Nimbus

Ozone (O3)
monitoring satellites
(and instruments)

SPOT

Below is a list of Ozone (O3) monitoring satellites, including launch dates and links to information on the satellites. If readers know of additional information, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page.

See also the ozone and ozone-related events page.

Sections/divisions of the tables below
Ozone-monitoring satellites
(or Space Shuttle missions)
Ozone-monitoring instruments
(on satellites)
Future satellites with ozone equipment


Chronological summary of ozone-monitoring satellites (or Space Shuttle missions)

Launch DateSatellite (or Space Shuttle Mission)Instrument Acronym(s) or Name(s)
Ozone-monitoring satellites (or Space Shuttle missions)
1960-08-12Echo-1Ground-based analysis of sunlight reflected by the balloon (passive method, inaccurate results; solar occultation; sunlight from limb was reflected to ground from the balloon)
1962-07-18SAMOS-9UV radiometer (first experiment with active sensor; solar occultation limb scanning)
1964-03-27Ariel-2Broadband filter photometer, simple prism spectrometer (solar occultation limb scanning)
1964-09-13Kosmos-45 (experimental weather satellite)BUV radiometer (first known BUV (backscatter UV) instrument; downward looking)
1965-01-21OV1-1BUV radiometer (downward looking, 30░ left of nadir)
1965-04-17Kosmos-65 (experimental weather satellite)BUV radiometer
1965-10-16Kosmos-92 (experimental weather satellite)BUV radiometer
1966-06-25Kosmos-122 (pre-Meteor weather satellite)BUV radiometer
1966-12-11OV1-10BUV spectrophotometer
1967-07-28OGO-4Ebert-Fastie scanning spectrometer
1968-12-07OAO-2UV telescope/spectrophotometer (starlight occultation limb scanning)
1969-04-13Nimbus-3IRIS
1970-04-08Nimbus-4BUV spectrometer, IRIS
1972-08-21OAO-3UV telescope/spectrometer (starlight occultation limb scanning)
1975-06-12Nimbus-6LRIR (limb scanning)
1975-11-20Explorer-55 (AE-5 or AE-E)BUV (solar occultation limb scanning rather than downward-looking)
1976-09-11DMSP-5D1-F1SSH (multi-channel filter radiometer)
1977-06-04DMSP-5D1-F2SSH (multi-channel filter radiometer)
1978-05-01DMSP-5D1-F3SSH (multi-channel filter radiometer)
1978-10-24Nimbus-7 (longest-lasting mission; data 1978-1993)LIMS (limb scanner (an update of the LRIR)), TOMS-1, SBUV
1979-02-18Explorer-60 (AEM-B)SAGE-1
1979-06-06DMSP-5D1-F4SSH (multi-channel filter radiometer)
1979-06-27NOAA-6HIRS/2 (atmospheric sounder with 9.7 Ám ozone channel)
1980-07-14DMSP-5D1-F5 [launch failed]SSH (multi-channel filter radiometer)
1981-06-23NOAA-7HIRS/2
1981-10-06Explorer-64 / SMEUV ozone experiment, Four-Channel Infrared Radiometer, Airglow Instrument
1983-03-28NOAA-8HIRS/2
1984-10-05ERBS (launched with STS-17 (41G))SAGE-2
1984-12-12NOAA-9SBUV/2 (based on the SBUV/TOMS-1 flown on Nimbus-7), HIRS/2
1986-09-17NOAA-10HIRS/2
1988-09-24NOAA-11SBUV/2, HIRS/2
1989-10-18STS-34SSBUV1-1 (GAS canister)
1990-10-06STS-41SSBUV1-2 (GAS canister)
1991-05-14NOAA-12HIRS/2
1991-08-02STS-43SSBUV1-3 (GAS canister)
1991-08-15Meteor-3-5 (Meteor-TOMS)TOMS-2
1991-09-12UARS (launched with STS-48)CLAES, ISAMS, HALOE, SUSIM, MLS, SOLSTICE
1992-03-24STS-45SSBUV1-4 (GAS canister, ATLAS-1 payload)
1993-04-08STS-56SSBUV1-5 (GAS canister, ATLAS-2 payload)
1993-08-09NOAA-13SBUV/2, HIRS/2
1993-09-26SPOT-3POAM-2 (solar occultation limb scanning)
1994-04-03STS-62SSBUV1-6 (GAS canister)
1994-11-03STS-66SSBUV1-7 (GAS canister, ATLAS-3 payload)
1994-12-30NOAA-14SBUV/2, HIRS/2
1995-04-20ERS-2GOME-1 (BUV technique)
1995-03-28TechSat-1a microsatellite [failed]OM-2 UV radiometer (SBUV technique)
1995-08-31FASat-Alfa microsatellite [failed to separate from Sich-1]OLME
1996-01-11STS-72SSBUV1-8 (GAS canister)
1996-04-24MSXUVISI
1996-07-02TOMS-EPTOMS(-3?)
1996-08-17ADEOS-1TOMS(-4?), ILAS-1
1997-10-23STEP-4OOAM
1997-11-13STS-87SOLSE-1 (HH payload), LORE-1
1998-03-24SPOT-4POAM-3 (solar occultation limb scanning)
1998-05-13NOAA-15HIRS/3
1998-07-10FASat-Bravo microsatelliteOLME
1999Meteor-3M-2 (this Meteor-3M-1 followup was canceled in 1999)SAGE-3?
1998-07-10TechSat-1b / OSCAR-32 microsatelliteOM-2 UV radiometer (SBUV technique)
2000-09-21NOAA-16SBUV/2, HIRS/3
2001-02-20OdinOSIRIS, SMR
2001-09-21QuikTOMS [launch failed]TOMS-5
2001-12-10Meteor-3M-1SAGE-3
2002-03-01EnvisatGOMOS (starlight occultation limb scanning)
2002-06-24NOAA-17SBUV/2, HIRS/3
2002-12-14ADEOS-2ILAS-2
2003-01-16STS-107 [lost on re-entry]SOLSE-2 (HH payload), LORE-2 (Limb-viewing spectrometers)
2003-01-25SORCESOLSTICE
2003-08-13SciSatACE-FTS
2004-07-15EOS-Aura / formerly EOS-ChemOMI, HIRDLS, TES, MLS (OMI-SBUV technique; data similar to earlier TOMS data, but higher horizontal resolution; HIRDLS and MLS-limb scanners; TES-limb and nadir scanner)
2005-05-20NOAA-18SBUV/2, HIRS/4
2006-10-19MetOp-AGOME-2, HIRS/4
2008-05-27FY-3ATOM or TOU, and SBUS
2009-02-06GOSAT-1 / formerly GCOM-A1TANSO-FTS (similar to SciSat's ACE-FTS) (ODUS-Ozone Dynamics UV Spectrometer (a SBUV instrument) was planned but not used)
2009-02-06NOAA-19SBUV/2, HIRS/4
2009-09-17Meteor-M1 (or Meteor-M) (replacement for Meteor-3M)MTVZA imager/sounder; IRFS-1
2010-06-15PicardPREMOS
2010-11-04FY-3BTOM or TOU, and SBUS
2011-10-28S-NPP / JPSS series / formerly NPOESS seriesOMPS (nadir-viewing UV sensor and limb-viewing UV/visible sensor)
2012-09-17MetOp-BGOME-2, HIRS/4
2013-09-23FY-3CTOM or TOU, and SBUS
2014-07-08Meteor-M2MTVZA imager/sounder; IRFS-2 advanced IR sounder
2015-02-11DSCOVR / formerly Triana, or "GoreSat"EPIC
2018-11-07MetOp-CGOME-2, HIRS/4
Future satellites with ozone equipment
202?CX-1 (USA) micro-satellite (University of Colorado)(BUV?) spectrophotometer
2022 — 2030MTG-IIRS
2023 — 2026MTG-SIRS, UVN

Explanation of acronyms for Ozone-monitoring instruments found on satellites or Space Shuttle missions (in the table above)

Instrument AcronymInstrument NameSatellite(s) or Space Shuttle Mission(s)
Ozone-monitoring instruments (on satellites or Space Shuttle missions)
ACE-FTSAtmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform SpectrometerSciSat
ATLASATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (payload)STS-45, STS-56, STS-66 (3 missions)
BUVBackscatter UltraViolet spectrometer (and photometer)OV1-1, OV1-10, Kosmos-45, Kosmos-65, Kosmos-92, Kosmos-122, Nimbus-4, Explorer-55
CLAESCryogenic Limb Array Etalon SpectrometerUARS
EPICEarth Polychromatic Imaging CameraDSCOVR
GASGet Away Special (canister)STS-34, STS-41, STS-43, STS-45, STS-56, STS-62, STS-66, STS-72 (8 missions)
GOMEGlobal Ozone Monitoring ExperimentERS-2, MetOp-A, MetOp-B, MetOp-C
GOMOSGlobal Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of StarsEnvisat
HALOEHALogen Occultation ExperimentUARS
HHHitch Hiker (payload)STS-87, STS-107 (2 missions)
HIRDLSHIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb SounderEOS-Aura
HIRS/2High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder / 2NOAA-6NOAA-14 (9 satellites)
HIRS/3High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder / 3NOAA-15NOAA-18 (4 satellites)
HIRS/4High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder / 4NOAA-19, MetOp-A, MetOp-B, MetOp-C
ILAS-1Improved Limb Atmospheric Sounder - 1ADEOS-1
ILAS-2Improved Limb Atmospheric Sounder - 2ADEOS-2
IRFS-1InfraRed (sounder) - 1Meteor-M1
IRFS-2InfraRed (sounder) - 2Meteor-M2
IRISInfraRed Interferometer SpectrometerNimbus-3, Nimbus-4
IRSInfraRed SounderMTG-I, MTG-S
ISAMSImproved Stratospheric and Mesospheric SounderUARS
LIMSLimb Infrared Monitor of the StratosphereNimbus-7
LORELimb Ozone Retrieval ExperimentSTS-87, STS-107 (2 missions)
LRIRLimb Radiance Inversion RadiometerNimbus-4
MLSMicrowave Limb SounderUARS, EOS-Aura
MTVZA?Meteor-M1, Meteor-M2
OLMEOzone Layer Monitoring ExperimentFASat-Alfa, FASat-Bravo
OMOzone MeterTechsat-1a, Techsat-1b/OSCAR-32
OMIOzone Monitoring InstrumentEOS-Aura
OMPSOzone Mapping and Profiler SuiteS-NPP / JPSS series / formerly NPOESS series
OOAMOrbiting Ozone and Aerosol MeasurementSTEP-4
OSIRISOptical Spectrometer and InfraRed Imaging SystemOdin
POAMPolar Ozone and Aerosol MeasurementSPOT-3, SPOT-4
PREMOSPRecision Monitor for OScillation measurementPicard
SAGEStratospheric Aerosol and Gas ExperimentExplorer-60, ERBS, Meteor-3M-1
SBUSSolar Backscattering Uv SounderFY-3A, FY-3B, FY-3C
SBUVSolar Backscatter UltraViolet radiometerNimbus-7
SBUV/2Solar Backscatter UltraViolet radiometer / 2NOAA-9, NOAA-11, NOAA-13, NOAA-14, NOAA-16, NOAA-17, and NOAA-18, NOAA-19 (8 satellites)
SMRSub-Mm RadiometerOdin
SOLSEShuttle Ozone Limb Sounding ExperimentSTS-87, STS-107 (2 missions)
SOLSTICESOLar STellar (Inter-)Comparison ExperimentUARS, SORCE
SSBUV1Shuttle Solar Backscatter UltraViolet radiometerSTS-34, STS-41, STS-43, STS-45, STS-56, STS-62, STS-66, STS-72 (8 missions)
SSHSpecial Sensor HDMSP-5D1-F1 — DMSP-5D1 (5 satellites)
SUSIMSolar Ultravioliet Spectral Irradiance MonitorUARS
TANSO - FTSThermal And Near ir Sensor for climate Observation - Fourier Transform interferometer SpectrometerGOSAT-1
TESTropospheric. Emission SpectrometerEOS-Aura
TOMTotal Ozone MapperFY-3A, FY-3B, FY-3C
TOMSTotal Ozone Mapping SpectrometerNimbus-7, Meteor-3-5, TOMS-EP, ADEOS-1, QuikTOMS
TOUTotal Ozone UnitFY-3A, FY-3B, FY-3C
UVUltraViolet (radiometer, or telescope/spectrophotometer, or ozone experiment)SAMOS-9, OAO-2, OAO-3, Explorer-64
UVISIUltraviolet and Visible Imagers and Spectrographic ImagersMSX
UVNUltraviolet Visible and Near-ir sounderMTG-S

1The SSBUV (Shuttle Solar Backscatter UV) experiment, which made its first flight on STS-34, was developed by NASA to check the calibration of satellite-borne ozone sounders because of calibration drift of the SBUV (Solar Backscatter UV) instrument that they carried. The SSBUV experiment took advantage of the Shuttle's orbital flight path to compare data from identical instruments aboard the satellite and the Shuttle. This could be done because of orbital coincidences in which the Shuttle and the satellite passed over the same Earth location within a 1-hour window. The SSBUV instrument and its dedicated electronics, power, data and command systems were mounted in the Shuttle's payload bay in two Get Away Special canisters (an instrument canister and a support canister) which together weighed 544 kg.

Reference: Krueger, A.J., B. Guenther, A.J. Fleig, D.F. Heath, E. Hilsenrath, R. McPeters, C. Prabhakara, 1980: Satellite ozone measurements, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 296(1418), 191-204. [See http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/296/1418/191.full.pdf+html or http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/36443.pdf?acceptTC=true]


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