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachets (and signature) on (airmail) cover
United States1960-08-09Patrick AFB, FL(Sokalsky blue) cachet on coverAtlas-D R&D / aeronomy mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1800 km (but Telstar depicted)
United States1960-08-23Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella 1959) on coverAerobee-150A cosmic rays mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 190 km
United States1960-08-28Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverTrailblazer-1 re-entry test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 260 km; (a 13 cm sphere was "rammed" downward at re-entry speeds from the apogee; the spectrum and luminance of the "artificial meteorite" thus created were measured remotely from the ground)
United States1960-08-28Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club) cachet on cover
United States1960-08-28Wallops Island VA(Hudson red and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1960-08-29Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club) cachet on coverTrailblazer-1 re-entry test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 260 km; (a 13 cm sphere was "rammed" downward at re-entry speeds from the apogee; the spectrum and luminance of the "artificial meteorite" thus created were measured remotely from the ground)
United States1960-08-29Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1960-09-19Vandenberg AFB, CA(Zaso printed and black typed) cachet on coverArgo-D8 (Journeyman) cosmic rays mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 1884 km
United States1960-09-20Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson black rubber-stamp and hand-printed) cachet on coverAtlas-D R&D mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1800 km
United States1960-09-20Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue-Scout-Jr magnetospheric and radiation probe 1 mission; Cape Canaveral launch (on 21 September); reached 27,600 km, but no data were received due to telemetry failure
United States1960-09-21Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1960-10-04Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout-X1 radiation probe magnetospheric plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 5600 km
United States1960-10-04Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1960-10-04Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets/Space Age Cover) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella2 1959) on cover
United States1960-10-13Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin cyan and red) cachet on coverAtlas-D R&D/biological mission, with three mice in the nosecone; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1800 km
United States1960-10-13Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin blue and orange) cachet on cover
United States1960-10-13Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets/Space Age Cover) cachet on cover
United States1960-10-18Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover2nd Iris rocket launch; aeronomy test flight; reached 225 km
United States1960-10-24Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverTitan-1 re-entry test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1000 km
United States1960-11-22Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella2 1959) on coverAerobee-150A (Aerobee-Hi) UV spectrograph and UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 183 km
United States1960-11-22Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft) cachet on cover
United States1960-12-08Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun Langmuir probe ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 152 km
United States1960-12-10Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 716 km
United States1960-12-12Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin magnetosphere and magnetic fields mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1140 km
United States1960-12-12Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) cover
United States1961-01-07Patrick AFB, FL(Jim Fitzpatrick magenta and black rubber-stamp and hand-written) cachet on coverBlue-Scout HETS25 A1-1 plasma/radio astronomy mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1600 km
United States1961-01-07Patrick AFB, FL(DuBeau? magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1961-01-07Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson magenta and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1961-01-19Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover3rd Iris rocket launch; aeronomy test flight [failed at 138 km]
United States1961-01-19Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1961-01-24Port Canaveral FL(C. Swanson red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-E USAF R&D mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 500 km [but mission failed]
United States1961-01-30Eglin AFB, FL(Air Proving Ground Center) cachet on coverAerobee-150 mass spectrometer aeronomy mission; Eglin AFB launch; reached 204 km
United States1961-01-31Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet on coverMRLV (Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle) MR2 mission with 'Ham' the chimp in the capsule; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 251 km
United States1961-01-31Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft and NASA red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1961-01-31Port Canaveral FL(Rank velvet) cachet on cover
United States1961-01-31Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1961-01-31Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin, slightly different and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1961-01-31Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin, slightly different and black and red rubber-stamps) cachet on cover
United States1961-01-31Patrick AFB, FL(Jim Fitzpatrick) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1961-02-05Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A (Aerobee Hi) liquid hydrogen technology test mission (for Lewis Research Center); Wallops Island launch; reached 152 km
United States1961-02-05Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft) cachet on cover
United States1961-02-10Port Canaveral FL(Black rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on (airmail) coverTitan-J test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1000 km
United States1961-02-10Patrick AFB, FL(Jim Fitzpatrick purple and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1961-02-10Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson/DuBeau? black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1961-02-16Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 85 km
United States1961-02-16Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on cover
United States1961-02-16Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1961-02-24Patrick AFB, FL(Sokalsky red) cachet on coverAtlas-E R&D test mission (and the first successful flight test of the Series E Atlas missile); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1500 km
United States1961-03-03Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson black and magenta and cyan rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue-Scout HETS25 A2-1 plasma mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 2540 km
United States1961-03-03Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1961-03-09Patrick AFB, FL(Sokalsky magenta, and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverRedstone test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 90 km but the mission failed during re-entry due to a control system malfunction
United States1961-03-09Patrick AFB, FL(Sokalsky red) cachet on cover
United States1961-03-26Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-300A ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 386 km
United States1961-04-12Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet on coverBlue-Scout-2 HETS25 A2-2 plasma mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1931 km
United States1961-04-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Asp sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 180 km
United States1961-05-16Eglin AFB, FL(Air Proving Ground Center) cachet on coverARCAS2 falling sphere aeronomy mission; Eglin AFB launch; reached 64 km
United States1961-05-23Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTitan test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1000 km
United States1961-06-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun inflating sphere11 aeronomy mission on 6 Jun (cover is dated 7 Jun); Wallops Island launch; reached 150 km
United States1961-06-15Eglin AFB, FL(Air Proving Ground Center) cachet on cover(possible) ARCAS2 Arcasonde10 mission; Eglin AFB launch; possibly reached around 60 km
United States1961-06-26Wallops Island VA(Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) Topside Sounder28 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch on June 24; reached 1018 km
United States1961-06-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1961-06-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover, also back
United States1961-07-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 124 km
United States1961-07-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1961-07-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) cover
United States1961-07-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) coverNike-Apache magnetic fields/magnetospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 193 km
United States1961-07-25Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets/Space Age Cover) cachet on coverTitan-1 inertial guidance and re-entry test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1000 km
United States1961-08-17Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet on coverBlue-Scout-Jr HETS25 magnetospheric mission to measure particle densities in the Van Allen radiation belts (but a telemetry failure meant that no data were received); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 225,000 km
United States1961-09-07Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTitan-1 re-entry test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1000 km
United States1961-09-13Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp and brown printed) cachet on (airmail) coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 331 km
United States1961-09-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 13 Sep); reached 431 km
United States1961-09-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1961-09-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 and inflating sphere11 aeronomy mission [failed] on 16 September (cover is dated 18 September); Wallops Island launch; reached 88 km
United States1961-09-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) cover
United States1961-09-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Asp sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission on 16 September (cover is dated 18 September); Wallops Island launch; reached 208 km
United States1961-09-23Vandenberg AFB, CA(Holden black and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverTitan-1 R&D and re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1000 km
United States1961-10-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) mission to study electrically-charged helium atoms in the upper atmosphere; Wallops Island launch; reached 1544 km
United States1961-10-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) Topside Sounder28 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1055 km
United States1961-10-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAerobee-150A Lewis Research Center liquid hydrogen technology test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 152 km
United States1961-10-19Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout plasma study mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 6855 km
United States1961-10-19Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) cover
United States1961-10-25Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTitan mission to test the detection of its exhaust trail and the relaying of that information by Midas-4; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1000 km
United States1961-10-27Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on coverSaturn-1 first sub-orbital launch (technology and systems test with water-filled dummy upper stages in anticipation of Project Highwater23, which was carried out in the second and third Saturn-1 test missions); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 136 km
United States1961-10-27Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet (and signature) on cover
United States1961-10-27Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft red) cachet on cover
United States1961-10-27Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft red and grey-green) cachet on cover
United States1961-10-27Port Canaveral FL(Zaso printed) cachet on cover
United States1961-10-27Port Canaveral FL(C. Swanson/SpaceCraft) cachet on cover
United States1961-10-27Cleveland OH(Blue printed) cachet on cover
United States1961-10-27Patrick AFB, FL(Black printed) cachet on cover
United States1961-11-15Vandenberg AFB, CA(Goldcraft) cachet on coverArgo-D8 (Journeyman) BIOS13-1 (NASA #11.04 GB) biological mission; included measuring radiation effects on biological specimens; Point Arguello launch; reached 1057 km
United States1961-11-18Lompoc CA(Sarzin) cachet on coverArgo-D8 (Journeyman) BIOS13-1 (NASA #11.05 GB) biological mission; included measuring radiation effects on biological specimens; Point Arguello launch; reached 1057 km
United States1961-11-24Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F test ionospheric aeronomy mission; Cape Canaveral launch (on 22 November); reached 1400 km
United States1961-12-04Lompoc CA(Sarzin?) cachet on coverBlue-Scout-Jr magnetospheric/solar proton mission; Point Arguello launch; reached 44,400 km
United States1961-12-07Lompoc CA(Blue printed) cachet on coverAstrobee-1500 CAMBRIDGE project geodetic mission (using chemical release flares5); Point Arguello launch; reached 2190 km
United States1961-12-14Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson purple and green rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverTitan-1 test mission; Cape Canaveral launch (on 13 Dec); reached 1000 km
United States1961-12-14Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTrailblazer-2 re-entry test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 157 km; (the nosecone was "rammed" downward at re-entry speeds from the apogee; the spectrum and luminance of the "artificial meteorite" thus created were measured remotely from the ground)
United States1961-12-14Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1961-12-14Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on cover
United States1961-12-19Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverAtlas-E R&D mission with rhesus monkey "Scatback" in the capsule; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1800 km, but "Scatback" was lost at sea after the landing
United States1961-12-20Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson green rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1961-12-21Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson magenta and green rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 99 km
United States1961-12-21Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson magenta and green rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1961-12-22Wallops Island VA(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-300A ionospheric mission; Wallops Island Dec 21 launch; reached 365 km
United States1962-01-15Port Canaveral FL(Green printed) cachet on (airmail) coverThor-DSV-2D Project Echo balloon test mission 1 (also known as Big Shot-1); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1400 km; the mission failed when the balloon ruptured during inflation)
United States1962-01-15Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1962-02-12Port Canaveral FL(Boerger/A.B.Covers) cachet on coverAtlas-Agena R&D technology test mission; Cape Canaveral launch (on Feb 13); reached 1600 km
United States1962-02-23Vandenberg AFB, CA(Holden black and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTitan-1 (not Titan-4 as in text) R&D test flight; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 50 km [but then failed]
United States1962-02-23Vandenberg AFB, CA(Holden black and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1962-02-23Vandenberg AFB, CA(Holden magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1962-03-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout-X-1A re-entry vehicle test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 214 km
United States1962-03-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on cover
United States1962-03-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-03-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1962-03-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta and green rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; 6:23 pm (1 March) Wallops Island launch; reached 135 km
United States1962-03-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; 7:05 pm (1 March) Wallops Island launch; reached 113 km
United States1962-03-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and green rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun water vapor mission; 5:47 am Wallops Island launch; reached 145 km
United States1962-03-16Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on coverTitan-2 re-entry test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1300 km
United States1962-04-05Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun ozone release5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 70 km
United States1962-04-05Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson green and purple rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) cover
United States1962-04-25Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSaturn-1 second sub-orbital test launch; included Project Highwater23; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 145 km
United States1962-04-25Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson purple rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on cover
United States1962-04-25Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft) cachet on cover
United States1962-04-25Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin?) cachet on cover
United States1962-04-25Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1962-04-25Port Canaveral FL(Zaso printed) cachet on cover
United States1962-04-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun US-Japan D-region ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 128 km
United States1962-05-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun US-Japan ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 121 km
United States1962-05-17Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun US-Japan ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 127 km
United States1962-05-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun atmospheric composition aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 135 km
United States1962-05-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A sea recovery test and ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 200 km
United States1962-06-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache Pitot-1 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 125 km
United States1962-06-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-06-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Asp sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 162 km
United States1962-06-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
Pakistan1962-06-09Lahore(Orange and black printed) cachet on cover, also backNike-Cajun Rehbar-1 (Pakistan's first atmospheric research rocket); carried sodium flares which left trails that were photographed by specially-designed cameras installed at Karachi, Hyderabad and Lasbela; (see also Pakistan 771 and Pakistan 1150 cover (2011), both in the stamps table above); Sonmiani Beach (Pakistan) launch on 7 June 1962; reached 130 km
United States1962-06-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-3 test mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 98 km
United States1962-06-15Colorado Springs CO(R.E. Nichol black and red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, also backTwo Black-Brant-3 test missions, launched from Wallops Island on 15 June 1962; reached 92 and 98 km [but failed]; they were possibly originally scheduled to be launched in Jan 1962 from the Churchill range in Canada (as in the red printed part of the cachet) but a fire there in Dec 1961 damaged the facilities and some launches were apparently transferred to Wallops Island until they were able to start again at Churchill on 1 Oct 1962
United States1962-06-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 143 km
United States1962-06-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A airglow 2 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 208 km
United States1962-06-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A airglow 1 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 210 km
United States1962-07-18Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson cyan rubber-stamp) cachet on coverThor-DSV-2D Project Echo balloon test mission 2 (also known as Big Shot-2); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1484 km
United States1962-07-18Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft Type-B general-purpose and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-07-18Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft Type-C general-purpose and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-07-18Port Canaveral FL(Harry Gordon) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1962-07-18Port Canaveral FL(Hand-printed) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1962-07-18Port Canaveral FL(Sokalsky orange) cachet on cover
United States1962-07-25Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTitan-2 re-entry test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1300 km
United States1962-08-01Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin) cachet on coverAtlas-F R&D test; this was the first Atlas-F launched from Vandenberg AFB; it reached 1400 km
Sweden1962-08-07Kabdalis(Black printed) cachet on coverNike-Cajun air sample aeronomy, magnetic storms and noctilucent clouds mission; Kronogard (Sweden) launch; reached 120 km
Norway1962-08-18Andenes(Black printed and black typed) cachet on coverNike-Cajun air sample aeronomy, magnetic storms and noctilucent clouds mission; Kronogard (Sweden) launch (on 7 August); reached 120 km
Norway1962-08-18Andenes(Black printed) cachet on coverNike-Cajun Ferdinand-156 ionospheric mission ("to study what causes the radio blackouts during periods of sunspots and northern lights eruptions"); Andøya Rocket Range launch; reached 100 km
Japan1962-08-21Uchinoura/Kagoshima(Blue and purple and black printed) cachet on coverKappa-8L test mission (this was the first rocket launched from Uchinoura (Kagoshima); reached 173 km
United States1962-08-31Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout-X3A re-entry test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 217 km but failed due to late stage 3 ignition
United States1962-09-12Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson/DuBeau? purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTitan-2 re-entry test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1300 km
United States1962-09-12Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1962-09-19Patrick AFB, FL(Sokalsky blue) cachet on coverAtlas-F R&D flight for the USAF; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1400 km (but Telstar depicted)
United States1962-10-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache Langmuir probe/ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 166 km
United States1962-10-19Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson/DuBeau? purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F R&D test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1400 km
United States1962-10-26Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson/DuBeau? purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTitan-2 re-entry test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1300 km
United States1962-10-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A UV astronomy for OAO sensors mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 188 km
United States1962-11-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 132 km
United States1962-11-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 165 km
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Harry A. Gordon sticker and red rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverSaturn-1 third sub-orbital test launch; included the second Project Highwater23 experiment (but in this case telemetry problems made the results questionable); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 167 km
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insert
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson/DuBeau? magenta and grey-green rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson/DuBeau? purple and grey-green rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Zaso black-and-white sticker and red rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover; (see also Saturn-1 cover 1963-03-28)
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Rank velvet?) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Purple rubber-stamp?) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(A.B.Covers/Boerger and grey-green rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin and extra black printed and black typed) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A technology test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 206 km
United States1962-11-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-300A (Sparobee? -- no info on this name was found) thermosphere probe 1 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 20 Nov); reached 345 km
United States1962-11-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 122 km
United States1962-12-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTwo Nike-Apache launches from Wallops Island; ionospheric mission (1:06 PM) reached 169 km; aeronomy mission (3:34 PM) reached 131 km
United States1962-12-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 126 km
United States1962-12-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on cover
United States1962-12-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 128 km
United States1962-12-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-12-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-12-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache Langmuir probe/sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 100 km
United States1962-12-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-12-06Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson/DuBeau? purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTitan-2 mission to test a method for reducing the "pogo" longitudinal oscillations that occurred in other missions; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 500 km but mission failed because the "pogo" oscillations were doubled.
United States1962-12-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A ionospheric mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 52 km
United States1962-12-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Norway1962-12-11Andenes(Black printed and black typed) cachet on coverNike-Cajun-Ferdinand-257 polar ionospheric mission; joint NASA-Norway-Denmark project; Andoya, Norway launch; reached 123 km; "Purpose (was) to study the cosmic particles north of the Polar circle"
United States1962-12-13Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-3 test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 98 km
United States1962-12-13Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-12-18Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin) cachet on coverBlue-Scout-Jr ion engine test technology mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 2000 km
United States1962-12-18Vandenberg AFB, CA(Rank velvet) cachet on cover
United States1963-01-31Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and green rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-D ABM test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1800 km
United States1963-02-06Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Swanson/DuBeau? purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTitan-2 re-entry vehicle test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1300 km
United States1963-02-06Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-02-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and red and green rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D8 (Journeyman) electron spectrometer magnetospheric mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 1675 km
United States1963-02-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 20 February); reached 113 km
United States1963-02-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 20 February); reached 164 km
United States1963-03-08Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 155 km
United States1963-03-28Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft) cachet on cover, also insertSaturn-1 mission SA-4 (fourth sub-orbital test); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 129 km
United States1963-03-28Cape Canaveral FL(Rank velvet) cachet on cover
United States1963-03-28Cape Canaveral FL(Zaso black-and-white sticker) cachet on cover; (see also Saturn-1 cover 1962-11-16)
United States1963-04-12Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A CSIRO12 VLF ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 198 km
United States1963-04-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on postal cardShotput-1 mission with an 80 kg test version of the San Marco satellite; Wallops Island launch; reached 426 km
United States1963-04-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-04-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on cover
United States1963-04-22Wallops Island VA((SpaceCraft Type-C general-purpose and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-04-27Vandenerg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? cyan and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTitan-2 R&D mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 1300 km
United States1963-05-17Vandenerg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? cyan rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue-Scout-Jr ERCS (Emergency Rocket Communications System) test mission (designed to be used in the case of a nuclear war); Vandenberg launch; reached 1000 km
United States1963-05-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout-X3 RFD-1 (Re-entry Flight Demonstration #1) technology test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 145 km
United States1963-05-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1963-05-24Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson/DuBeau? black and purple rubber-stamp and hand-printed) cachet on (airmail) coverTitan-2 R&D and re-entry test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1300 km
United States1963-06-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on coverAerobee-150-0428 technology test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 189 km
United States1963-07-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin (Argo-D4) Topside Sounder28 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 934 km
United States1963-07-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-07-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A UV spectrograph and UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 177 km
United States1963-08-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on postal cardShotput-2 mission with an 80 kg test version of the San Marco satellite; Wallops Island launch; reached 294 km
United States1963-08-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-08-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson green rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-08-03Wallops Island VA(Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Sweden1963-08-07Kabdalis(Black printed) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades aeronomy mission ("to study the bright night [noctilucent] clouds and magnetic storms in polar regions"); Kronogard launch; reached 130 km
Norway1963-09-12Andenes(Pre Bon) cachet on coverNike-Cajun Ferdinand-457 ionospheric/plasma/solar mission (studied ionospheric and solar effects on radio blackout at 100 km altitude); Andoya launch; reached 136 km
Norway1963-09-12Andenes(Black printed and black typed) cachet on cover
United States1963-09-18Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft) cachet on coverThor-DSV-2 Project ASSET17-1 re-entry vehicle test mission (the rocket released the test vehicle, a small spaceplane model, whose high-speed re-entry aerodynamic and structural properties were measured); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 59 km
United States1963-09-18Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson/DuBeau? purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-09-18Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1963-09-18Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1963-09-18
1964-03-24
Cape Canaveral FL
Cape Canaveral FL
(Rank velvet) cachet on coverThor-DSV-2 Project ASSET17-1 and 2 re-entry vehicle test missions (the rocket released the test vehicle, a small spaceplane model, whose high-speed re-entry aerodynamic and structural properties were measured). Cape Canaveral launch, on 18 September 1963 and 24 March 1964; ASSET-1 reached 59 km; ASSET-2 reached 55 km but was destroyed due to a second-stage malfunction
United States1963-09-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta and green rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 224 km
United States1963-09-25Wallops Island VA(SpaceCraft Type-B general-purpose and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-09-28Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A joint US and Japan ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 224 km
United States1963-09-28Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on cover
United States1963-09-28Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, also back
United States1963-09-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin (Argo-D4) Topside Sounder28 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch on 28 September; reached 1037 km
United States1963-09-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-10-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache chemical release aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 158 km
United States1963-10-17Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 187 km
France1963-10-18Poste aux Armées(Magenta and dark-blue printed and dark-purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, also backVéronique CNES bioscience mission; the cat Félicette was launched in a special capsule from Hammaguir, Algeria, to an altitude of 155 km
United States1963-10-31Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Apache vehicle environmental test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 134 km
United States1963-10-31Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-10-31Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 187 km
United States1963-10-31Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1963-11-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A airglow aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 17 November); reached 370 km
United States1963-11-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache atmospheric composition and density mission (reached 172 km); and Nike-Cajun inflating sphere11 and atmospheric structure mission (reached 151 km); both launches from Wallops Island
United States1963-11-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-12-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 mission (reached 103 km); and Nike-Apache Pitot-3 aeronomy mission (reached 141 km); upper atmospheric "temperatures, densities, pressures and winds" were measured; both launches from Wallops Island
United States1963-12-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1963-12-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-12-12Cape Canaveral FL(Sokalsky black, and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTitan-2 R&D mission N-29 (the third of five flights that tested the Gemini MDS (Malfunction Detection System)); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1300 km
United States1964-01-15Cape Canaveral FL(Sokalsky green) cachet on coverTitan-2 R&D mission N-31 (the fourth of five flights that tested the Gemini MDS (Malfunction Detection System)); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1300 km
United States1964-01-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache auroral mission for Rice University; Wallops Island launch (on 14 January); reached 90 km
United States1964-01-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on cover
United States1964-01-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-01-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverFour Nike-Apache sodium release grenades5 missions; Wallops Island launches (two 15 January and two 16 January); reached 45 km (failure), 114 km, 170 km and 200 km
United States1964-01-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 mission; Wallops Island launch (on 28 January); reached 254 km
United States1964-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-300A thermosphere probe mission; Wallops Island launch (on 28 January); reached 309 km
United States1964-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-02-04Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 mission; Wallops Island launch (on 3 February); reached 116 km
United States1964-03-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBoosted ARCAS2 sodium/lithium grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch on 6 March; reached 97 km
United States1964-03-13Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on coverBlue-Scout USAF OAR38 / AFCRL15 magnetospheric mission; Cape Canaveral launch; unsuccessful despite reaching 600 km because a fourth stage failure prevented the rocket from reaching the planned 37,000 km
United States1964-03-13Cape Canaveral FL(Sokalsky green) cachet on cover
United States1964-03-14Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and magenta and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverHonest John Nike-Nike Livermore Research Labs HAD-3 solar X-ray mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 143 km
United States1964-03-24
1963-09-18
Cape Canaveral FL
Cape Canaveral FL
(Rank velvet) cachet on coverThor-DSV-2 Project ASSET17-1 and 2 re-entry vehicle test missions (the rocket released the test vehicle, a small spaceplane model, whose high-speed re-entry aerodynamic and structural properties were measured). Cape Canaveral launch, on 18 September 1963 and 24 March 1964; ASSET-1 reached 59 km; ASSET-2 reached 55 km but was destroyed due to a second-stage malfunction
United States1964-02-25Cape Canaveral CA(C. Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverABRES31 WAC21-3 re-entry vehicle test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1600 km
United States1964-04-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverRAM22-B3 re-entry radio communications blackout test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 100 km
United States1964-04-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1964-04-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-10Wallops Island VA(Rank velvet, pink accents) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-10Wallops Island VA(Rank velvet, red accents) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-10Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on coverAtlas-D FIRE-13 mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 837 km
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL(C. Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL(Purple and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insert
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insert
United States1964-04-15Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on coverAtlas-D FIRE-13 mission; Cape Canaveral launch (on 14 April); reached 837 km
United States1964-04-16Wallops Island VA(SpaceCraft Type-A general-purpose and purple rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric/test mission; Wallops Island launch (on 15 April); reached 727 km
United States1964-04-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache IQSY mission to study the ionospheric E-layer; Wallops Island launch; reached 168 km
United States1964-06-30Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on coverAtlas-Centaur test mission to place a payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 500 km [but mission failed]
United States1964-06-30Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1964-06-30Cape Canaveral FL(Sokalsky black, no logo) cachet on cover
United States1964-07-22Cape Canaveral FL(C. Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverThor-DSV-2G Project ASSET17-3 re-entry vehicle test mission (the rocket released the test vehicle, a small spaceplane model called the ASV-3, whose high-speed re-entry aerodynamic and structural properties were measured); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 71 km
United States1964-07-22Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1964-07-22Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft) cachet on cover, also back
Iceland1964-08-01Vik(Black printed) cachet on cover(French rocket) Dragon-D10 ionospheric and Van Allen belt mission; launched from Myrdalssandur (Iceland); reached 440 km
Sweden1964-08-07Kabdalis(Black printed and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTwo launches from Kronogard, Sweden; Nike-Apache air sampling aeronomy mission (reached 125 km); and Nike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission (reached 130 km); also IQSY
United States1964-08-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 mission; Wallops Island launch (on 6 August); reached 119 km
United States1964-08-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout mission to test Apollo-type ablator materials at lunar re-entry heating levels; Wallops Island launch; reached 183 km
United States1964-10-08Wallops Island VA(Swanson and Goldcraft hybrid black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric ion composition mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1004 km
United States1964-10-08Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-10-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout RFD-2 re-entry vehicle test flight; Wallops Island launch; reached 132 km
United States1964-10-09Wallops Island VA(HJM black/Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-10-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 840 km
United States1964-10-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-10-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-10-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on cover
United States1964-10-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) radio astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1100 km
United States1964-10-28Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on coverThor-SLV-2 Project ASSET17-4 re-entry vehicle test mission 1 (the rocket released the test vehicle, a small spaceplane model called the AEV-1, whose high-speed re-entry aerodynamic and structural properties were measured). Cape Canaveral launch, on 27 October; probably reached around 50 km
United States1964-10-29Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverThor-DSV-2 Project ASSET17-4 re-entry vehicle test mission 2 (the rocket released the test vehicle, a small spaceplane model called the AEV-2, whose high-speed re-entry aerodynamic and structural properties were measured). Cape Canaveral launch; reached 50 km
United States1964-11-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin (Argo-D4) JHU (Johns Hopkins University) Airglow 7 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 867 km
United States1964-11-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1964-11-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-11-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 mission; Wallops Island launch on 5 November; reached 120 km
United States1964-11-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-11-10Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverNike-Apache Sunrise ionosphere-4 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 251 km
United States1964-11-10Wallops Island VA(NASA printed and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-11-12Wallops Island VA(NASA printed and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache sodium release grenades5 dual rocket aeronomy mission; one (reached 198 km) was launched from Wallops Island at 5:28 pm 10 November; the other (reached 200 km) was a ship launch from the USS Croatan at 5:25 pm 10 November
United States1964-11-12Wallops Island VA(NASA printed and purple rubber-stamp) cachet (different date) on coverNike-Apache sodium release grenades5 dual rocket aeronomy mission (different); one (reached 202 km) was launched from Wallops Island at 5:27 pm 11 November; the other (reached 156 km) was a ship launch from the USS Croatan at 5:24 pm 11 November
United States1965-01-12Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/Vandy? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-D R&D targeting mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 1800 km
United States1965-01-13Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) "mother-daughter" ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1006 km
United States1965-01-13Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-01-13WSMR, NM(Boudwin? black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-15 Kitt Peak National Observatory dayglow aeronomy mission; WSMR launch; reached 228 km
United States1965-01-21WSMR, NM(Boudwin? black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150 solar extreme UV/X-ray mission; WSMR launch; reached 235 km
United States1965-02-23Cape Canaveral FL(Sokalsky black) cachet on coverThor-DSV-2G Project ASSET17-6 re-entry vehicle test mission (the rocket released the test vehicle, a small spaceplane model called the ASV-6, whose high-speed re-entry aerodynamic and structural properties were to be measured); the model survived re-entry but sank after hitting the ocean and could not be recovered as planned; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 70 km
Australia1965-03-22Adelaide SA(Green printed) cachet on coverEuropa program flight F3; Blue Streak test mission; Woomera launch; reached 263 km
Australia1965-03-22Woomera SA(Green printed) cachet (different) on cover
United States1965-04-09Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue-Scout USAF OAR38 / AFWL39 magnetospheric mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 25,422 km
United States1965-04-09Cape Canaveral FL(C. Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-05-12Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Sarzin) cachet on coverBlue-Scout AFCRL15 magnetospheric mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 13,586 km
United States1965-05-12Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Swanson blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-05-12Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Celestial) cachet on cover
United States1965-05-18WSMR, NM(HJM black and Boudwin? black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 aeronomy mission; WSMR launch; possibly reached around 70 km
United States1965-05-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) "mother-daughter" ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 947 km
United States1965-05-19Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-05-22Cape Canaveral FL(Celestial) cachet on coverAtlas-D FIRE-23 mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 817 km
United States1965-05-22Patrick AFB, FL(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1965-06-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? black and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-D ABRES31 LORV32-6 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1800 km
United States1965-06-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric and IQSY mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 177 km
United States1965-06-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-06-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; 1:56 PM Wallops Island launch; reached 186 km
United States1965-06-18Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-06-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson green/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; 5:41 PM Wallops Island launch (on 17 June); reached 177 km
United States1965-06-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1965-06-18Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D8 (Journeyman) radio astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1770 km
United States1965-06-30Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-08-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch (on 24 August); reached 162 km
United States1965-09-10Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 and HASP4 meteorological missions; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; 15 launches took place from 3-10 September 1965; the HASP4 launches probably reached around 29 km; the ARCAS2 launches reached around 60 km
United States1965-09-10Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache RF propagation radio astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch on 9 September; reached 171 km
United States1965-09-18Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A ionospheric mission and FR-1 pre-mission test flight; Wallops Island launch (on 17 September); reached 182 km
United States1965-09-23Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 805 km
United States1965-09-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson green/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-09-27Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A ionospheric mission and FR-1 pre-mission test flight; Wallops Island launch (on 25 September); reached 192 km
United States1965-09-27Wallops Island VA(Swanson green/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-09-27Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-09-29Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? magenta and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAtlas ABRES31 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; possibly reached around 1800 km
United States1965-10-06Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 960 km
United States1965-10-21Wallops Island VA(HJM black and Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A Johns Hopkins University UV astronomy mission to photograph comet Ikeya-Seki; Wallops Island launch; reached 191 km
United States1965-12-15Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache IQSY ionospheric electron density mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 184 km
United States1966-01-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 17 January); reached 134 km
United States1966-02-17Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache E / B currents (Electricity / Birkeland currents) plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 186 km
United States1966-02-26Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Rank velvet) cachet on coverApollo-Saturn AS-201 mission; first test of the launch vehicle and the Apollo Command and Service Module (CSM); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 488 km
United States1966-02-26Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Rank velvet, dense-flocking) cachet on cover
United States1966-02-26Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Rank velvet) cachet on cover
United States1966-02-26Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet on cover
United States1966-02-26Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1966-02-26Cape Canaveral FL(Red and blue and black printed) cachet on cover
United States1966-02-26Cape Canaveral FL(Red and blue and black printed) cachet (and signature) on cover
United States1966-02-26USS Boxer(NASA/US Navy magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on
United States1966-02-26USS Boxer(NASA/US Navy blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-02-26USS Robert L. Wilson(NASA/US Navy black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-02-26USS Turner(NASA/US Navy black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-02-26Cape Canaveral FL(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1966-02-26Kennedy Space Center FL (machine cancel)(KSC NASA red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-02-26Kennedy Space Center FL (hand cancel)(KSC NASA red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-02-26Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1966-02-26Cape Canaveral FL(Blue and magenta) cachet on cover (probable fake, based on differences between its cancel and known real cancels)
United States1966-02-26Cape Canaveral FL(C. Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1966-02-26Cape Canaveral FL(Sokalsky red, and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-03-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudaon magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A solar extreme UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 228 km
United States1966-03-02Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-03-02Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) geoprobe aeronomy/ionosphere mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 536 km
France1966-03-17Poste aux Armées(JG) cachet on coverVéronique solar radiance measurement mission; Hammaguir launch; altitude reached unknown
United States1966-03-25Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Javelin HITAB mission (carried instruments to measure heat and other radiation from a Titan-II rocket); Vandenberg launch; reached 130 km
United States1966-05-04Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 mission; Wallops Island launch (on 3 May); reached 119 km
United States1966-05-13Wallops Island VA(Black printed and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 and HASP4 meteorological missions; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; 18 launches took place from 10-13 May 1966; the HASP4 launches probably reached around 29 km; the ARCAS2 launches reached around 60 km
United States1966-05-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin Argo-D4 radio astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 998 km
Australia1966-05-24Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (red-brown printed) cachet on coverEuropa program flight F4; ELDO-A test mission (Blue Streak first stage with a mockup of the upper stages including a mockup satellite); Woomera launch; reached 86 km
Australia
United States
1966-05-24
1967-05-29
Woomera SA
Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB
(Pictorial) cancel and (Rank silkscreened) cachet on coverEuropa program flight F4; ELDO-A test mission (Blue Streak first stage with a mockup of the upper stages including a mockup satellite); Woomera launch; reached 86 km
ESRO-2A launch [failed]
United States1966-05-26Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-D ABRES31 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1800 km
United States1966-07-05
1966-08-25
Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)
Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)
(Rank velvet) cachet on coverApollo-Saturn AS-203 (Apollo-2) launch; a Saturn-1B first stage boosted a Saturn-IVB upper stage into orbit to verify its liquid hydrogen fuel management and engine restart capability in weightlessness; no Apollo spacecraft was carried

Apollo-Saturn AS-202 (Apollo-3) mission to test the launch vehicle and the Apollo Command and Service Module (CSM), including the performance of the heat shield at high re-entry speeds; launched from Cape Canaveral; reached 1143 km
United States1966-07-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 195 km
United States1966-07-14Wallops Island VA(Sarzin?) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-16Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScanner-1 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 612 km
United States1966-08-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-17Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAerobee-350 test/ionosphere/solar mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 358 km
United States1966-08-25USS Robert A. Owens(Beck/B699: US Navy brown and green printed) cachet on cover, also backApollo-Saturn AS-202 (Apollo-3) mission to test the launch vehicle and the Apollo Command and Service Module (CSM), including the performance of the heat shield at high re-entry speeds; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1143 km
United States1966-08-25USS Robert A. Owens(US Navy black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25USS Hornet (hand cancel)(US Navy magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25USS Hornet (machine cancel)(US Navy magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25USS Hornet (machine cancel)(Beck/B674: US Navy black and red printed) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25USS Hornet (machine cancel)(Beck/B673: US Navy black and dark-red printed) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25USS O'Bannon(US Navy purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25USS O'Bannon(US Navy magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25USS O'Bannon(Beck/B675: US Navy black and orange printed) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25USS O'Bannon(Beck/B676: US Navy black and orange printed) cachet (slightly different) on cover
United States1966-08-25USS Benjamin Stoddert(Beck/B677: US Navy orange and black printed) cachet (and signature) on cover
United States1966-08-25USS Benjamin Stoddert(US Navy purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1966-08-25USS Sproston(US Navy purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1966-08-25Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson/DuBeau? purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25Kennedy Space Center FL(KSC official magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25Kennedy Space Center FL(KSC official red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25Cape Canaveral FL(Artopages) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-25Cape Canaveral FL(Green and orange printed) cachet on cover (probable fake, based on differences between its cancel and known real cancels)
United States1966-08-25Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insert
United States1966-08-26Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTwo Nike-Tomahawk Thermosphere Probe aeronomy missions; Wallops Island launch; reached 287 km and 308 km
United States1966-08-26Wallops Island VA(HJM blue and Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-26Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A Extreme UV/Solar mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 212 km
United States1966-08-29Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache aeronomy mission to make "measurements of upper atmosphere phenomena"; Wallops Island launch; reached 151 km
United States1966-09-24Wallops Island VA(Sarzin black printed/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 930 km
United States1966-09-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-09-25Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 280 km
Australia1966-11-15Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (green rubber-stamp) cachet on coverEuropa program flight F5; ELDO-B test mission (Blue Streak first stage with a mockup of the upper stages including a mockup satellite); Woomera launch; reached 120 km
Australia1966-11-15Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (black printed) cachet on cover
Australia1966-11-28Woomera SA(Orange and black printed and red typed) cachet on coverSparta SV-1 test mission; Woomera launch; reached 90 km [but mission failed]
United States1966-11-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk particles and plasma mission (for the University of New Hampshire); Wallops Island launch; reached 359 km
United States1966-12-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScanner-2 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 709 km
United States1966-12-10Wallops Island VA(HJM cyan and Swanson green rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Australia1966-12-14Woomera SA(Orange printed and red and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSparta SV-2 test mission; Woomera launch; reached 90 km
Australia1966-12-14Adelaide SA(Red printed) cachet on cover
United States1966-12-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-SLV-3 PRIME (Precision Recovery Including Maneuvering Entry) technology test mission (data were to be applied to later STS spacecraft); Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1500 km
United States1967-01-24Kennedy Space Center FL(Swanson red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk diurnal thermosphere/ionosphere aeronomy mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 325 km
United States1967-01-24Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Centennial) cachet on coverSix Nike-Tomahawk diurnal thermosphere/ionosphere aeronomy missions; Cape Canaveral launches; reached from 320 to 336 km
United States1967-01-24Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1967-02-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Cajun aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 112 km
United States1967-02-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAstrobee-1500 solar radio frequencies mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 2380 km
United States1967-02-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAstrobee-1500 solar radio frequencies mission; Wallops Island launch (on 24 February); reached 2380 km
United States1967-03-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A OSO-3 calibration and extreme UV mission for AFCRL15; Wallops Island launch; reached 205 km
United States1967-03-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1967-03-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 141 km
United States1967-03-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1967-03-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (blue) cover
United States1967-03-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1967-03-16Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F ABRES31 MBRV54-2 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1400 km; the launch was successful but the MBRV failed to accomplish its planned re-entry
United States1967-03-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A OSO-3 calibration and solar extreme UV mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 229 km
United States1967-03-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1967-03-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Tomahawk GCA Corp. ion probe ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 237 km
United States1967-03-31Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium and tri-ethyl borane release grenades5 aeronomy and plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 321 km
United States1967-03-31Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJapanese MT-135 rocket, part of a US-Japan aeronomy intercomparison mission; data were compared with those from a US ARCAS2 rocket fired 16 min later; Wallops Island launch; reached 54 km
United States1967-03-31Wallops Island VA(Sarzin?) cachet on coverARCAS2 (reached 58 km) and MT-135 (reached 54 km) fired 16 min apart for US-Japan aeronomy intercomparison mission; Wallops Island launch
United States1967-04-04Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover8 ARCAS2 and 8 MT-135 rockets fired on 4 and 5 April for US-Japan aeronomy intercomparison missions; Wallops Island launches; all reached between 53 and 63 km
United States1967-04-05Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on cover8 ARCAS2 and 8 MT-135 rockets fired on 4 and 5 April for US-Japan aeronomy intercomparison missions; Wallops Island launches; all reached between 53 and 63 km
Australia1967-04-20Woomera SA(Blue and orange and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSparta SV-3 test mission; Woomera launch; reached 90 km
United States1967-06-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ISIS-X (Explorer-31) overflight and ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 792 km
Sweden1967-07-31Kiruna(Black printed) cachet on coverCentaure-2B ionospheric mission; Esrange launch; reached 130 km
Australia1967-08-04Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (black printed) cachet on coverEuropa-1 mission F6-1; the first test of a 3-stage Europa-1 (included a mockup third stage that carried a wooden mockup satellite); Woomera launch; reached 180 km but mission failed
Australia1967-08-04Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (blue printed) cachet on cover
Australia1967-08-04Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (ELDO red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Australia1967-08-18Woomera SA(Purple rubber-stamp and gold hand-printed) cachet on coverSparta SV-6 test mission; Woomera launch; reached 90 km
Norway1967-09-02Andenes(Black printed and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTwo Nike-Tomahawk rocket launches (11 minutes apart) from Andoya; NASA barium clouds5 plasma mission (reached 321 km) and NASA E fields plasma mission (reached 233 km)
Italy1967-09-27Perdasdefogu(Green and red and orange rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSkylark ionosphere/solar X-rays mission; Salto di Quirra launch; reached 183 km
United States1967-10-04Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 251 km
United States1967-10-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 249 km
Australia1967-10-12Woomera SA(Black and light-green and dark-green rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSparta SV-8 test mission; Woomera launch; reached 137 km
United States1967-10-19Wallops Island VA(Sarzin?) cachet on coverRAM22-C1 re-entry radio communications blackout test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 217 km
United States1967-10-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1967-10-19Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover
United States1967-10-19Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1967-11-07Cape Canaveral FL(Jim Fitzpatrick) cachet on coverMinuteman-2 R&D mission; Cape Canaveral launch, from launch pad LC32B (Surveyor-6 was launched on 7 Nov as well, from pad LC36B); reached 1300 km
Australia1967-12-01Woomera SA(Black rubber-stamp) cachet (and signatures) on coverHAD (High Altitude Density rocket) aeronomy inter-comparison mission (collected data for calibration of WRESAT-1 instruments); Woomera launch; reached 100 km
United States1967-12-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A biological mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 137 km
United States1967-12-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Australia1967-12-06Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverEuropa-1 mission F6-2; the second test of a 3-stage Europa-1 (included a mockup third stage that carried a mockup wooden satellite); Woomera launch; reached 200 km but mission failed
United States1968-02-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and red rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverFive Nike-Apache aeronomy missions, 21 and 22 February, reached 150-190 km; also one Nike-Apache sodium-lithium grenades5 release aeronomy mission, 22 February, reached 168 km; all launches were from Wallops Island
Sweden1968-03-27Kiruna(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSkylark-1 ESRO S16-1 Aurora mission; Kiruna launch; reached 171 km
French Guiana1968-04-09Kourou(Le Burin d'Or) cachet on coverVéronique-AGI sea recovery test flight; Kourou launch; reached 114 km; this was the first rocket to be launched from Kourou; the 7th anniv. of this launch was commemorated in two 1975 Kourou rocket launch covers: cover1 and cover2
United States1968-04-18Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau?) cachet on coverAtlas-E ABRES31 RVTO36-1A-1 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1600 km
Sweden1968-06-07Kiruna(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverCentaure-2B meteorites mission; Esrange launch; reached 138 km
United States1968-06-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A biological mission; Wallops Island launch (on 24 June); reached 144 km
United States1968-06-29Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F ABRES31 RVTO36-1A-2 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1400 km
United States1968-08-22Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on coverRAM22-C2 re-entry radio communications blackout test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 227 km
United States1968-08-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1968-08-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Norway1968-09-20Andenes(Black printed and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk Ferdinand-1857plasma mission; Andoya launch; reached 239 km
Norway1968-09-23Andenes(Black rubber-stamp and hand-written) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk ionospheric plasma mission; Andoya launch; reached 321 km
Norway1968-10-01Andenes(Black rubber-stamp and hand-written) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk ionospheric plasma mission; Andoya launch; reached 228 km
United States1968-10-11Wallops Island VA(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverHARP50-5-1 gun-launched atmospheric probe; Wallops Island launch; reached 68 km
Australia1968-11-30Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (black printed) cachet on coverEuropa program flight F7; Europa-1 test mission with boilerplate satellite STV-1 (mass 249 kg); Woomera launch; mission failed at 230 km altitude when the third stage exploded
Australia1968-11-30Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (black printed) cachet (different) on cover
Australia1969-04-02Glenelg SA(Black and red rubber-stamp) cachets on (airmail) coverTwo Skylark missions for ionospheric and X-ray measurements: SL724 (Skylark-5C, 1 April, reached 192 km); and SL502 (Skylark-6AC, 2 April, reached 273 km); Woomera launches
Australia1969-04-02Woomera SA(Black and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTwo Skylark-3 missions for solar UV and X-ray measurements; SL604 (22 April, reached 181 km) and SL606 (17 April, reached 202 km); cancel date on cover apparently incorrect (should read 22 April); Woomera launches
United States1969-05-01Wallops Island VA(Sarzin?) cachet on coverBlack-Brant test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 215 km
Australia1969-07-03Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (multi-color printed) cachet on coverEuropa program flight F8; Europa-1 test mission with boilerplate satellite STV-2 (mass 249 kg); Woomera launch; mission failed at 300 km altitude due to a third stage failure
Australia1969-07-03Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (black printed) cachet on cover
Australia1969-07-03Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (black printed) cachet (different) on cover
Australia1969-07-25Woomera SA(Black and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverHAD (High Altitude Density rocket) aeronomy intercomparison mission (collected data for calibration of Nimbus-3 instruments); Woomera launch; reached 115 km
Australia1969-07-25Woomera SA(Black and blue and red rubber-stamp) cachets (and signatures) on cover
Australia1969-07-25Woomera SA(Black and purple and red rubber-stamp) cachets (and signatures) on coverHAT (High Altitude Test rocket) aeronomy intercomparision mission (collected data for calibration of Nimbus-3 instruments); Woomera launch; reached 80 km
Australia1969-08-06Woomera SA(Brown and green printed) cachet on (airmail) coverAero-High barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 225 km
Australia1969-08-06Woomera SA(Black and purple rubber-stamp) cachets on (airmail) cover
Sweden1969-08-11Kiruna(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverCentaure-2B ESRO aeronomy mission; Esrange launch; reached 112 km
United States1969-08-20Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F ABRES31 RVTO36-1A-5 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1400 km ("secret payload testing")
United States1969-09-10Colorado Springs CO(R.E. Nichol blue and purple and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, also backNike-Apache barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; WSMR launch; reached 200 km
United States1969-09-10Colorado Springs CO(R.E. Nichol blue and purple and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover (stamp has Mr. Zip selvedge), also back
Australia1969-10-16Woomera SA(Black printed) cachet on (airmail) coverSkylark-3 barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 318 km
Australia1969-10-17Woomera SA(Blue printed) cachet on coverSkylark-3 barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 320 km
Australia1969-10-18Woomera SA(Red printed) cachet on (airmail) coverSkylark-3 barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 318 km
United States1969-11-08Wallops Island VA(Black printed) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-5B IR astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 189 km
United States1969-11-08Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-02-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F ABRES31 RMP-B-15 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1400 km ("secret payload")
United States1970-03-05Eglin AFB, FL(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 solar eclipse test mission (preparing for the 7 March 1970 total solar eclipse); Eglin AFB launch; reached 73 km
United States1970-03-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverA large number of sounding rockets of various types (Aerobee-170, Tomahawk Sandia, ARCAS2, Javelin and several with the Nike booster (Iroquois, Tomahawk, Apache, Cajun)) for solar eclipse/cessation studies1; Wallops Island launches on March 6, 7, and 8; altitudes reached varied from the lowest (around 65 km, ARCAS2 and Nike-Cajun) to the highest (829 km, Javelin)
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.4) cachet on (airmail) cover, also insert
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.4) cachet on (airmail) cover, also insert
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(NASA? black printed) cachet on cover
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1970-03-07Colorado Springs CO(R.E. Nichol black and blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, also back
United States1970-03-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda Space Cover no.5) cachet on (airmail) coverAerobee-150 solar eclipse/cessation studies1 mission (observed the "solar flash spectrum" of the solar corona in the far UV); 1:36PM launch from Wallops Island; reached 142 km
Australia1970-03-24Glenelg SA(Green printed) cachet on (airmail) coverSkylark-B5 X-ray survey mission; Woomera launch; reached 179 km
United States1970-05-07Eglin AFB, FL(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Iroquois tracer release aeronomy mission; Eglin AFB launch; reached 159 km
Australia1970-05-20Woomera SA(Brown and tean printed) cachet on (airmail) coverCockatoo UAR8 mission to measure UV radiation and Moon reflectivity; Woomera launch; reached 96 km
Australia1970-05-27Glenelg SA(Green and tan printed) cachet on coverKookaburra UAR8 aeronomy mission; measurements of temperature, wind and ozone; Woomera launch; reached 85 km
Australia1970-05-27Glenelg SA(Red-brown and tan printed) cachet on coverAero-High aluminium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 177 km
Australia1970-05-27Woomera SA(Green and tn printed) cachet on coverAerobee astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km
Australia1970-05-30Woomera SA(Red and green printed) cachet on coverAerobee astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km
United States1970-05-30Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F ABRES31 RMP-B-17 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; destroyed in flight at an unknown altitude ("secret re-entry testing", on first cover only)
United States1970-05-30Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (slightly different) on cover
Australia1970-06-03Woomera SA( Red-brown and light-blue printed) cachet on coverAerobee-150 astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km
Australia1970-06-12Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverEuropa program flight F9; Europa-1 test mission with boilerplate satellite STV-3 (mass 249 kg); Woomera launch; reached 2000 km but mission failed when the payload fairing failed to separate
Australia1970-06-12Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (blue and red printed) cachet on (airmail) cover
Australia1970-06-12Woomera SA(Pictorial) cancel and (purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Australia1970-07-14Glenelg SA(Blue and light-green printed) cachet on coverKookaburra UAR8 aeronomy mission; measurements of temperature, wind and ozone; Woomera launch; reached 85 km
Australia1970-07-14Woomera SA(Brown printed) cachet on coverSkylark-B5 solar corona study mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km
Australia1970-07-17Woomera SA(Black and blue printed) cachet on coverSkylark-B5 solar corona study mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km
United States1970-09-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin aeronomy/exosphere mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 800 km
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.16) cachet on (airmail) coverScout mission: RAM22-C (3rd Radio Attenuation Measurement) re-entry vehicle test; Wallops Island launch; reached 269 km
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Black printed) cachet on cover
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on cover
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1970-10-05Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.17) cachet on (airmail) coverJavelin MPE barium release plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 900 km
United States1970-10-09Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverCastor mission: SPED30-2 re-entry vehicle test; Wallops Island launch; reached 85 km; (in preparation for the forthcoming Viking missions, this test was designed to simulate entry into the Martian atmosphere from space)
United States1970-10-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-10-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-10-09Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.18) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1970-10-09Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1970-10-09Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1970-10-09Wallops Island VA(Solar Covers no.1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5) cachet on cover, also insert
Australia1970-10-09Glenelg SA(Magenta printed) cachet on coverSkylark-3 solar UV mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km but mission failed
United States1970-10-10Virginia Beach VA(Black typed and black, red, and blue rubber-stamp) cachets on (airmail) coverReturn of SPED30 test vehicle and parachute to port by USNS Range Recoverer
Australia1970-10-16Woomera SA(Yellow and gold printed) cachet on coverSkylark-3 solar X-ray mission; Woomera launch; reached 209 km but mission failed
Australia1970-10-22Woomera SA(Brown and orange printed) cachet on coverCockatoo UAR8 mission to measure UV radiation and Moon reflectivity; Woomera launch; reached 105 km
United States1970-11-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTrailblazer-2 re-entry test mission for AFCRL15; Wallops Island launch; reached 321 km
United States1970-11-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-11-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1970-11-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue-Scout-Jr UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1480 km
United States1970-11-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1970-11-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
Germany (East)1970-11-28Berlin(Blue and red and grey and black printed) cachet on coverVertikal-1 aeronomy/ionosphere/solar mission; Kapustin Yar launch; reached 468 km
United States1970-12-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue/Hudson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverDLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.) aeronomy and biology mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 270 km
United States1970-12-22Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F ABRES31 RVTO36-2A-1 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1400 km ("secret payload")
United States1970-12-22Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1971-01-16Eglin AFB, FL(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTomahawk-Sandia aeronomy mission; Eglin AFB launch; reached 144 km
United States1971-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBoosted ARCAS2 plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 122 km
United States1971-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on (airmail) cover
United States1971-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1971-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Australia1971-02-03Woomera SA(Green and orange printed) cachet on coverKookaburra UAR8 aeronomy mission; measurements of temperature, wind and ozone; Woomera launch; reached 85 km
United States1971-02-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-350 (not "Astrobee") X-ray astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 196 km
Australia1971-03-03Woomera SA(Purple andgold foil printed) cachet on coverAero-High-4 and Aero-High-5 double launch: aluminium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 178 km
United States1971-03-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover2 Nike-Cajun (reached 113 km) and 3 Nike-Apache (reached 171-181 km) aeronomy missions; Wallops Island launches
United States1971-04-05Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F ABRES31 LAR-1 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1400 km
Sweden1971-04-05Kiruna(Purple and green and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverPetrel small-scale structure of the ionosphere mission; Kiruna launch (at 2353 UTC on 5 April (the date in the cancel and cachet of the first cover), or in Swedish local time at 0053 6 April (the date in the cancel and cachet of the second cover)); reached 134 km
Sweden1971-04-06Kiruna(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1971-06-08Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverVéronique biological and ionospheric mission; Kourou launch; reached 210 km; this was the first in a series of co-operative Franco-German missions
United States1971-06-10Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-350 airglow and aeronomy ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 328 km
United States1971-06-10Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1971-06-10Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on cover
French Guiana1971-06-12Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverVéronique co-operative Franco-German biological and ionospheric mission; Kourou launch; reached 210 km
French Guiana1971-06-12Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on cover
United States1971-06-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson yellow-green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout Planetary Atmospheric Entry Test (PAET24); Wallops Island launch; reached 377 km
United States1971-06-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1971-06-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1971-06-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1971-06-21Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on cover. also insert
United States1971-06-21Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover
Australia1971-06-22Woomera SA(Green printed) cachet on coverKookaburra UAR8 aeronomy mission; measurements of temperature, wind and ozone; Woomera launch; reached 85 km
Australia1971-06-23Woomera SA(Purple printed) cachet on coverKookaburra UAR8 aeronomy mission; measurements of temperature, wind and ozone; Woomera launch; reached 85 km
United States1971-06-29Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-170 CHASER-1 ABM IR sensor technology mission ("Direct Measurement Explorer" (Explorer-31) was part of the mission); Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 161 km
United States1971-07-13Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch (on 12 July); reached 270 km
United States1971-07-16WSMR, NM(NASA logo blue and red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-170 two-rocket IR astronomy mission; WSMR launch; one rocket reached 190 km; altitude of the other unknown
Sweden1971-07-28Kiruna(Green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverCentaure-2C aeronomy mission; Kiruna launch; reached 120 km
Sweden1971-07-31Kiruna(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverCentaure-2B ESRO aeronomy mission; Esrange launch; reached 112 km
United States1971-08-09WSMR, NM(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-170 and Aerobee-170A astronomy data intercomparison mission (the rockets were launched 50 minutes apart); WSMR launch; both reached around 200 km
India1971-08-11Trivandrum(Black and red printed) cachet on coverM100 launch from Thumba Rocket Range
Australia1971-09-09Woomera SA(Puprple printed) cachet on coverUnknown rocket with unknown mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached unknown
Australia1971-09-18Woomera SA(Black printed) cachet on coverUnknown rocket UAR8 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached unknown
India1971-09-21Trivandrum(Orange and green printed) cachet on coverRohini-300 ionospheric mission; Thumba, India launch; altitude reached not known
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverScout plasma/barium release joint NASA/MPE14 Barium Ion Cloud (BIC) mission to measure magnetic and electric fields in the magnetosphere; Wallops Island launch (on 20 September); reached 31,479 km
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.6) cachet on cover, also insert
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.6) cachet on (airmail) cover, also insert
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet (and "cancel delayed" rubber-stamp) on cover
Australia1971-09-21Woomera SA(Purple and yellow printed) cachet on coverAero-High-6 aluminium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached approximately 177 km
Australia1971-09-27Woomera SA(Cyan and purple printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1002 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 224 km
India1971-10-07Trivandrum(Purple and brown printed) cachet on coverM100 launch from Thumba Rocket Range
Australia1971-10-12Woomera SA(Purple and yellow printed) cachet on coverA3-H UAR8 mission, including "sensing [at levels] between met[eo] balloon ceiling and satellite [data]"; synoptic measurements of solar radiation, wind and ozone; Woomera launch
United States1971-10-29WSMR, NM(NASA logo blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverHISTAR52-3 IR astronomy mission; WSMR launch; reached 158 km
United States1971-11-23Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAerobee-170 CHASER-2 ABM IR sensor technology mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 145 km
Australia1971-11-25Woomera SA(Orange and magenta printed) cachet on coverKookaburra UAR8 aeronomy mission; measurements of temperature, wind and ozone; Woomera launch; reached 85 km
Australia1971-11-25Woomera SA(Orange and black printed) cachet (and signature) on cover
Australia1971-12-10Woomera SA(Red and black printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL903 solar X-ray mission; Woomera launch; reached 198 km
French Guiana1971-12-14Kourou(Purple and red-brown rubber-stamp) cachet on coverMR-12 aeronomy test mission; Soviet research ship Professor Zubov launch; reached 151 km
French Guiana1971-12-14Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1971-12-15Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverMR-12 aeronomy mission; Soviet research ship Professor Zubov launch; reached 170 km
French Guiana1971-12-15Kourou(Lollini) cachet (slightly different) on cover
French Guiana1971-12-16Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverVéronique-61M co-operative Franco-Russian ionospheric sounding mission; Kourou launch; reached 227 km
United States1972-03-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk plasma physics mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 243 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16, MT-135 and Super-ARCAS2 aeronomy intercomparison mission #1; Wallops Island launches; the rockets reached roughly 60 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16, MT-135 and Super-ARCAS2 aeronomy intercomparison mission #2; Wallops Island launches; the rockets reached roughly 60 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson green and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16 and MT-135 aeronomy intercomparison mission #3; Wallops Island launches; the rockets reached roughly 60 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson green and red rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 10:33 AM; reached 61 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 11:08 AM; reached around 80 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 2:26 PM; reached around 80 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 7:39 PM; reached around 80 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverThree Super-ARCAS2 aeronomy missions; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launches at 11:08 AM, 2:26 PM and 7:39 PM; all reached around 80 km
United States1972-03-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16, MT-135 and Super-ARCAS2 aeronomy intercomparison mission #5; Wallops Island launches; the rockets reached roughly 60 km
Australia1972-03-16Woomera SA(Green and purple printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1023 lithium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 260 km
Sweden1972-03-19Kiruna(Red and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSkylark-4 auroral study mission; Kiruna launch; reached 229 km
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16, MT-135 and Super-ARCAS2 aeronomy intercomparison mission #9; Wallops Island launches; the rockets reached roughly 60 km
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on coverThirty Rocketsonde10 "meteorological rockets launched in a week long cooperative experiment ending March 20, 1972, to test weather data systems for France, Japan and the United States"; Wallops Island launches; altitudes reached were around 60 km
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 1:27 PM; reached around 60 km
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 3:00 PM; reached 59 km
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 3:45 PM; reached around 60 km
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverMT-135 aeronomy missions; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; released dropsondes; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 55 km
United States1972-03-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16, MT-135 and Super-ARCAS2 aeronomy intercomparison mission #10; Wallops Island launches; the rockets reached roughly 60 km
United States1972-03-21Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 8:46 PM 20 March; reached around 60 km
United States1972-03-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1972-03-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Javelin cesium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 100 km
Australia1972-03-27Woomera SA(Orange-brown and black printed) cachet on coverEarth resources experiment; Skylark SL1081 atmospheric observations were then compared to aircraft and ERTS-A satellite measurements; Woomera launch; reached 279 km
United States1972-03-27Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Javelin cesium release grenades5 mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 100 km
United States1972-04-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Javelin cesium release grenades5 mission B25845; Wallops Island launch at 5:04 AM; reached 100 km
United States1972-04-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Javelin cesium release grenades5 mission B5910; Wallops Island launch at 5:06 AM; reached 100 km
United States1972-04-12Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached around 60 km
United States1972-05-17Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached around 60 km
United States1972-06-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached around 60 km
Japan1972-09-12Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.9) cachet on coverKappa-10-8 X-ray astronomy mission; Uchinoura launch; reached 259 km
Italy1972-09-20Perdasdefogu(Return address rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSkylark-3 ESRO X-ray astronomy mission; Salto di Quirra launch; probably reached around 210 km
Japan1972-09-25Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.17) cachet on coverLSC-6 test mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 100 km
United States1972-09-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAstrobee research rocket test; Wallops Island launch; reached 199 km
United States1972-09-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1972-10-03Kourou(Centre Spatial Guyanais) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-13 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1972-10-03Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverEridan solar extreme UV measurement mission; Kourou launch; possibly reached around 300 km
United States1972-10-09Chatanika AK(Red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTomahawk-Sandia barium release grenades5 mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 500 km
United States1972-10-09Chatanika AK(Red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
Sweden1972-10-09Kiruna(JG) cachet on coverNike-Apache NNA-4 Giacobini-Zinner comet dust collection mission; Esrange launch; reached 109 km
United States1972-10-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-170 CHASER ABM IR sensor technology mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 151 km
United States1972-10-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Australia1972-10-19Woomera SA(Red and orange and brown printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1022 ionospheric composition and scattering mission; Woomera launch; reached 150 km
United States1972-10-21Chatanika AK(Red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk plasma/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 270 km
Australia1972-10-24Woomera SA(Green and blue printed) cachet on coverSkylark X-ray astronomy / ozone measurement mission; Woomera launch; reached 210 km
Australia1972-10-26Woomera SA(Red and black printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1003 solar spectrum and X-ray measurement mission; Woomera launch; reached 195 km
Australia1972-11-02Woomera SA(Cyan and black printed) cachet on coverSkylark-6 ESRO X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 211 km
French Guiana1972-11-13Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverEridan extreme UV and solar magnetism mission; Kourou launch; reached 287 km
French Guiana1972-11-13Kourou(Lollini) cachet (slightly different) on cover
French Guiana1972-11-13Kourou(Lollini) cachet (slightly different) on cover
United States1972-11-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached around 60 km
French Guiana1972-11-17Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-15 aeronomy mission (incorrectly spelled 'ARCA'); part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; reached 60 km
French Guiana1972-11-17Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on cover
United States1972-11-20WSMR, NM(Black printed) cachet on coverAerobee-200A first launch test mission (and 25th anniv. first high-altitude flight of the first Aerobee rocket, which reached 56 km at WSMR in 1947); WSMR launch; reached 250 km
United States1972-12-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 185 km
Australia1972-12-07Woomera SA(Green and blue printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1202 lunar occultation X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 248 km
French Guiana1972-12-07Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverEridan UV astronomy mission; Kourou launch; reached 213 km
Australia1972-12-11Woomera SA(Magenta and black printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1005 measurement of concentration of O2 and various neutral and ionised atoms; Woomera launch; reached 196 km
United States1972-12-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached around 60 km
United States1973-01-22WSMR, NM(Szostek/Swanson blue rubber-stamp) cachet (design based on Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose cachet) on coverAerobee-200 aeronomy/extreme solar UV mission to test instrumentation planned for Skylab; WSMR launch; reached 277 km
United States1973-01-22WSMR, NM(Szostek/Swanson cyan rubber-stamp) cachet (design based on Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose cachet) on cover
United States1973-01-22WSMR, NM(Black printed) cachet on cover
Australia1973-01-31Woomera SA(Red and purple printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1205 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 218 km
Japan1973-02-05Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.18) cachet on coverMT-135P-T5 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 58 km
Japan1973-02-07Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.19) cachet on coverJCR-8 test mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 135 km
Japan1973-02-08Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.20) cachet on coverMT-135P-T6 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 63 km
Japan1973-02-19Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.14) cachet on coverKappa-10-9 solar UV/astronomy mission; Uchinoura launch; reached 236 km
Japan1973-02-19Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.14) cachet (different text color) on cover
Japan1973-02-23Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.15) cachet on coverKappa-9M-42 cesium release5 ionospheric mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 306 km
Australia1973-03-01Woomera SA(Brown and purple printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1010 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 199 km
Australia1973-03-14Woomera SA(Purple printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1004 imaging spectrograph solar X-ray mission; Woomera launch; reached 225 km
United States1973-03-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart ROBINSphere11 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 120 km altitude
United States1973-03-16Chatanika AK(Red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Tomahawk plasma/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 249 km
Australia1973-03-20Woomera SA(Purple and orange printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1102 diffraction grating specgtrograph solar UV mission; Woomera launch; reached 225 km
United States1973-03-20Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 magnetic field mapping mission; Poker Flat launch; probably reached around 225 km
United States1973-03-21Chatanika AK(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 magnetic field mapping mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 225 km
United States1973-03-21Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet (slightly different) on cover
United States1973-03-21Chatanika AK(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAstrobee-D airglow/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 78 km
United States1973-03-21Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
French Guiana1973-03-21Kourou(Centre Spatial Guyanais) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-16 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-03-21Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1973-03-21Kourou(Lollini) cachet (slightly different) on cover
United States1973-03-22Chatanika AK(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverBlack-Brant aeronomy/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 183 km
United States1973-03-22Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1973-03-27Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 magnetic field mapping mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 233 km
United States1973-03-27Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverPaiute-Tomahawk ICECAP 1973 aeronomy mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 255 km
French Guiana1973-03-28Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-17 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-03-28Kourou(Centre Spatial Guyanais) cachet on cover
United States1973-03-30Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk plasma/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 243 km
United States1973-03-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Arcasonde10 mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 56 km
United States1973-04-03WSMR, NM(Szostek black printed/WSMR Cover no.7) cachet on cover, also backBlack-Brant-5C joint WSMR-Skylab solar observations intercomparison mission; WSMR launch; reached 245 km
French Guiana1973-04-04Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-18 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-04-04Kourou(Centre Spatial Guyanais) cachet on cover
United States1973-04-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Arcasonde10 mission; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 56 km
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverVéronique-61M solar extreme UV mission; Kourou launch; reached 200 km
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(Lollini) cachet (slightly different) on cover
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(CPK and ship Croix du Sud rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(CPK? and ship Croix du Sud rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(JG) cachet on cover
Australia1973-04-18Woomera SA(Orange and tan printed) cachet on coverSkylark X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 214 km
Australia1973-04-18Woomera SA(Green and red printed) cachet on cover
French Guiana1973-04-18Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-19 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-04-18Kourou(Centre Spatial Guyanais) cachet on cover
French Guiana1973-05-09Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-20 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-05-09Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1973-05-09Kourou(Centre Spatial Guyanais) cachet on cover
United States1973-05-14
1973_05-25
WSMR, NM (machine cancel)
WSMR, NM (hand cancel)
(Szostek purple printed/WSMR Cover no.9) cachet on coverTwo joint WSMR-Skylab missions, both launched from WSMR; the Black-Brant-5C extreme UV solar data calibration mission on 18 May (not 14 May as in the cancel) reached 267 km; the Aerobee-170 test and astronomical data intercomparison mission on 25 May reached 178 km
United States1973-05-18WSMR, NM(Szostek yellow-gold printed/WSMR Cover no.10) cachet on cover, also backBlack-Brant-5C joint WSMR-Skylab extreme UV solar data calibration mission; WSMR launch; reached 267 km
French Guiana1973-05-30Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-21 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-05-30Kourou(Centre Spatial Guyanais) cachet on cover
United States1973-06-02WSMR, NM(Szostek green printed/WSMR Cover no.11) cachet on cover, also backAerobee-170A joint WSMR-Skylab data intercomparison mission, to determine the "accuracy of Skylab's atmospheric physics and weather observation system"; WSMR launch; reached 175 km
United States1973-06-04WSMR, NM(Szostek green printed/WSMR Cover no.12) cachet on cover, also backBlack-Brant-5C WSMR-Skylab solar extreme UV data calibration mission; WSMR launch; reached 132 km [but mission failed]
United States1973-06-04WSMR, NM(Szostek/Swanson red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet (the red part is based on Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose cachet) on cover, also insertAerobee-170A WSMR-Skylab atmospheric data intercomparison mission (2 June, reached 175 km) and Black Brant WSMR-Skylab solar extreme UV data calibration mission (4 June, reached 132 km [but mission failed]); both launches were from WSMR
United States1973-06-04WSMR, NM(Szostek/Swanson red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet (slightly different arrangement; the red part is based on Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose cachet) on cover
French Guiana1973-06-07Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-22 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-06-07Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
French Guiana1973-06-07Kourou(Centre Spatial Guyanais) cachet on cover
United States1973-06-11WSMR, NM(Szostek red-brown printed/WSMR Cover no.13) cachet on cover, also backAerobee-200A joint WSMR-Skylab solar data calibration mission; WSMR launch; reached 221 km
United States1973-06-13WSMR, NM(Szostek blue printed/WSMR Cover no.14) cachet on cover, also backBlack-Brant-5C solar UV/X-ray mission (observed the same region of the Sun as the Skylab ATM53, for data comparison and calibration); WSMR launch; reached 241 km
Australia1973-06-18Woomera SA(Purple and orange printed) cachet on coverSkylark-6AC far UV astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 227 km
United States1973-06-28Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTerrier-Recruit probable aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; altitude reached not known
Sweden1973-08-01Kiruna(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache aeronomy mission; Esrange launch; reached 109 km
United States1973-08-09WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.21) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-5C CALROC-2 (Calibration Rocket 2) extreme UV mission (to "properly calibrate the Apollo Telescope53 aboard Skylab"); WSMR launch; reached 269 km
Japan1973-08-19Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.21) cachet on coverS-210-9 aeronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 115 km
Japan1973-08-21Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.22) cachet on coverKappa-9M-43 sodium (Latin "natrium") release5 aeronomy mission; resulting luminous cloud was observed in daylight for the first time ever; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 355 km
Japan1973-08-27Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.23) cachet on coverKappa-9M-44 X-ray astronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 341 km
United States1973-08-29Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F ABRES31 RVTO36-3A-2 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1400 km
United States1973-08-30WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.23) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-5C data intercomparison mission for Skylab's ATM53 data (and also possibly for the EREP (Earth Resources Experiments Package)49 data); WSMR launch; reached 299 km
Japan1973-09-05Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.24) cachet on coverMT-135P-T7 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 57 km
French Guiana1973-09-10Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-23 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-09-12Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-24 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-09-12Kourou(CPK?) cachet on cover
United States1973-09-18Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverUte-Tomahawk Polar Disturbed Ionosphere mission with rocket balloon; Poker Flat 6 AM launch; reached 127 km
United States1973-09-18Chatanika AK(Magenta and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverUte-Tomahawk Polar Disturbed Ionosphere mission with rocket balloon; Poker Flat 8 AM launch; reached 129 km
United States1973-09-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 unknown aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 65 km
Australia1973-09-19Woomera SA(Blue and red-brown printed) cachet on coverKookaburra aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 121 km
Australia1973-09-19Woomera SA(Blue and red-brown printed) cachet (different) on cover
French Guiana1973-09-29/30Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover65 (not "fifty-five" as in cover2) aeronomy missions, of which 48 provided useful data, during the CIMO44 intensive observation period45 that lasted from 20 Sep through 1 Oct 1973 (the covers bear the dual-date cancel 29-30 Sep 1973); Kourou launches; altitudes reached were mostly in the range of 65-80 km
French Guiana1973-09-29/30Kourou(Lollini blue printed) cachet on cover
United States1973-09-30Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F ABRES31 ACE-1 (Advanced Control Experiment 1) re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1400 km
United States1973-10-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Arcasonde10 aeronomy mission; 11:15 AM Wallops Island launch; reached 59 km
United States1973-10-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Arcasonde10 aeronomy mission; 2:04 PM Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 60 km
French Guiana1973-10-10Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-25 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-10-31Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-40 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-10-31Kourou(Centre Spatial Guyanais) cachet on cover
Australia1973-11-02Woomera SA(Orange and green printed) cachet on coverAerobee-170 astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 175 km
Australia1973-11-02Woomera SA(Pink and cyan printed) cachet on coverAerobee-170 astronomy mission (different); Woomera launch; reached 166 km
Australia1973-11-07Woomera SA(Orange and purple printed) cachet on coverAerobee-170 astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 167 km
Australia1973-11-10Woomera SA(Red and brown and green printed) cachet on coverAerobee-170 astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 175 km
Australia1973-11-10Woomera SA(Pink and cyan printed) cachet on coverAerobee-170 astronomy mission (different); Woomera launch; reached 169 km
French Guiana1973-11-29Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-41 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1973-12-04Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-5C barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 570 km
United States1973-12-10WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.25) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-5C CALROC-3 (Calibration Rocket 3) solar extreme UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 269 km; (cameras "photograph areas of solar activity while astronauts in Skylab use their telescope mount to photograph the same regions")
United States1973-12-10WSMR, NM(WSMR red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1973-12-12Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-42 launch; France - NASA program of co-operation and the 13th launch of a meteorological research rocket in 1973 as part of the program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1973-12-19WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.26) cachet on coverAerobee-200A data intercomparison mission for Skylab's ATM53 data; WSMR launch; reached 220 km
United States1973-12-19WSMR, NM(WSMR blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1974-01-04WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.27) cachet on coverAerobee-200A NASA/WSMR/NRL55 Kohoutek optical/UV astronomy mission; WSMR launch; reached 233 km
United States1974-01-04WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.27) cachet (and signature) on cover
United States1974-01-07WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.28) cachet on coverAerobee-200A NASA/WSMR/NRL55 Kohoutek aeronomy/extreme UV astronomy mission; WSMR launch; reached 193 km
United States1974-01-07WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.28) cachet (and signature) on cover
French Guiana1974-01-09Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-45 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1974-01-12WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.29) cachet on coverAerobee-200A NASA/WSMR/NRL55 Kohoutek observation mission; WSMR launch; reached 82 km [but mission failed]
United States1974-01-12WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.29) cachet (and signature) on cover
United States1974-01-15WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.30) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-5C intercomparison mission to measure contamination by particles around Skylab and estimate their effect on the ATM 53; WSMR launch; reached 234 km
Japan1974-01-16Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.29) cachet on coverKappa-9M-45 aeronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 365 km
United States1974-01-16Chatanika AK(Magenta and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk falling sphere - TMA release mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 298 km (TMA is trimethyl aluminum, a neutral tracer released by the falling sphere which could be observed; the observations were used to calculate ionospheric winds and densities)
United States1974-01-21Chatanika AK(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 298 km
Japan1974-01-22Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.30) cachet on coverL-3H-8 X-ray astronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 1571 km (but data transmission was lost at 500 km)
United States1974-01-30 (machine cancel)Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAthena-RTV51 HEART37 mission V4-6765; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 200 km
United States1974-01-30 (hand cancel)Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1974-01-30 (machine cancel)Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1974-01-30 (hand cancel)Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Japan1974-02-01Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.31) cachet on coverJCR-10 test mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 120 km
Japan1974-02-02Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.32) cachet on coverMT-135P-T9 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 60 km
French Guiana1974-02-04Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-46 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-02-04Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
Australia1974-02-05Woomera SA(Green and brown printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1203 extreme UV survey mission; Woomera launch; reached 197 km
United States1974-02-07Chatanika AK(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAstrobee-D tracking test mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 91 km
Japan1974-02-10Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.34) cachet on coverMT-135P-T10 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 60 km
United States1974-02-13Chatanika AK(Red and green and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverBlack-Brant-5C aeronomy mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 200 km
United States1974-02-13Chatanika AK(Magenta and black rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on (airmail) cover
French Guiana1974-02-14Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-47 mission; France - NASA meteorological co-operation (in text of Lollini cachet); Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-02-14Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
United States1974-02-18Chatanika AK(Red and green and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Hydac aeronomy mission, including falling spheres for air density; Poker Flat launch; reached 150 km
United States1974-02-18Chatanika AK(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1974-02-21Chatanika AK(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-5C aeronomy mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 180 km
French Guiana1974-02-22Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-43A and 35-44B aeronomy missions; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launches; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-02-22Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-43B mission in support of isentropic balloon program; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-02-22Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on cover
French Guiana1974-02-25Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-44B aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-02-25Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
United States1974-02-26WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.31) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-5C LPSP (Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planétaire) EUV (Extreme UltraViolet) solar mission; WSMR launch; [mission failed] at 98 km; (the cover text says that this was a Pioneer-10 Jupiter flyby data calibration mission, but that appears incorrect, since that flyby took place on 3 December 1973)
French Guiana1974-02-27Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-48 mission in support of isentropic balloon program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-02-27Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
United States1974-03-06Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F ABRES31 BMRS47 SFT48-1 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1400 km
French Guiana1974-03-13Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-49 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-03-13Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
United States1974-03-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-03-19Kousou(Lollini) cachet on coverNASA 1974 spring equinox campaign; 12 Super-Loki aeronomy missions were launched from Kourou on 19 March; they reached altitudes from 65 to 75 km
Australia1974-03-20Woomera SA(Green printed) cachet on coverLorikeet aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 100 km
United States1974-03-22Chatanika AK(Purple and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverStrypi Acanta-Contiga aurora and "magnetospheric dumping" mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 200 km [but mission failed]
United States1974-03-22Chatanika AK(Magenta and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-03-22Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverNASA 1974 spring equinox campaign: multiple aeronomy launches from approximately 19 March to 27 March of Nike-Cajun (reached 85-120 km), Super-Loki (reached 65-75 km) and Super-ARCAS2 (reached around 75 km) rockets; "Nike-Ozone" as written in the cachet is not a rocket type. It probably refers to one of the atmospheric constituents measured during the campaign. All launches were from Kourou.
French Guiana1974-03-22Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverTwo Nike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy missions to measure "upper atmospheric structure, temperature and wind speeds" (in French text); Wallops Island launches; both reached 120 km altitude. NOTE: these launches were part of the NASA 1974 spring equinox campaign noted in the cover immediately above.
United States1974-03-26 (hand cancel)Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAthena-RTV51 HEART37 mission V4-6766; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 200 km
United States1974-03-26 (machine cancel)Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1974-03-26 (machine cancel)Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
French Guiana1974-03-27Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-50 aeronomy mission; the 9th launch in the 1974 co-operative NASA-France program of meteorological rocket missions; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-03-27Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
United States1974-04-12Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAstrobee-D ionospheric mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 129 km
French Guiana1974-04-17Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-51 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-04-17Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
Australia1974-04-23Woomera SA(Brown and tan printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1207 ionospheric physics mission; Woomera launch; reached 178 km
French Guiana1974-05-02Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-52 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1974-05-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Malemute test mission (first flight of the Nike-Malemute); Wallops Island launch; reached 500 km
French Guiana1974-05-15Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-53 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1974-05-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache aeronomy and ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 138 km
French Guiana1974-05-29Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-54 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1974-05-31Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSuper-Loki Datasonde/Starute16 aeronomy mission (goal was to obtain data to compare with those from the "NOAA-3" weather satellite); Poker Flat launch; reached 60 km
United States1974-06-18WSMR, NM(Szostek/WSMR Cover no.33) cachet on coverAries-1 test/astronomy mission; WSMR launch; reached 300 km
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on cover54 missions in Project ALADDIN18 '74, mostly for aeronomy, but also for some other specialized studies; Javelin, Black-Brant, Tomahawk and Nike-Apache rockets, as well as several other types, were used; Wallops Island launches (on 29 and 30 June); the aeronomy missions generally reached 75-100 km, while others flew to the 150-250 km range of altitudes.
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk ALADDIN18 '74 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (at 5:05 PM 29 Jun); reached 186 km
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Cajun ALADDIN18 '74 aeronomy/extreme UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (at 8:10 PM 29 Jun); reached 100 km
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson purple and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverThree Ute-Tomahawk ALADDIN18 '74 chemical release5 aeronomy missions; Wallops Island launches on 29 June at 5:20 PM, 9:06 PM, and 11:45 PM (reached 186 km, 203 km, and 201 km, respectively)
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 ALADDIN18 '74 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 90 km
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverUte-Tomahawk ALADDIN18 '74 sodium-lithium chemical release5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 180 km
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverPaiute-Tomahawk ALADDIN18 '74 chemical release aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 228 km
United States1974-08-19Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSuper-Loki "noctilucent cloud study"; Poker Flat launch; reached 66 km
United States1974-08-28 (machine cancel)Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAthena-RTV51 HEART37 mission V4-6767; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 200 km
United States1974-08-28 (hand cancel)Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1974-08-28Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-09-04Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-55 research rocket in support of isentropic balloon program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-09-04Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on cover
French Guiana1974-09-04Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
Australia1974-09-05Woomera SA(Pink and blue printed) cachet on coverHISTAR52-8 IR astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 193 km; (it is not known what "A" in the cachet text refers to)
Australia1974-09-05Woomera SA(Green and red printed) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-09-11Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverCentaure-2C aeronomy mission under co-operation of ESRO, CNES, and IASB (Aeronautics and Space Institute of Belgium); Kourou launch; reached 120 km
Japan1974-09-11Riori(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.46) cachet on coverMT-135P meteorological mission; Ryori launch; reached 60 km
French Guiana1974-09-11Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-56 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-09-12Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-09-12Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverCentaure-2C nitrogen oxide release aeronomy mission; Kourou launch; reached 140 km
Australia1974-09-12Woomera SA(Red-brown and yellow printed) cachet on coverHISTAR52-9 IR astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km; (it is not known what "Australian-designed A-1 rocket" in the cachet text refers to)
Australia1974-09-12Woomera SA(Red-brown and orange printed) cachet on cover
Australia1974-09-12Woomera SA(Red-brown and grey printed) cachet on coverHISTAR52-9 IR astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km; (it is not known what "A" in the cachet text refers to)
Japan1974-09-15Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.43) cachet on coverKappa-9M-46 ionospheric plasmas mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 336 km
French Guiana1974-09-18Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-57 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km; (the RAVEN balloons mentioned in the two Lollini cachets appear to have had no direct relation to the rocket mission)
French Guiana1974-09-18Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-09-18Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on cover
Japan1974-09-20Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.45) cachet on coverKappa-9M-48 ionospheric X-ray/UV mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 340 km
United States1974-09-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Malemute test mission (second and last flight of the Nike-Malemute); Wallops Island launch; reached 465 km
French Guiana1974-10-02Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-58 research rocket (part of the international balloons campaign); Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-10-02Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-10-02Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-10-16Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-59 research rocket (part of the international balloons campaign); Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-10-16Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-10-30Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-60 research rocket (part of the international balloons campaign); Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-10-30Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-11-05Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverEridan FAUST #1 (FAr Ultraviolet Space Telescope) UV astronomy mission; Kourou launch; reached 220 km
French Guiana1974-11-13Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-61 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-11-13Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-11-18Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverEridan FAUST #2 (FAr Ultraviolet Space Telescope) UV astronomy mission; Kourou launch; reached 220 km
French Guiana1974-11-18Kourou(Lollini) cachet (and no address) on cover
French Guiana1974-11-27Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-62 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-11-27Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-11-27Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-12-04Kourou(CPK) cachet (and signature) on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-64 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km (the Lollini cachet incorrectly identifies the mission as Super-ARCAS2-35-63)
French Guiana1974-12-04Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
United States1974-12-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 306 km
French Guiana1974-12-18Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-65 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-12-18Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-01-09Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS235-66 research rocket; (part of the EXAMETNET9 program); Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km; the second cover also mentions the Kourou "assembly hall" for the French rockets Centaure, Dragon, Rubis, Eridan and Véronique
French Guiana1975-01-09Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
Japan1975-01-17Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.47) cachet on coverKappa-9M-49 airglow aeronomy mission; measurements of ozone, oxygen and ionospheric plasmas; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 363 km
United States1975-01-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverPaiute-Tomahawk ALADDIN18 -'75 sphere aeronomy/plasma mission; Wallops Island launch on 17 June at 6:35 PM; reached 190 km
United States1975-01-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Japan1975-01-20Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.48) cachet on coverS-310-1 test mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 192 km
Japan1975-01-23Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.49) cachet on coverKappa-9M-50 X-ray astronomy and plasmas mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 350 km
Russia (USSR)1975-01-26Sogra, Archangelsk(Sogra Geophysical Observatory?) cachet on coverEridan ionospheric and plasma studies mission (part of the Franco-Soviet ARAKS (Artificial Radiation and Aurora between Kerguelen and Sogra) experiment, which was dedicated to auroral studies); Kerguelen Island launch; reached 190 km; (a similar mission with a second Eridan rocket took place on 25 February 1975)
Australia1975-01-28Woomera SA(Cyan and red printed) cachet on coverMeadowlark research rocket first flight; Woomera launch; designed for altitudes up to 350 km
French Guiana1975-01-30Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-67 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-01-30Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
Japan1975-01-30Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.50) cachet on coverMT-135P-T13 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 59 km
Japan1975-02-05Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.51) cachet on coverETV test mission; Tanegashima launch ("Q-2" in cachet text refers to the second launch from pad "Q"); reached 168 km
United States1975-02-05Chatanika AK(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-6 US Army Arctic test aeronomy mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 72 km
French Guiana1975-02-06Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-68 aeronomy mission for measurements just before the launch by a Diamant rocket of the STARLET satellite; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Japan1975-02-07Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.52) cachet on coverMT-135P-T14 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 61 km
French Guiana1975-02-13Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-69 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-02-26Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-70 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1975-02-26Chatanika AK(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAstrobee-D AFCRL15 aeronomy mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 104 km
French Guiana1975-03-12Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-71 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km; also STARLETTE, spelled "STARLET" (in the two Lollini cachets)
French Guiana1975-03-12Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-03-12Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
United States1975-03-17Chatanika AK(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk plasma/electric fields/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 270 km
Australia1975-03-18Woomera SA(Blue and brown printed) cachet on coverSkylark launched on 14 March for solar X-ray measurements at the time of Helios-A solar perihelion; Woomera launch; reached 270 km; payload was recovered on 18 March
Australia1975-03-20Sydney Philatelic Sales Centre(Red and yellow and blue printed) cachet on coversupposedly an aeronomy mission according to the cachet text, but Turana6 was not an atmospheric research rocket
French Guiana1975-03-26Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-72 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-03-26Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
United States1975-04-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAthena-RTV51 HEART37 mission V4-7489; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 200 km
Australia1975-04-04Sydney Philatelic Sales Centre(Red and yellow and blue printed) cachet on coversupposedly an aeronomy mission according to the cachet text, but Turana6 was not an atmospheric research rocket
French Guiana1975-04-16Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-73 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-04-16Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-04-16Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on cover
Australia1975-04-24Sydney Philatelic Sales Centre(Red and yellow and blue printed) cachet on coversupposedly an aeronomy mission according to the cachet text, but Turana6 was not an atmospheric research rocket
Australia1975-04-28Woomera SA(Red and yellow printed) cachet on coverAero-High aluminium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 180 km
French Guiana1975-04-29Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-74 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km; also 7th anniv. the first rocket launch from Kourou
French Guiana1975-04-29Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-04-29Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-05-14Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-75 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-05-17Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2- 35-76 aeronomy mission, in support of the launch of the satellites D-5B (Castor) and D-5A (Pollux); part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-05-28Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-77 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-05-28Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-05-28Kourou(Lollini) cachet (slightly different) on cover
French Guiana1975-05-28Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on cover
Australia1975-05-29Woomera SA(Brown and green printed) cachet on coverUnknown type upper atmospheric research rocket test mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known
French Guiana1975-05-30Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on coverVéronique-3M FAUST #3 (FAr Ultraviolet Space Telescope) UV astronomy mission; Kourou launch; reached 172 km
French Guiana1975-05-30Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-06-11Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-78 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-06-11Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-06-11Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-06-18Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-79 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Australia1975-06-24Woomera SA(Red and green printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1105 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 180 km
United States1975-07-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 120 km
Australia1975-08-12Adelaide SA(Green and brown printed) cachet on coverUnknown type upper atmospheric research rocket mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known
Australia1975-08-13Woomera SA(Red and yellow and green printed) cachet on coverUnknown type upper atmospheric research rocket mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known
Japan1975-08-17Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.54) cachet on coverTT-210 test mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 113 km
Australia1975-08-21Woomera SA(Pink and red and blue printed) cachet on coverSkylark upper atmospheric research rocket; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known
Australia1975-08-21Woomera SA(Tan and green and magenta aprinted) cachet (changed colors) on cover
Russia (USSR)1975-09-07Baikonur Karaganda Oblast(Purple and red and green printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on (known fake29) coverVertikal-3 solar UV/X-ray mission; Kapustin Yar launch on 2 September; reached 502 km
French Guiana1975-09-09Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-80 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-09-09Kourou(CPK) cachet (and signature) on cover
Japan1975-09-10Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.60) cachet on coverMT-135P-T15 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch (cachet incorrectly gives Uchinoura); reached 59 km
French Guiana1975-09-17Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-81 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Japan1975-09-24Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.62) cachet on coverKappa-10-11 X-ray astronomy and solar UV mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 196 km
United States1975-09-24Wallops Island VA(Swanton green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 243 km
United States1975-09-24Wallops Island VA(Swanton blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-09-29Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-82 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-10-29Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-83 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Australia1975-11-07Woomera SA(Magenta and cyan printed) cachet on coverCockatoo-C3009 lithium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 150 km
United States1975-11-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Javelin test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 163 km
Australia1975-11-25Woomera SA(Green and red printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1112 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 251 km
Australia1975-12-04Woomera SA(Purple and cyan printed) cachet on coverCorella-C1002 chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 220 km
United States1975-12-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(DuBeau? cyan rubber-stamp) cachet on coverUte-Tomahawk ESCAPE-II (Sphere) aeronomy mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 164 km
United States1975-12-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(DuBeau? cyan rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-12-18Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-84 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1976-01-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 75 km
United States1976-01-15Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTerrier-Malemute (mis-spelled "Malmute") test mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 81 km
United States1976-01-15Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1976-01-15Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Japan1976-01-18Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.64) cachet on coverKappa-10-12 ionospheric IMS (International Magnetic Systems) mission in advance of EXOS-A and EXOS-B launches; Uchinoura launch; reached 350 km ("216 km" in text possibly is in miles rather than kilometers)
United States1976-01-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk plasma mission; Wallops Island launch (on 18 January); reached 270 km
United States1976-01-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAstrobee-D plasma mission; Wallops Island launch (on 18 January); reached 76 km
French Guiana1976-01-21Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-85 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1976-01-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAstrobee-D plasma physics mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 76 km
United States1976-01-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk Winter Anomaly aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 23 January); reached 117 km
French Guiana1976-01-28Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-86 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1976-01-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 ion densities plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 70 km
United States1976-01-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1976-02-18Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-87 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1976-02-18WSMR, NM(Boudwin? red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverBlack-Brant-5C Solar UV and X-ray mission for OSO-8 data calibration; WSMR launch; reached 282 km
United States1976-02-24WSMR, NM(Boudwin? red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAerobee-170 solar X-ray/extreme UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 221 km
Australia1976-02-26Woomera SA(Blue and purple printed) cachet on coverKookaburra K2021 aeronomy mission to measure density-height and wind profiles; Woomera launch; probably reached around 85 km
French Guiana1976-03-17Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-88 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1976-04-01Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-89 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1976-04-14Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-90 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1976-04-21Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart Datasonde/Starute16 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 68 km
United States1976-04-21Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
French Guiana1976-04-29Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-91 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1976-05-12Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-92 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Australia1976-05-13Woomera SA(Cyan and red printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1115 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 231 km
French Guiana1976-06-02Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-93 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1976-06-09Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-94 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1976-06-11Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Javelin test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 130 km
United States1976-06-11Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1976-06-11Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1976-06-11Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
Australia1976-06-11Woomera SA(Blue and red printed) cachet on coverSkylark X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 280 km
United States1976-06-18Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage purple and pink) cachet on coverGP-A (Gravity Probe A) mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 10,230 km; (carried a precise clock that measured slight changes in the clock rate due to the lower gravity force aloft during the 1 hour and 55 minutes of flight time)
United States1976-06-18Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage brown and pink) cachet on cover
United States1976-06-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1976-06-18Greenbelt MD(GSFC STDN blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1976-06-30WSMR, NM(WSMR red rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on (airmail) coverAerobee-170 solar irradiance measurement experiment "to calibrate solar panels on Nimbus-6"; WSMR launch; reached 225 km
United States1976-08-04Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson/DuBeau? green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover(possible) single stage of a Nike-Hercules rocket used as a sounding rocket; Wallops Island launch; altitude reached is unknown
United States1976-08-04Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1976-08-04Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1976-08-05Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/Vandy? magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverMinuteman test mission; Vandenberg launch; altitude reached unknown
United States1976-08-05Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/Vandy? magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1976-08-12Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 148 km
Japan1976-08-21Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.69) cachet on coverS-310-3 ionization and electron temperature and number density mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 195 km
French Guiana1976-09-15Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-95 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Japan1976-09-16Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.72) cachet on coverKappa-9M-55 ionospheric temperature and electron density mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 359 km
Japan1976-09-18Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.73) cachet on coverKappa-9M-56 ionospheric ozone and nitric oxides mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 300 km
Japan1976-09-25Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.75) cachet on coverMT-135P-T17 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 59 km
French Guiana1976-09-29Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-96 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1976-10-13Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-97 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Australia1976-11-10Woomera SA(Orange and brown printed) cachet on coverBlack-Brant (not "Brandt", as in the cachet text) APD-VB42 cosmic X-ray mission; Woomera launch; reached 215 km
United States1976-11-17WSMR, NM(Boudwin? blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverBlack-Brant-5C solar X-ray mission; WSMR launch; reached 261 km
United States1976-11-19WSMR, NM(Boudwin blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverBlack-Brant-8C extreme UV astronomy mission; WSMR launch; reached 295 km
French Guiana1976-12-01Kourou(CPK) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2-35-100 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km; this was the 100th launch in the Super-ARCAS2-35 series
United States1977-01-08Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk (mis-spelled "Toamhawk") plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 138 km
United States1977-01-08Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1977-01-08Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAstrobee-D plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 83 km
Australia1977-02-16Woomera SA(Yellow and blue printed) cachet on coverAerobee-200 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached approximately 280 km
Australia1977-02-18Woomera SA(Blue printed) cachet on coverAerobee-170 UV astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached approximately 280 km
Australia1977-02-18Woomera SA(Pink and blue plrinted) cachet on coverAerobee-200 UV astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached approximately 280 km
Australia1977-02-22Woomera SA(Purple and blue printed) cachet on coverAerobee-170 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached approximately 280 km
Japan1977-02-24Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135P-T18 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch; probably reached around 60 km
Japan1977-02-24Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet (and signature) on cover
United States1977-06-21WSMR, NM(Swanson blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet (design based on Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose cachet) on (airmail) coverBlack-Brant-5C SPAR-427 microgravity mission; WSMR launch; reached 179 km
United States1977-07-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverTaurus-Orion test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 240 km
United States1977-08-10Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverFirst day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1977-08-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1977-08-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1977-08-12Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverSecond day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-12Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1977-08-12Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1977-08-15Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverThird day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1977-08-16Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverFourth day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Japan1977-08-16Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.81) cachet on coverL-3H-9 ionospheric radio wave mission in advance of EXOS-A and EXOS-B launches; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 1294 km
United States1977-08-17Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverFifth day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSixth day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSeventh day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1977-08-19Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on cover
United States1977-08-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverEighth day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-23Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverNinth and last day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Japan1977-08-25Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.82?) cachet on coverTT-500 test mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 300 km
Japan1977-09-14Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.86) cachet on coverKappa-10-13 X-ray/UV astronomy mission "as preliminary test for the coming launch of [the] 7th scientific satellite" (which was Astro-A/Hinotori, launched in 1981); Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 204 km
Japan1977-09-15Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.87) cachet on coverS-210-12 aeronomy mission; measurements of ozone, aerosols, and ionospheric electron density; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 114 km
United States1977-09-29WSMR, NM(Boudwin? blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAstrobee-F mission to "measure vertical atmospheric [profile of] ozone in Chappuis bands & absolute value of solar ionizing flux"; WSMR launch; reached 257 km
Japan1978-01-22Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.90) cachet on coverKappa-9M-62 electron temperature and solar X-ray mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 369 km
United States1978-01-31WSMR, NM(Two-part black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlack-Brant solar corona X-ray mission; WSMR launch; reached 273 km; also Explorer-1 anniversary cover
United States1978-02-13WSMR, NM(Swanson blue and black typed) cachet (design based on Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose cachet) on (airmail) coverBlack-Brant HRTS-2 (High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph) solar UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 210 km
Japan1978-02-17Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135P-T21 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 64 km
Japan1978-02-26Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverKappa-9M-60 UV and X-ray astronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 340 km; [what appears to be a three-axis-stabilized satellite is a Galactic X-ray instrument]
United States1978-05-13WSMR, NM(Boudwin? blue and black typed) cachet on cover30th anniv. launch of Bumper-WAC-17,21 at WSMR on 13 May 1948; it was a successful test mission, in which the V-2 booster reached 112 km and the WAC Corporal upper section reached 128 km
United States1978-06-11Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverNike-Apache (Wallops Island launch; reached 220 km) and MR-12 (Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 170 km) JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization missions
United States1978-06-12WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on coverAries-1 X-ray astronomy and SPAR27 followup microgravity mission; WSMR launch; reached 355 km
United States1978-06-20Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverNike-Apache (Wallops Island launch; reached 184 km) and MR-12 (Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 175 km) JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization missions; "Nike-Tomahawk" rockets, launched from Wallops Island, were also used in the program; (see, for example, 1978-06-25)
United States1978-06-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1978-06-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverMR-12 JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization mission; Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 168 km
United States1978-06-23Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverMR-12 JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization mission; Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 168 km; "Nike-Apache" rockets, launched from Wallops Island, were also used in the program; (see, for example, 1978-06-11 and 1978-06-20)
United States1978-06-25Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverTwo MR-12 (Soviet research ship Professor Vize launches, at 7:31 PM and 9:31 PM; both reached 165 km) and Nike-Tomahawk (Wallops Island launch; reached 315 km) JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization missions; "Nike-Apache" rockets, launched from Wallops Island, were also used in the program; (see, for example, 1978-06-11 and 1978-06-20)
United States1978-06-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverMR-12 JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization mission; Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch (at 9:31 PM); reached 165 km
United States1978-08-14WSMR, NM(Swanson blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet (design based on Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose cachet) on coverBlack-Brant HRTS (High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph) solar UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 220 km [but mission failed]
Japan1978-08-20Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.97) cachet on coverKappa-9M-64 aurora and IR/UV/X-ray astronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 319 km; [what appears to be a three-axis-stabilized satellite is a Galactic X-ray instrument (on cover2)]
Japan1978-08-20Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on cover
Japan1978-08-24Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135P-T22 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 62 km
Japan1978-08-26Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.100) cachet on coverMT-135P-T23 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 60 km
United States1978-09-11WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on coverBlack-Brant SPAR-527 microgravity mission; WSMR launch; reached 165 km (102 miles; the "1.2 miles" in the text is incorrect)
United States1978-09-27Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverlast JASPIC19 launches: Nike-Apache (from Wallops Island on 27 September; reached 183 km) and MR-12 (from Soviet research ship Professor Vize on 26 June; reached 165 km); JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization missions
Japan1979-01-21Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.104) cachet on coverKappa-9M-66 barium release5 and plasma and electron energy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 336 km
Canada1979-02-24Ear Falls ON(Space Voyage) cachet on coverSeven solar eclipse preparatory missions with rockets of several types (Super-Loki, Nike-Tomahawk, ARCAS, and Super ARCAS) were launched at Red Lake ON on 24 and 25 February. Altitude reached was generally around 80 km. The eclipse took place on 26 February, when three eclipse/aeronomy rocket missions were launched (two Taurus-Orions and one Nike-Iroquois). All three reached around 200 km.
United States1979-08-14WSMR, NM(Black typed) cachet on coverThree aeronomy rocket launches from WSMR to obtain data to compare with observations made by an SSH instrument (not SSD as in the cachet text) in an overpass of a DMSP satellite (possibly DMSP-5D1-F4 which was launched 1979-06-06); the Nike-Tomahawk mesospheric structure mission reached 190 km, the Nike-Tomahawk air density mission failed and reached only 18 km, and the Aerobee-170 ultraviolet mission reached 178 km.
United States1979-10-17WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on coverSPAR-627 microgravity mission; WSMR launch; reached 185 km
United States1979-10-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Orion aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 140 km
Japan1980-01-18
1980-01-18
Uchinoura (text cancel)
Uchinoura (scenic cancel)
(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverS-520-1 ionospheric mission to test a "solar power station" and to measure "ionosphere plasma [and] electron temperature"; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 18 Jan 1980; reached 329 km
S-520-2 ionospheric mission to test a "solar power station" and "sub-rocket systems"; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 29 Jan 1981; reached 323 km
S-520-4 ionospheric mission to measure "electron density"; also tested an EXOS-C satellite payload; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 5 Sep 1981; reached 224 km
Japan1980-02-02
1980-02-02
Uchinoura (text cancel)
Uchinoura (scenic cancel)
(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverS-310 aeronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 179 km
United States1980-02-16WSMR, NM(Blue rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on coverBlack Brant solar mission (solar corona measurements to compare with data from the African solar eclipse of the same date); WSMR launch; reached 268 km
Japan1980-02-23
1980-02-23
Tanegashima (scenic cancel)
Minamitane (text cancel)
(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135P-T27 aeronomy mission "gathers meteorological data" (in cachet text); Tanegashima launch; reached 57 km
United States1980-04-18MSFC, AL(Space Voyage) cachet on cover"SPAR VII27 shipped from MSFC" (Marshall Space Flight Center); it was launched by a Black Brant rocket on 14 May 1980 from the White Sands Missile Range and reached an altitude of 204 km
United States1980-05-14WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on coverBlack-Brant SPAR-727 microgravity mission; WSMR launch; reached 204 km
Japan1980-09-02Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage red and blue and pink) cachet on coverOne Kappa-10 and three Kappa-9M launches: 17 Jan 1979 Kappa-9M aeronomy/ionosphere/"electron density" and "electron temperature" mission (reached 353 km); 27 Aug 1980 K-10 cosmic X-ray/IR astronomy mission (reached 219 km); 2 Sep 1980 Kappa-9M aeronomy/ionosphere/EXOS-C satellite data comparison mission (reached 230 km); 4 Sep 1980 aeronomy mission (reached 308 km [but payload failed]; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launches
Japan1980-09-13
1980-09-13
Minamitane (text cancel)
Tanegashima (scenic cancel)
(Scenic) cancel and (Watanabe/NASDA no.?) cachet on coverMT-135P-T28 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 61 km
Sweden1980-11-16Kiruna(MBB) cachet on coverAeronomy mission EBC-B E9B; (Super-Loki launch of E2 payload as part of the international research program Energy Budget Campaign); Esrange launch; reached 104 km
United States1980-11-18WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on coverSPAR-827 microgravity mission; WSMR launch; reached 198 km
Japan1981-01-15
1981-01-15
Minamitane (text cancel)
Tanegashima (scenic cancel)
(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverTT-500A Space Processing of Materials test mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 300 km
Japan1981-01-22
1981-01-22
Uchinoura (scenic cancel)
Uchinoura (text cancel)
(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverS-310-9 ionospheric mission to measure "electron density and electron temperature"; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 22 Jan 1981; reached 174 km
S-310-10 ionospheric mission for "observation of [the] night temperature airglow; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 24 Aug 1981; reached 187 km
S-310-11 ionospheric and aeronomy mission to measure "ozone layer electron temperature and density"; also tested an EXOS-C satellite payload; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 7 Sep 1981; reached 193 km
Japan1981-01-29
1981-01-29
Uchinoura (scenic cancel)
Uchinoura (text cancel)
(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverS-520-1 ionospheric mission to test a "solar power station" and to measure "ionosphere plasma [and] electron temperature"; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 18 Jan 1980; reached 329 km
S-520-2 ionospheric mission to test a "solar power station" and "sub-rocket systems"; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 29 Jan 1981; reached 323 km
S-520-4 ionospheric mission to measure "electron density"; also tested an EXOS-C satellite payload; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 5 Sep 1981; reached 224 km
Japan1981-02-12
1981-02-12
Minamtane (text cancel)
Tanegashima (scenic cancel)
(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135P-T28 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch on 13 September 1980; reached 61 km;
MT-135P-T29 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch on 15 September 1980; reached 60 km;
MT-135P-T30 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch on 12 February 1981; reached 61 km
United States1981-05-04WSMR, NM(Boudwin blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverBlack-Brant-8C X-ray astronomy mission; WSMR launch; reached 294 km
United States1981-08-10Wallops Island VA(Black rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on (airmail) coverTaurus-Orion plasma mission; Wallops Island launch on 8 August; reached 200 km
United States1981-09-24Wallops Island VA(Black rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on (airmail) coverOrion plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 71 km
Japan1982-02-18
1982-02-18
Uchinoura (scenic cancel)
Uchinoura (text cancel)
(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverKappa-9M-72 ionospheric radio waves mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 13 February 1982; reached 328 km;
Kappa-9M-73 ionospheric/plasma/fields mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 15 January 1982; reached 303 km;
Kappa-9M-74 UV/X-ray astronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 18 February 1982; reached 315 km; [what appears to be a three-axis-stabilized satellite is a Galactic X-ray instrument]
United States1982-06-17WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on coverAries extreme UV astronomy mission; WSMR launch; reached 247 km
United States1986-10-27Cape Canaveral FL(Blue printed) cachet on cover25th anniv. Saturn-1 first sub-orbital launch (technology and systems test with water-filled dummy upper stages in anticipation of Project Highwater23, which was carried out in the second and third Saturn-1 test missions); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 136 km
Japan1987-02-22Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverS-310-16 E-region ionospheric mission with "study of aurora activity and plasma"; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 1 February 1986; reached 201 km;
S-310-17 Airglow aeronomy mission with "study of aurora phenomena and plasma"; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 6 September 1986; reached 202 km;
S-520-9 E-field ionosphere and aeronomy mission with "tests [of] electric equipment for EXOS-D"; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 15 January 1987; reached 365 km;
S-520-8 UV astronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 22 February 1987; reached 286 km
United States1987-07-27WSMR Branch NM(Boudwin magenta and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-8C solar mission; WSMR launch; reached 340 km
Japan1987-09-09Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135 three dropsonde meteorological missions; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launches (two 9 Sep and one 11 Sep, 1987 - the "1988" in the cachet for the 11 Sep launch is an error); reached 58, 57, and 56 km
United States1989-08-20
1989-08-20
Minamitane (Japanese text cancel)
Minamitane (English text cancel)
(Watanabe/NASDA no.38) cachet on cover, also insertTR-1-3 test flight (1/4 scale model of the H-II rocket); Tanegashima launch; reached 85 km
Japan1990-01-20Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverDYANA34 DUD35-2 aeronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 77 km
Japan1990-01-29Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverDYANA34 DUD35-3 aeronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 80 km
Japan1990-08-27Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135P-T52 aeronomy mission; Uchinoura launch on 27 August 1990;
MT-135P-T53 aeronomy mission; Uchinoura launch on 9 February 1991; reached 57 km;
MT-135P-T55 aeronomy mission; Uchinoura launch on 11 September 1991; reached 52 km;
MT-135P-T57 aeronomy mission; Uchinoura launch on 9 September 1992; reached 56 km
Sweden1990-11-15Kiruna(MBB/ERNO) cachet on coverSkylark-7 TEXUS43-27 microgravity mission; Esrange launch; reached 249 km
Japan1991-02-16Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverThree S-520 launches: 16 Feb 1991 extreme UV astronomy mission (reached 337 km); 2 Feb 1992 IR astronomy mission (reached 338 km); and 18 Feb 1993 ionosphere/active "plasma study"/"electron density" mission (reached 272 km); Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launches
Japan1991-09-11Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverFour MT-135 ozone and aeronomy missions: 26 Aug 1990 (reached 57 km); 9 Feb 1991 (reached 57 km); 11 Sep 1991 (reached 52 km) and 9 Sep 1992 (reached 56 km); Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launches
United States1991-11-16WSMR, NM(Mission patch) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-9 Consort41-4 microgravity mission; WSMR launch; reached 298 km
Japan1992-02-02Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverThree S-520 launches: 16 Feb 1991 extreme UV astronomy mission (reached 337 km); 2 Feb 1992 IR astronomy mission (reached 338 km); and 18 Feb 1993 ionosphere/active "plasma study"/"electron density" mission (reached 272 km); Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launches
Japan1993-09-17
1993-09-17
Minamitane (Japanese text cancel)
Minamitane (English text cancel)
(Watanabe/NASDA no.55) cachet on cover, also insertTR-1A microgravity mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 264 km
Japan1993-09-17Minamitane(Space Voyage) cachet on coverThree TR-1A microgravity missions, all from Tanegashima: 16 Sep 1991 (reached 270 km); 20 Aug 1992 (reached 290 km); 17 Sep 1993 (reached 264 km)
United States1994-07-19WSMR, NM(Space Voyage grey and red and extra black) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-9 UV astronomy mission to observe the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter (also HST and Galileo observations of the impact); WSMR launch; reached 163 km
Great Britain1994-09-08United Kingdon Postal Services(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover, also back50th anniv. the first V-2 rockets fired at England, from near The Hague in occupied Netherlands; probably reached around 80 km
Germany1997-10-03Penemunde(blue-green rubber-stamp and blue hand-printed) cachet (and signature) on cover55th anniv. V-2 test mission 4004; this was the first successful V-2 launch, at Peenemunde; altitude reached unknown; horizontal range attained was 190 km
United States1997-11-13WSMR, NM(Black printed) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-9 UV astronomy mission; WSMR launch; reached 300 km
United States1998-08-14WSMR, NM(Black printed) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-9 X-ray astronomy mission; WSMR launch; reached 300 km
United States1999-07-04Wallops Island VA(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-5 chemical release5 ionosphere mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 250 km
United States1999-07-04Wallops Island VA(T. Chamberlain) cachet on cover
United States1999-12-17Wallops Island VA(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverTerrier-Orion microgravity mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 168 km
United States2001-08-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson brown rubber-stamp and black typed) cachet on coverViper-3A (possible) aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; possibly reached around 75 km
United States2006-02-08WSMR, NM(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverTerrier-Black Brant MOSES (Multi-order Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph) solar extreme UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 282 km
Sweden2006-04-05Kiruna(Black rubber-stamp) cachetHawk-Orion REXUS20 science and technology mission; Esrange launch; reached 95 km
United States2006-11-07Las Cruces, WSMR Branch(Artopages) cachet on coverBlack Brant-9 mission to verify the calibration of the SEM (Solar Extreme UV Monitor) instrument aboard the SOHO satellite; WSMR launch; reached 300 km.
United States2007-03-20Colorado Springs CO, Peterson AFB(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverFalcon-1 technology test mission; Kwajalein Atoll (Omelek Island) launch; reached around 325 km [but mission failed when second stage shut down]
United States2007-03-20El Segundo CA(Multi-color printed) cachet (different) on cover
United States2007-11-06WSMR, NM(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-9 solar extreme UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 300 km; studied "the physical properties of the solar corona"; observations provided calibrations for data from the "SOHO, TRACE, and Solar-B" satellites
Sweden2010-03-04Kiruna(Black rubber-stamp) cachetHawk-Orion REXUS20 science and technology mission; Esrange launch; reached 88 km
United States2011-10-24Sagamore MA(Coverscape) cachet on cover65th anniv. launch of V-2 upper atmospheric and photographic mission; carried experiments for cosmic and solar radiation and wind measurement for the Applied Physics Lab at Johns Hopkins University; also carried a motion picture camera that photographed Earth for the first time from a high altitude (around 100 km); flight reached 105 km
United States2012-03-23WSMR, NM(RES&C) cachet on coverBlack-Brant IR astronomy mission; WSMR launch (on 22 March); reached 320 km
United States2015-04-18Wallops Island VA(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverTerrier-Improved Malemute atmospheric sounding mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 174 km
United States2018-10-18Sagamore Beach MA(Coverscape) cachet on cover55th anniv. CNES bioscience mission in which a cat named Félicette was launched in a special capsule aboard a Véronique rocket from Hammaguir, Algeria to an altitude of 155 km; (see also Spain private post stamp from 2013)
United States2018-09-07GSFC, Greenbelt MD(Red Eagle) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-9 FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager) solar X-ray nanoflares mission; WSMR launch; reached 304 km
United States2018-09-12Las Cruces NM(Red Eagle) cachet on coverSpaceloft-XL technology test mission for NASA; Spaceport America NM launch; reached 114 km
United States2018-09-17Las Cruces NM(Red Eagle) cachet on coverSpaceloft-XL technology test and microgravity mission; Spaceport America NM launch; reached 114 km
United States2019-06-20Monument Beach MA(Coverscape) cachet on cover75th anniv. V-2 rocket that became the first man-made object to rise above the Kármán line (100 km altitude); Peenemünde launch; reached 176 km
United States2019-08-12Wallops Island VA(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverTerrier Black Brant ESIS (Extreme UV Snapshot Imaging Spectrograph) mission to observe solar eruptions; WSMR launch; reached 246 km
United States2019-09-30WSMR, NM(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverTerrier Improved Malemute science and technology mission (including, for example, testing re-entry and thermal protection systems and measuring cosmic rays); Wallops Island launch; reached 154 km
United States2019-10-18Monument Beach MA(Coverscape) cachet on cover56th anniv. CNES bioscience mission in which a cat named Félicette was launched in a special capsule aboard a Véronique rocket from Hammaguir, Algeria to an altitude of 155 km; (see also Spain private post stamp from 2013)
United States2020-09-08White Sands NM(Red Eagle) cachet on coverBlack Brant-9 DUST-2 space dust mission; WSMR launch; reached 346 km
United States2020-12-15Kodiak AK(Lollini) cachet on coverAstra rocket test mission 3.2; Kodiak Island launch; reached 390 km
United States2021-02-26Kennedy Space Center FL(Ranski) cachet on cover55th anniv. launch Apollo-Saturn AS-201 (the first test of the launch vehicle and the Apollo Command and Service Module (CSM)); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 488 km
United States2022-10-24White Sands PO(Galactic Space Covers) cachet on cover, also back76th anniv. launch of the V-2 #13 scientific mission for the Applied Physics Lab (Johns Hopkins University) and the US Army; it carried a movie camera and experiments to measure cosmic and solar radiation, and a chemical release package for upper wind measurements; WSMR launch; reached 105 km; the Johns Hopkins camera took motion pictures of Earth at over 100 km altitude; those pictures covered around 100,000 km2 of area and were the first view of Earth from space (i.e. from above the von Kármán line, which is at 100 km)
United States2023-03-23Cape Canaveral FL(Sarmiento) cachet on coverTerran-1 "Good Luck, Have Fun" test flight (the goal was to place an instrumented upper stage into orbit); Cape Canaveral launch; the mission failed when the second stage failed to ignite, so the rocket reached only around 130 km; no payload was orbited; this was the first and only launch of Terran-1; the designer and owner Relativity Space retired it to concentrate on their much larger Terran-R rocket
Atmospheric and other scientific research rockets (on other than rocket launch covers)
There exist a large number of covers with a Sokalsky cachet depicting 19 rockets. Details about the cachet, as well as images of the covers, are found in the Sokalsky page.
Austria1967-10-04Gmünd(Black printed) cachet on Sputnik-1 anniversary coverFrench research rockets Eridan, Dragon, and Centaure (from left to right); (see also Germany (West) cover 1967)
United States1968-10-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert2 front from ESRO-1A launch cover, also insert2 back and insert1 and cover frontdata were correlated with "measurements made simultaneously with sounding rockets launched from the ESRO range at Kiruna, Sweden"
United States1969-10-01Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on ESRO-1B launch coverexperiments "coordinated with rockets from Kiruna, Sweden"
United States1969-10-01 (insert1)
1969-10-01 (insert2 back)
Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert1 and insert2 back from ESRO-1B launch cover, also insert2 front and cover front"measurements made simultaneously with sounding rockets launched from the ESRO launch site at Kiruna, Sweden"
United States1969-10-01 (insert1)
1969-10-01 (insert2 back)
Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert1 and insert2 back from ESRO-1B launch cover, also insert2 front and cover front
United States1969-11-07Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert2 front from Azur launch cover, also insert2 back and insert1 and cover frontPreparatory work in 1966 and 1967 "consisted of a series of rocket launchings - from sites in Canada, Sweden, and Brazil - designed to check out the satellite's instrumentation"
United States1969-11-07Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert2 front from Azur launch cover, also insert2 back and insert1 and cover front
United States1969-11-07Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert2 front from Azur launch cover, also insert2 back and insert1 and cover front (with signature)
United States1976-03-16Auburn MA(GSFC Stamp Club blue printed) cachet on 50th anniv. first liquid fuel rocket flight/launch cover"S/Rocket" (Sounding Rocket) - Nike-Apache research rocket; also "Robert H. Goddard - American Rocket Pioneer"
United States1976-09-28WSMR, NM(Boudwin? blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on stratospheric balloon launch coverV-2 research rocket
United States1978-05-20GSFC, MD(GSFC multi-satellite blue rubber-stamp) cachet (same design as two above) on Pioneer-12 launch cover"S/Rocket" (Sounding Rocket) - Nike-Apache research rocket; also "Robert H. Goddard - American Rocket Pioneer"
United States1978-10-24GSFC, MD(GSFC multi-satellite blue rubber-stamp) cachet (same) on Nimbus-7 and CAMEO launch cover"S/Rocket" (Sounding Rocket) - Nike-Apache research rocket; also "Robert H. Goddard - American Rocket Pioneer"
United States1983-01-25Greenbelt MD(GSFC multi-satellite blue rubber-stamp) cachet (same) on IRAS and PIX-2 launch cover"S/Rocket" (Sounding Rocket) - Nike-Apache research rocket; also "Robert H. Goddard - American Rocket Pioneer"
French Guiana2011-02-16Kourou(Association Philatélique du C.E. SPS) cachet (with reproduction of Russia 5060) on ATV-2 launch cover(probable) M-100 research rocket for ionospheric auroral studies

1When a solar eclipse occurs, there is a sudden cut-off, or cessation, of solar radiation, followed by a sudden resumption of that radiation. Solar eclipses therefore present the opportunity to investigate the effects of fast-varying solar flux on the structure, photochemistry and electrodynamics of various parts of the upper atmosphere. This includes examination of anomalies in ionization, temperature and winds. Characteristics of the solar corona can also be observed (often in the far ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum). Rockets have been used to carry instruments which can make such measurements into the upper atmosphere.
2The ARCAS (All-purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) was developed by the Atlantic Research Corporation for the Office of Naval Research with support from the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. It was launched with a launching tube. It was first used in July 1959, and has undergone various modifications and improvements since then.
3The FIRE (Flight Investigation of Re-Entry) payload was an instrumented cone built like a small Project Apollo space capsule. It was launched by an Atlas-Antares rocket in a sub-orbital flight and released to fall through the atmosphere and mimic the re-entry of an Apollo space capsule. The goal of the mission was to measure the thermal characteristics and temperature of the capsule during the re-entry. A second mission with the same goal (FIRE-2) took place on 22 May 1965.
4The HASP (High Altitude Sounding Projectile) was a small research rocket based on the Loki-2 missile and modified by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory to be attached to a 127 mm (5 inch) shell. The unit was fired from a naval gun, after which the rocket took over to lift a 2.6 kg payload (an instrument container known as a "dart") up to around 29 km, where the dart opened to release an instrument package attached to a parachute. As the package descended, it measured temperatures and sent them to receiving stations below. The parachute had a metallic coating and so could be tracked by radar, allowing upper wind speeds and directions to be calculated. Here is a diagram of the HASP system, and here is a picture of the dart, the parachute and the instrument package.
5In these experiments, grenades of barium or other chemicals were carried aloft to explode in the upper atmosphere; the resulting clouds could be observed and tracked to estimate upper atmospheric winds, turbulence and cloud radiance properties. Also, by using the times of arrival of the sound waves created by the explosions at an array of ground stations, calculations estimating the upper winds could be made.
6Turana was a recoverable drone used for gunnery and missile defense training by the Royal Australian Navy. Rocket launch covers (canceled Sydney Philatelic Sales Centre or Sydney G.P.O) were issued for at least five launches in 1975, on covers with a cachet describing an aeronomy mission including sensing at levels between meteo balloon ceilings and satellite data, along with synoptic measurements of solar radiation, wind and ozone. This cachet text had already been used in at least one earlier rocket cover (e.g. A3-H upper atmospheric research rocket, from 12 October 1971). Its use on Turana launch covers is almost certainly misleading and incorrect. However, a hint of the true nature of the Turana vehicle is found in one supplementary word in the cachet on these covers: the word "intercept".
7At White Sands Missile Range, von Braun and his team experimented with a small WAC21 Corporal research rocket mounted on a V-2. Six launches took place between 13 May 1948 and 22 April 1949. Four were failures. This combination, called the "Bumper-WAC"21, was designed to investigate problems of stage separation and ignition at high altitude, and also to allow the WAC21 Corporal to attain a much higher altitude than would be possible if it was launched by itself. It could then make scientific measurements at those high altitudes. Two later Bumper-WAC21 launches took place at Cape Canaveral in 1950. Those missions were designed to allow the smaller rocket to obtain high altitude hypersonic aerodynamic data. The July 24 launch failed, but the July 29 launch (the last Bumper-WAC21 flight) worked as planned: the WAC21 Corporal reached Mach 9 at 35 km altitude.
8UAR: Upper Atmospheric Research
9EXAMETNET: Experimental Inter-American Meteorological Rocket Network
10The Rocketsonde was an instrumented package, ejected in the upper atmosphere by a rocket, that made meteorological observations as it descended by parachute. It was typically carried by the Loki-Datasonde, Deacon or ARCAS rockets. In the latter case, it was sometimes referred to as an Arcasonde.
11The ROBINSphere (Radar OBservable INflation Sphere) system was designed to measure high altitude atmospheric density and wind through radar observations of an inflatable sphere with a diameter of about 1 m. When flown on rockets such as the Viper-Dart and Nike-Cajun, the system provided data as the sphere descended from approximately 90 km to approximately 40 km. It appears that the ROBINSphere was also flown on ARCAS rockets, which had a lower maximum altitude. With them, data would have been available in a lower slice of the atmosphere, possibly from around 60 km down to around 40 km.
12CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia's national science agency)
13BIOS: Biological Investigation Of Space
14MPE: Max Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik
15AFCRL: Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (Cambridge MA) (this name was changed to the AFGL (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) in 1976)
16The Starute was part of the Super-Loki Datasonde package that was carried aloft by the Super-Loki rocket and released at high altitudes. A thermistor in the Datasonde measured the temperature as it descended, while the balloon-like Starute, made of mylar, acted as a parachute and radar reflector for the Datasonde and therefore also as a wind sensor through data provided by radar tracking. In practice, the Datasonde could provide useful estimations of temperature and winds at levels between about 20 km and 70 km.
17ASSET: Aerothermodynamic-elastic Structural Systems Environmental Test
18ALADDIN: Atmospheric Layering and Density Distribution of Ions and Neutrals
19JASPIC: Joint American Soviet Particle InterCalibration
20REXUS: Rocket-borne EXperiments for University Students
21The early US sounding rockets were named for enlisted ranks in the US Army: Private, Corporal and Sergeant33. The plan was that each in the series would be bigger than the previous one and so would get a higher rank name. However, after the development of the Corporal, the pattern was broken: the next rocket supplied by the developers was smaller than the Corporal. As a result, the new rocket was named the WAC-Corporal, after the Women's Army Corps (WAC).
22Radio Attenuation Measurements - the RAM missions tested the effectiveness of aerodynamic shaping (in the A series) and of water injected into the flow field (in the B and C series) in minimizing the loss of radio signals from a spacecraft in the radio blackout period of atmospheric re-entry.
23In Project Highwater, the Saturn-1's dummy second and third stages were filled with 109,000 litres of water (weighing approximately 95 tons) to provide structural stability and the correct weight for a fully-fueled Saturn Apollo rocket. At its apogee of 145 km, the rocket was destroyed by the Apollo Control engineers to release the water into the upper atmosphere, to see what might be the effects on radio transmissions and on the local weather. A massive ice cloud and lightning-like effects were observed.
24With the goal of eventual interplanetary missions in mind, scientists and engineers were preparing to make measurements of atmospheric structure and characteristics using instruments aboard an entry vehicle. The Planetary Atmospheric Entry Test (PAET) program tested instrument packages with accelerometers, radiometers, pressure, temperature and humidity sensors and a mass spectrometer to make various upper atmospheric measurements. The test results were used in support of later missions to Mars (Viking), Venus (Pioneer-Venus), Jupiter (Galileo) and Saturn (Cassini-Huygens).
25HETS: Hyper Environmental Test System (USAF missions to investigate radiation in the magnetosphere)
26These paired rocket tests were designed make measurements in the stratosphere and ionosphere and to then compare the results. A total of 22 such intercomparison tests, summarized in this table, took place from 10 August through 23 August 1977.
27SPAR: Space Processing Applications Rocket
28A Topside Sounder is a satellite designed to determine ion concentration within the ionosphere as measured from above the ionosphere.
29Known fake cover, with a made-up Baikonur postmark, suspected to have been created by Boris Khoroshev from Moscow, and sold by a stamp dealer in Western Europe. There were no Baikonur Cosmodrome official postmarks until 1975 for the Apollo-Soyuz events. Reference the article written by Russian collector Oleg Vaisberg published as an Appendix called "Russian (Soviet) Space Covers" to Bruce Cranford's book Space Covers: Dictionary and Identifier. See also, an analysis of the situation in a book published in 2008 called Commemorative Space Covers from Collector Clubs of the Soviet Union, 1957 to 1980. Another indicator on these fakes is the use of a "first day" cachet that appears on most, but not all, of these fakes.
30SPED: Supersonic Planetary Entry Decelerator
31ABRES: Advanced Ballistic Re-Entry System
32LORV: Lunar Orbit Rescue Vehicle
33The Sergeant was an American single-stage solid-propulsion tactical ballistic missile developed for the US Army in 1956-1962. Surplus rockets and the Sergeant's rocket motor (known commercially as Castor) became the basis for many sounding rockets and test vehicles.
34DYANA (Dynamics Adapted Network for the Atmosphere) was an international co-operative project to observe the temperature and wind speed and direction in the high atmosphere. The observations were provided by the Super-Loki's Starute16 DUD35 system.
35DUD: DYANA-Uchinoura Datasonde
36RVTO: Re-entry Vehicle Test and Observables payload
37HEART: High Energy Atmospheric Re-entry Test (HEARTS probably means HEART System)
38OAR: Office of Aeronautical Research
39AFWL: Air Force Weapons Laboratory
40LOFT-1 (the first Launch Operation Flight Test rocket) was a small rocket launched by the E'PRIME Aerospace Corporation, a private company that was hoping to get into the commercial rocket business. They were ahead of their time and no further LOFT launches ever took place. This newspaper article presents some information about the LOFT-1 mission.
41Consortium for Materials Development in Space series of rocket-based microgravity research flights (part of the NASA Office of Commercial Programs (OCP))
42Joust is the name given to a companion series of rocket-based microgravity research flights, with the Consort41 series
43TEXUS: Technologische Experimente unter Schwerelosigkeit (Technological experiments in weightlessness)
44CIMO: Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (part of the WMO)
45Four countries participated in the intensive observation period of 20 Sep through 1 Oct 1973: France (14 Super-ARCAS rockets), GB (12 Skua rockets), USA (24 Super-Loki-Dart rockets) and USSR (15 M-100 rockets); Brazil is also indicated as participating in the two covers, but it was unable to do so.
46EXOS Pathfinder SARGE (Sub-orbital Autonomous Rocket with GuidancE), is a research rocket built by EXOS Aerospace Systems and Technologies, Inc.
47BMRS: Ballistic Missile Re-entry System
48SFT: Supplemental Flight Test
49The Earth Resources Experiments Package (EREP) on Skylab took a comprehensive and systematic image survey of the Earth from space, taking some 36,000 photos in 1973 and 1974. Imaging was done by several cameras, the main one with six spectral bands. Skylab-2 made 13 EREP passes (i.e. 13 observational periods); Skylab-3 made 48, and Skylab-4 made 49.
50The HARP (High Altitude Research Project) gun was used to launch projectiles or rockets into the atmosphere. The HARP-5-1 projectile was 116 cm long and had a mass of 10.4 kg. It was launched by a 5-inch HARP gun at various locations including Wallops Island, Barbados, Yuma, WSMR, Fort Greely (Alaska), and Highwater (Québec) from 1963 through 1968 (and again from 2002 through 2008 at Wallops Island and WSMR). It carried a meteorological payload which was deployed near the projectile's apogee (often around 60 km) and provided data as it descended, in some cases slowed by a parachute. 7-inch HARP guns and associated HARP-7 projectiles were developed but funding dried up and the authors have not found any records of their use. However, the much larger 16-inch HARP gun was developed and deployed in Barbados, Highwater and Yuma. It was designed to launch the Canadian Martlet. Martlets (some with integrated rocket motors, some without) were used to conduct atmospheric research at altitudes of up to 180 km. Around 200 flights were conducted between 1963 and 1967. The low cost per flight made the Martlet ideal for a wide variety of applications. Typical mission payloads included chemical ejection to produce an observable atmospheric trail and assorted sensors with multi-channel telemetry. The smaller American HASP4 system operated in a similar fashion, except all its projectiles had integrated rocket motors.
51The spin-stabilized four-stage Athena-RTV (Re-entry Test Vehicle) was used to simulate the trajectories of intercontinental missiles to study the effects of high-speed atmospheric re-entry on them. The first two stages lifted the upper-stages stack with the payload to an altitude of about 200 km. The third and fourth stages were then fired on the downward arc to increase the re-entry speed to up to 6700 m/s. Most of the Athena-RTV missions, from 1964 through 1971, were launched from Green River, Utah with the ABRES31 payload and came down around 760 km away in the White Sands Missile Range. Later launches from Wallops Island from 1973 through 1975 carried the HEART37/HEARTS37 payload in a trajectory that carried the rockets to an eventual impact with the Atlantic Ocean.
52Some early astronomical measurements at infrared wavelengths were made with cooled IR radiometer-telescopes mounted in research rockets. They were able to observe the sky for several minutes during a typical flight. Project HISTAR surveyed the cosmos at wavelengths of 4, 10, and 20 micrometers. Its objective was to obtain the brightness and spatial distribution of a representative sample of celestial objects that emit strongly in the infrared, and in particular to determine the positions of unusual IR sources with sufficient accuracy that ground-based telescopes could find them for further detailed investigation. The HISTAR instrument was developed by the Hughes Aircraft Co. in 1970. The meaning of the acronym HISTAR is nebulous, but may be something like "Hughes Infrared STellar Astronomy Radiometer". Using Aerobee rockets, the AFCRL15 conducted one test and 12 operational HISTAR missions from WSMR (10 flights) and Woomera (3 flights) from 1970 through 1975 (for details, see Aerobee Family - Gunter's Space Page). Although the total observation time accumulated by those flights was only about 30 minutes, they successfully detected 2363 reliable infrared sources, which were published in July 1975 in the AFCRL15 Infrared Sky Survey.
53The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was a solar observatory aboard the Skylab space station that was a product of the late 1960s Apollo Applications Program (hence "Apollo" in the name). It was manually operated by the Skylab astronauts. There were 8 major solar-observing instruments on the mount which together could observe the Sun in wavelengths from 2 to 7000 Å (angstroms), corresponding to soft X-ray, ultraviolet, and visible light wavelengths. Those instruments were two X-ray telescopes, two hydrogen alpha telescopes, an extreme UV spectroheliograph, a UV spectroheliometer, a UV spectrograph and a visible light coronagraph.
54MBRV: Maneuvering Ballistic Reentry Vehicle
55NRL: Naval Research Lab
56This was the first rocket launch from the then-new Andøya Rocket Range (at 69° N on the Norwegian island of Andøya). The rocket was named "Ferdinand" after the story of the peaceful bull who would rather smell the flowers than fight, for two reasons: the area of the rocket range was known as the Oksebåsen ("Ox Pasture"), and also to signal the peaceful intentions of the rocket research to the nearby Soviets at the height of the Cold War.
57The rocket was named "Ferdinand" after the story of the peaceful bull who would rather smell the flowers than fight, for two reasons: the area of the rocket range was known as the Oksebåsen ("Ox Pasture"), and also to signal the peaceful intentions of the rocket research to the nearby Soviets at the height of the Cold War.


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