Record Russian Rain Runoff Responsible for Rapid River Rise

Sorry, I couldn’t help myself with that title.  Last time we looked at flooding in Russia, it was in the western parts – generally near Moscow and primarily along the Oka River – and caused by rapid melting of record spring snowfall. This time, flooding is occurring in Russia’s Far East, primarily along the Amur River, caused by heavy rainfall related to monsoon wind patterns in the region – record levels of flooding not seen before in the 160 years Russians have settled in the area.

Unfortunately, this natural disaster is affecting more than just Russia. In China, many people are dead or missing as the result of flooding. (The figure of “hundreds dead or missing” includes flooding caused by typhoons Utor and Trami in southeastern China, flash flooding in western China, and the subject of today’s post: river flooding in northeastern China and far east Russia.) The Chinese provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang have been hit particularly hard with persistent, heavy rains since late July, as have areas just across the border in Amur Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai and the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Russia.

A few more facts: Heilongjiang is the Chinese name for the Amur River. It translates to English as “Black Dragon”. The Mongols called it Kharamuren (“Black Water”), which, I assume, the early Russian settlers shortened to Amur. It is the longest undammed river in the Eastern Hemisphere and the home to the endangered Amur leopard and Amur tiger. Since 1850, the Amur River has been the longest piece of the border between China and Russia. Now, in 2013, the Amur River has reached the highest levels ever recorded.

Backing up a bit, here’s what the area looked like according to “Natural Color” or “pseudo-true color” VIIRS imagery back in the middle of July:

VIIRS false-color RGB composite of channels I-01, I-02 and I-03, taken 03:27 UTC 14 July 2013

VIIRS false-color RGB composite of channels I-01, I-02 and I-03, taken 03:27 UTC 14 July 2013

As always, click on the image, then on the “2368×1536” link below the banner to see the full resolution version. Here’s what the same area looked like about a month later:

VIIRS false color RGB composite of channels I-01, I-02 and I-03, taken 03:14 UTC 21 August 2013

VIIRS false color RGB composite of channels I-01, I-02 and I-03, taken 03:14 UTC 21 August 2013

Notice anything different? The Amur River has overflowed its floodplain and is over 10 km (6 miles) wide in some places. Just downriver (northeast) from Khabarovsk, the flooded area is up to 30 km (18 miles) wide!

Pay attention to Khabarovsk. Back in 1897, the Amur River crested there with a stage of 6.42 m (about 21 feet in American units), which was the previous high water mark. On 22 August 2013, the river stage reached 7.05 m (23 feet) and was expected to keep rising to 7.8 m (25.6 feet) by the end of August. The map below (in Russian) shows the local river levels on 22 August 2013. It came from this website.

Amur River levels at various locations in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia on 22 August 2013.

Amur River levels at various locations in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia on 22 August 2013.

Note that Khabarovsk in Cyrillic is Хабаровск (the black dot in the lower left), and Amur is Амур. The blue numbers represent the river stage in cm. Red numbers indicate the change in water level (in cm) over the last 24 hours. The colored dots indicate how high the river level is above flood stage according to the color scale (also in cm). The river at Khabarovsk is more than 4 meters (13 feet) above flood stage.

Not impressed by comparing a “before” and “after” image? Here’s an animation over that time period (14 July to 21 August 2013), with images from really cloudy days removed:

Animation of VIIRS false-color composites of channels I-01, I-02 and I-03

Animation of VIIRS false-color composites of channels I-01, I-02 and I-03. Click on the image, then on the "1184x768" link below the banner to view the animation.

You have to click through to the full resolution version before the loop will play. In order to not make the world’s largest animated GIF, the I-band images in the loop have been reduced in resolution by a factor of 2, making them the same resolution as if I had used M-5, M-7 and M-10 to make this “Natural Color” composite.

The Day/Night Band is not known for its ability to detect flooding at night, but it also saw how large the Amur River has become:

VIIRS Day/Night Band image, taken 17:27 UTC 20 August 2013

This image was taken on 20 August 2013, which just so happens to be the night of a full moon. The swollen rivers are clearly visible thanks to the moonlight (and general lack of clouds).

Khabarovsk is a city of over 500,000 people and would require a major evacuation effort if the river reached the expected 7.8 m level. Over 20,000 people have already been evacuated in Russia alone (and over a million people in China) according to this report. Oh, and at least two bears.

This heavy rain and flooding makes it all the more surprising that, a little further north and west in Russia, there have been numerous, massive wildfires. Check out this “True Color” image from VIIRS, taken on 16 August 2013:

VIIRS"True Color" composite of channels M-3, M-4 and M-5, taken 03:12 UTC 16 August 2013.

VIIRS"True Color" composite of channels M-3, M-4 and M-5, taken 03:12 UTC 16 August 2013.

See the supersized swirling Siberian smoke spreading… OK, I’ll quit with the alliteration. Here’s the smoke plume on the very next overpass (about 90 minutes later) seen on a larger scale:

VIIRS "True Color" composite of channels M-3, M-4 and M-5, taken 04:52 UTC 16 August 2013.

VIIRS "True Color" composite of channels M-3, M-4 and M-5, taken 04:52 UTC 16 August 2013.

A strong ridge of high pressure with its clockwise flow is trapping the smoke over the region. In this image you can see quite a few of the smoke sources where the fires are still actively burning. Look in the latitude/longitude box bounded by 98 °E to 105 °E and 59 °N to 61 °N. By the way, that’s Lake Baikal on the bottom of the image, just left of center.

A quick back-of-the-envelope calculation indicates that the area covered by smoke is roughly 500,000 km2. (Of course it is complicated by the fact that the smoke is mixing in with the clouds, so it is hard to define a true boundary for the smoke on the north and west sides.) That puts it in the size range of Turkmenistan, Spain and Thailand. If that’s not a good reference for you, how’s this? The smoke covers an area larger than California and smaller than Texas.

These fires have burned for more than a month. This article from NASA includes a MODIS image from 25 July 2013 containing massive smoke plumes and shows that areas of central Russia (particularly north of the Arctic Circle) have had a record heatwave this summer. And here are a few more images of the smoke from MODIS over the past few weeks.

Heatwaves and fires and floods? Russia is all over the map. Literally. I mean, look at a map of Asia – Russia is all over that place. It even spreads into Europe!

Chinese Super-Smog

No, not a Super-Smörg, super smog. Smog that is so thick, you can taste it. The smog in many parts of eastern China has been so bad this winter, it is literally “off-the-charts“. Based on our Environmental Protection Agency‘s not-very-intuitive Air Quality Index (see pages 13-16, in particular) any value above 300 is hazardous to everyone’s health. The scale doesn’t even go above 500 because the expectation is that the air could never get that polluted. Applying this scale to the air in Beijing, the local U.S. Embassy reported an Air Quality Index value of 755 on 13 January 2013. Visibility has been reduced to 100 m at times. This video (from 31 January 2013) gives a vivid description of the problems of the smog:

If that wasn’t bad enough, here’s video from NBC News where Brian Williams reveals a factory was on fire for three hours before anyone noticed because the smog was so thick!

Did you happen to notice in the beginning of the NBC video that the “air pollution is so bad that the thick smog can now be seen from space”? Of course, the satellite image shown in that clip came from MODIS. (It must have friends in high places. That, or people get the MODIS images out on their blogs less than two weeks after the event occurred, unlike this blog.) Needless to say, VIIRS has seen the smog, too, and it is terrible.

For comparison purposes, here’s what a clean air day looks like over eastern China:

VIIRS "true color" RGB composite of channels M-03, M-04 and M-05, taken 05:21 UTC 28 September 2012

VIIRS "true color" RGB composite of channels M-03, M-04 and M-05, taken 05:21 UTC 28 September 2012

This is a “true color” composite taken 05:21 UTC 28 September 2012. (As always, click on the image, then on the “2040×1552” link below the banner to see the full resolution image.) There appears to be some air pollution in that image (look near 33° N latitude between 112° and 116° E longitude), but it’s not that noticeable.

Here’s what it looks like when Beijing is reporting record levels of air pollution (04:56 UTC 14 January 2013):

VIIRS true color RGB composite of channels M-03, M-04 and M-05, taken 04:56 UTC 14 January 2013

VIIRS true color RGB composite of channels M-03, M-04 and M-05, taken 04:56 UTC 14 January 2013

You may have heard of a “brown cloud of pollution“. Here the clouds actually appear brown thanks to all that pollution. Notice the area around Shijiazhuang – the most polluted city in China – and how brown those clouds are in comparison to the clouds on the left and right edges of the image. Then look south from Shijiazhuang to where everything south and west of the cloud bank has a dull gray color. That is all smog! It’s enough to make anyone with a respiratory condition want to cough up a lung just from seeing this.

Now, this is a complicated scene with clouds, snow, ice and smog. So, to clear things up (in a manner of speaking), here is the same image with everything labelled:

VIIRS true color RGB composite of channels M-03, M-04, and M-05, taken 04:56 UTC 14 January 2013

VIIRS true color RGB composite of channels M-03, M-04, and M-05, taken 04:56 UTC 14 January 2013

The gray smog can be seen around Beijing as well, but it pales in comparison to the rest of eastern China. Think about that! Replay the videos above and consider that might not have even been the worst smog in China at the time!

Too bad there are a lot of clouds over the area. What does it look like on a “clearer” day? (“Clearer”, of course, refers to the amount of clouds, not air pollution.) It looks worse! The image below was taken at 04:32 UTC on 26 January 2013:

VIIRS true color RGB composite of VIIRS channels M-03, M-04, and M-05, taken 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

VIIRS true color RGB composite of VIIRS channels M-03, M-04, and M-05, taken 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

The area covered by smog rivals the area of South Korea, which is visible on the right side of the image. (One of the reports I linked to above put the figure at 1/7th of the land area of China covered by smog around this time, which is actually a lot bigger than South Korea!) I’m just counting the smog in the image that is thick enough to completely obscure the surface. There is likely smog that isn’t as obvious (and isn’t labelled) in that image. The snow between Shijiazhuang, Tianjin and Beijing is covered by smog that isn’t quite thick enough to totally obscure it. And the large area of snow south of Tianjin is likely covered with smog. (It sure is a lot dirtier in appearance than the snow near the top of the image.)

If you don’t believe my labels, the “pseudo-true color” or “natural color” RGB composite clearly identifies the low clouds (which usually appear a dirty, off-white color even without smog), ice clouds (pale cyan) and snow (vivid cyan):

VIIRS false color RGB composite of channels M-05, M-07 and M-10 (a.k.a. "natural color"), taken 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

VIIRS false color RGB composite of channels M-05, M-07 and M-10 (a.k.a. "natural color"), taken 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

Notice the smog in this image. It is an unholy grayish-greenish color with a value near 70-105-93 in R-G-B color space. The “natural color” composite is made from channels M-05 (0.67 µm, blue), M-07 (0.87 µm, green) and M-10 (1.61 µm, red), which are longer wavelengths than their “true color” counterparts. Longer wavelengths mean reduced scattering by atmospheric aerosols, so the higher green value may be due to the strong surface vegetation signal in M-07 being able to penetrate through the smog. (Either that or the smog is composed of some chemical compound that has a higher reflectivity value in M-07 than in the other two channels.)

I’ve looked at the EUMETSAT Dust, Daytime Microphysics and Nighttime Microphysics/Fog RGBs, which you might think would show super-thick smog and they don’t. At least, it’s not obvious.

The EUMESAT Dust RGB applied to VIIRS, valid 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

The EUMESAT Dust RGB applied to VIIRS, valid 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

The Dust RGB above uses M-14 (8.55 µm), M-15 (10.7 µm) and M-16 (12.0 µm) and requires there to be a large temperature contrast between the dust (cool) and the background surface (hot). Smog almost always occurs when there is a temperature inversion (the air at the ground is colder than the air above) so the necessary temperature contrast won’t exist.

The Daytime Microphysics RGB shows the smoggy areas are a slightly different color than other cloud-free surfaces, but that color can be confused with other non-smoggy surfaces. The clouds really stand out, though:

The EUMETSAT Daytime Microphysics RGB applied to VIIRS, valid 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

The EUMETSAT Daytime Microphysics RGB applied to VIIRS, valid 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

Perhaps, with a different scaling, the smog might stand out more.

The Nighttime Microphysics RGB from the night before (18:50 UTC 25 January 2013) is interesting. Notice the cloud identified by the letter “B” and the non-cloud next to it, “A”:

The EUMETSAT Nighttime Microphysics/Fog RGB applied to VIIRS, valid 18:50 UTC 25 January 2013

The EUMETSAT Nighttime Microphysics/Fog RGB applied to VIIRS, valid 18:50 UTC 25 January 2013

Now compare this with the Day/Night Band image from the same time:

VIIRS Day/Night Band image of eastern China, taken 18:50 UTC 25 January 2013

VIIRS Day/Night Band image of eastern China, taken 18:50 UTC 25 January 2013

This was a day before full moon. Thanks to the moon, clouds, snow and smog are visible in addition to the city lights. Points “A” and “B” have nearly identical brightness in the Day/Night Band, but only “B” shows up as a cloud in the Nighttime Microphysics RGB. These lighter areas around “A” and “B” are partially obscuring city lights, indicating “B” is a cloud, while “A” is smog. (If either was snow, you’d be able to see the city lights more clearly. See the lighter area northwest of Beijing, which is snow.)

Nothing sees super-smog like the true color composite, but the Day/Night Band will see it as long as there is enough moonlight. Smog as optically thick as a cloud… *hacking cough* … Yuck!

Aurora Australis from the Day-Night Band

How fast does an aurora move? I “googled” it, and got answers ranging from “fast” to “very fast”. Not very scientific. It also doesn’t help that the majority of aurora videos on the Internet are time-lapse footage, and there’s no way to know how fast the footage has been sped up. Although, I did find this video that claims to be real-time footage:

When the camera is still, you could try to calculate the speed of some of the aurora elements if you knew where the cameraman was, what stars were in the view (and how far apart they are), and how high up (or how far away) the aurora was at that time. All information that I don’t have.

What if I said we could estimate the speed of the aurora by examining VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) images?

Here’s a DNB image of the aurora australis (a.k.a. Southern Lights) over Antarctica, taken on 1 October 2012:

VIIRS DNB image of the aurora australis, taken 00:22 UTC 1 October 2012

VIIRS DNB image of the aurora australis, taken 00:22 UTC 1 October 2012

Compare this image with the images of the aurora borealis shown back in March 2012. Something doesn’t look right. Far from looking like smooth curtains of light, the aurora (particularly the brightest one) has a jagged appearance, like a set of steps. (This is easier to notice if you click on the image to see it in higher resolution.) This is because the aurora wouldn’t stay still, and we can use this information to estimate the speed it was moving.

The stripes that you see in the image are a caused by the 16 detectors that comprise the DNB which, for various reasons, don’t have exactly the same sensitivity to light. (This condition is given a super-scientific name: “striping”.) The DNB senses light from the Earth by having a constantly rotating mirror reflect light onto these detectors. One rotation of the mirror (particularly the part that occurs within the field of view of the sensor) comprises one scan. Each detector comprises one row of pixels in each scan, each with 742 m x 742 m resolution at nadir. There are 48 scans in one “granule” (the amount of data transmitted in one data file), and it takes ~84 seconds to collect the data that make up one granule. That means it takes ~1.75 seconds per scan.

If you watch that video again, you’ll notice that the aurora can move quite a bit in 2 seconds. Now, let’s zoom in much more closely on one of the aurora elements:

Zoomed-in VIIRS DNB image of an aurora, taken 00:22 UTC 1 October 2012

Zoomed-in VIIRS DNB image of an aurora, taken 00:22 UTC 1 October 2012

This image has been rotated relative to the original image, in case you were wondering why it doesn’t seem to match up with the first image. The brightest pixels are where the brightest aurora elements were located. The “steps” (or “shifts” as they are typically called) occur every 16 pixels, which mark out the end of one scan and the beginning of the next.  If you count the number of pixels that the brightest aurora elements shifted from one scan to the next, it varies from about 6 to 10 pixels. Assuming a constant resolution of 742 m per pixel along the scan (which isn’t exactly true, the resolution degrades a little bit as you get closer to the edge of the scan but not by much), that means this particular aurora element moved somewhere between ~4.5 and ~7.5 km in ~1.75 seconds from one scan to the next. Doing the math (don’t forget to carry the 1), that comes out to somewhere between 9000 and 15,000 km h-1 (rounded to account for possible sources of error), which I guess counts as “very fast”. But, it’s not as fast as the coronal mass ejections that create auroras. They have an average speed of 489 km s-1 (1,760,000 km h-1)!

So, what looks like an oddity in the VIIRS image, actually contains some interesting scientific information about the speed of an “active aurora“.

But, we’re not done yet. Let’s get back to the striping. Along with “stray light”, it’s one of the few remaining issues in VIIRS imagery. Stray light, which you can see evidence of in the lower right corner of first aurora image, is a particular problem in the DNB. It occurs when sunlight is reflected onto the detectors when the satellite is on the nighttime side of the Earth, but close to the edge of the day/night “terminator“. Our colleagues at Northrup Grumman have been working on a correction to stray light that also reduces the striping. This correction allows for much better viewing of auroras, which have a tendency to occur right where stray light is an issue.

Here is an image of another aurora over Antarctica, taken on 15 September 2012, corrected for stray light and striping:

VIIRS DNB image of the aurora australis over Antarctica, taken 18:56 UTC 15 September 2012

VIIRS DNB image of the aurora australis over Antarctica, taken 18:56 UTC 15 September 2012. The data used in this image was corrected for stray light and striping by Stephanie Weiss (Northrup Grumman).

This was the night of a new moon, so the only light in the scene (once the stray light is taken out) is the aurora. (OK, there may be some “air glow” and starlight. But, it doesn’t show up on this brightness scale.)

This aurora was a lot less “active” so it looks more like smooth curtains of light. Although, when you zoom in on the brightest swirl in the upper right corner, you can see it did move 3-5 pixels between scans:

VIIRS DNB image of the aurora australis, taken 18:56 UTC 15 September 2012

VIIRS DNB image of the aurora australis over Antarctica, taken 18:56 UTC 15 September 2012. This image has been zoomed in and rotated relative to the previous image of the same aurora. The data used in this image was corrected for stray light and striping by Stephanie Weiss (Northrup Grumman).

This translates to 4000 to 8000 km h-1, which still counts as “fast” even if it doesn’t count as “very fast”. See, Google was right! Auroras do move anywhere from “fast” to “very fast”. But, now we at least have an estimate to quantify that speed.

And, in case you were wondering, these estimates of the speed of auroras are consistent with earlier observations. According to the book Aurora and Airglow by B. McCormac (1967), the typical speed of auroras is between 0 and 3 km s-1  (up to 10,800 km h-1). So, it appears that VIIRS does give a reasonable estimate about the speed of an aurora. We just happened to catch one “typical” aurora and one “faster than typical” aurora.

VIIRS Captures a Glimpse of Hell

VIIRS has seen Hell and, luckily, it did not get scared. No, I’m not talking about Hell, Michigan, which is actually a nice place (and not as scary as their website would indicate). I’m talking about the Gates of Hell (or Door to Hell, depending on who you talk to) in Turkmenistan. You can see a single video of it here and, if that isn’t enough to get a sense of it, someone compiled a list of 296 videos of the Gates of Hell near Derweze/Darvaza, Turkmenistan.

Turkmenistan doesn’t have much – 80% of it is the Karakum Desert – but it does have a lot of oil and natural gas deposits. Back in 1971, the Soviet Union wanted to take advantage of these deposits, so they began drilling a gas well near the town of Derweze. Unfortunately, the drilling opened up a sinkhole that ate the drilling rig and caused the natural gas to leak out in large quantities. Oh, no! What to do now? Light it on fire!

The team of geologists thought that the best way to prevent the town from being suffocated by the toxic fumes was to ignite the gas, let it burn itself out in a few days, and return to see what the damage was. Guess what? That fire is still burning today – 41 years later!

This constantly burning crater is only 230 ft (70 m) across. So it may come as a surprise (to some people, at least) that VIIRS has no trouble seeing it. The highest-resolution channels on VIIRS have a spatial resolution of ~375 m at nadir. The fiery pit is so visible, the Day/Night Band (DNB), with ~740 m resolution, makes the Gates of Hell look like the biggest town in central Turkmenistan:

VIIRS Day/Night Band image of Turkmenistan, taken 22:26 UTC 13 September 2012

VIIRS Day/Night Band image of Turkmenistan, taken 22:26 UTC 13 September 2012

The red arrow points out the light source that is the Gates of Hell. One other thing to note from this image is all the lights in the Caspian Sea. Those are oil rigs, with the largest light source (the one closest to the center of the Caspian Sea) being the floating/sinking city of Neft Daşları (a.k.a Oily Rocks), which sounds like a pretty interesting/sad/weird place to work.

In case you think the lights are coming from the town of Derweze and not the actual Gates of Hell, here’s a zoomed in image from the DNB along with the M-12 (3.7 µm) brightness temperatures:

VIIRS Day/Night Band image of the Derweze "Gates of Hell", Turkmenistan, taken 22:26 UTC 13 September 2012

VIIRS Day/Night Band image of the Derweze "Gates of Hell", Turkmenistan, taken 22:26 UTC 13 September 2012

VIIRS channel I-04 image of the Derweze "Gates of Hell", Turkmenistan, taken 22:26 UTC 13 September 2012

VIIRS channel M-12 image of the Derweze "Gates of Hell", Turkmenistan, taken 22:26 UTC 13 September 2012. The color scale ranges from 210 K (white) to 300 K (black).

The Gates of Hell is the only light source that also shows up as a 345 K hot spot in channel M-12. Since this is a nighttime image, the signal in M-12 comes only from emission from the Earth (and clouds, etc.) without any contribution from solar reflection (as there would be during the day). What you see in the M-12 image is the temperature of the objects in the scene, just like a typical infrared (IR) satellite image, except with higher sensitivity to sub-pixel heat sources. The clouds show up as cold (bright, in this color table) above the warmer (darker) land surface. Sarygamysh Lake (and a few other smaller lakes) show up as really warm (dark) because the desert floor at night cools off much more than the water does.

The moon here was only ~10% full, so there wasn’t enough light reflecting off the few clouds in the scene for the DNB to detect them. In fact, with so little moonlight, everything is dark in the DNB. Everything, that is, except for the towns, villages and flaming craters of burning methane.

Fires in Paradise

Sometimes, it seems like the whole world is on fire. Siberia. The western United States (which has been burning for some time). And now, the Canary Islands. The Spanish islands have been under a drought, as has much of Spain. (As an indication of how dry it has been, one fire in mainland Spain was started by someone flicking a cigarette butt out of their car window in a traffic jam – a fire that ultimately led to two deaths.) Back in July, fires got started on Tenerife – a major resort destination – and earlier this month, fires began on La Palma and La Gomera. At least two firefighters have already died battling these fires.

For your reference, here is a VIIRS “true color” image (M-3 [0.488 µm], M-4 [0.555 µm], M-5 [0.672 µm]) of the Canary Islands, with the major islands labelled:

VIIRS true color RGB composite of channels M-3, M-4 and M-5, taken 14:01 UTC 5 August 2012

VIIRS true color RGB composite of channels M-3, M-4 and M-5, taken 14:01 UTC 5 August 2012

If you look closely at this image, from 5 August 2012, you can see smoke plumes coming off of La Palma and La Gomera. You can also see what looks like a von Kármán vortex street downwind of La Palma. That’s the west coast of Africa in the lower-right corner of the image.

As discussed previously, the true color RGB composite is better for viewing the smoke plume, but you can’t actually see the fire directly. So, here’s the M-5 (0.672 µm), M-7 (1.61 µm) and M-11 (2.25 µm) composite from the same time:

VIIRS RGB composite of channels M-5, M-7 and M-11, taken 14:01 UTC 5 August 2012

VIIRS RGB composite of channels M-5, M-7 and M-11, taken 14:01 UTC 5 August 2012

It’s easy to see where the fires are actively burning with this composite. Let’s zoom in to make it even more obvious:

VIIRS false color RGB composite of channels M-5, M-7 and M-11, taken 14:01 UTC 5 August 2012

VIIRS false color RGB composite of channels M-5, M-7 and M-11, taken 14:01 UTC 5 August 2012

All the bright red pixels indicate where the fire is actively burning. You can also see the burn scar on Tenerife (not as easily as in Siberia) where the M-5, M-7, M-11 RGB composite shows the fire was back in July:

VIIRS false color RGB composite of  channels M-5, M-7 and M-11, taken 14:38 UTC 18 July 2012

VIIRS false color RGB composite of channels M-5, M-7 and M-11, taken 14:38 UTC 18 July 2012

La Gomera has been the hardest hit island, where thousands of people had to be evacuated, and approximately 10% of Garajonay National Park has burned. Garajonay National Park is home to one of the last remaining laurisilva forests, which has been around for 11 million years. That lush vegetation burned hot, and channel I-04 (3.7 µm) reached saturation as that area went up in flames:

VIIRS channel I-04 image of fires in the Canary Islands, taken 14:01 UTC 5 August 2012

VIIRS channel I-04 image of fires in the Canary Islands, taken 14:01 UTC 5 August 2012

The two white pixels on La Gomera are where I-04 reached saturation and “fold-over” due to the heat from the fire. M-13 (4.0 µm), which is a dual-gain band designed to not saturate, reached a brightness temperature of 451 K over La Gomera, compared with a saturation brightness temperature of 367 K for channel I-04.

The fires also showed up in the Day/Night Band that night:

VIIRS Day/Night Band image of the Canary Islands, taken 02:25 UTC 6 August 2012

VIIRS Day/Night Band image of the Canary Islands, taken 02:25 UTC 6 August 2012

The red arrows point out the fires on La Palma and La Gomera. The fire on La Gomera covers a significant percentage of the island. The yellow arrow points to Lanzarote, which, for some reason, is not part of IDL’s map. On the night this image was taken, the moon was approximately 84% full, so you can see a number of clouds as well the city lights from the major resort areas of the Canary Islands. The biggest visible city in Africa is El Aaiún, the disputed capital of Western Sahara.

Finally, here’s the “pseudo-true color” composite of VIIRS channels I-01 (0.64 µm), I-02 (0.87 µm) and I-03 (1.61 µm) from 13:42 UTC 6 August 2012. This is a full granule at the native resolution of the Imagery bands with no re-mapping, showing the rich detail of VIIRS high-resolution imagery, including more interesting cloud vortices:

VIIRS false color RGB composite of channels I-01, I-02 and I-03, taken 13:42 UTC 6 August 2012

VIIRS false color RGB composite of channels I-01, I-02 and I-03, taken 13:42 UTC 6 August 2012

Make sure to click on the image, then on the “6400×1536” link to see it in its full glory.