Lightning Meteorology 2
Anomalous Storms and Advanced Theory
Bard Zajac, John Weaver and Dan Lindsey
with contributions from: Dan Bikos, Dolores Kiessling, Tim Alberta, Liz Page, Larry Carey, Brian Peters, Dick Orville
Lightning Meteorology 2 examines electrification and cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity in atypical thunderstorms. Atypical storms include winter storms and many severe storms. The broad objective of this teletraining course is to utilize CG lightning data in nowcasting / forecasting these storms.
Specific course objectives are:
- to review and be familiar with Lightning Meteorology I, the introductory course that examines typical warm season isolated storms and mesoscale convective systems.
- to define the two main CG lightning parameters: CG flash rate and the percentage of +CGs (or percent +CGs)
- to understand how CG flash rate and percent +CGs are affected by various configurations of electrical charge
- to define the terms, negative strike dominated (NSD) and positive strike dominated (PSD)
- to identify differences between warm season and cold seaon lightning and the seasonal factors that are responsible
- to know where severe NSD storms and severe PSD storms tend to occur in the contiguous United States
- to see why severe NSD storms often exhibit usually high and variable CG flash rates
- to be familiar with severe PSD storms and the hypotheses used to explain these anomalous storms
This is an advanced course course.
Lightning Meterorology 1 is a prerequisite because Lightning Meterorology 2 assumes a good understanding of the concepts taught in Lightning Meterorology 1. Several concepts from Lightning Meterorology 1 are examined in greater detail with little to no review.
Training Session Options
NOAA/NWS students - to begin the training, use the web-based video, YouTube video, or audio playback options below (if present for this session). Certificates of completion for NOAA/NWS employees can be obtained by accessing the session via the Commerce Learn Center
- Web-based video that can be taken at anytime (streamed, not recommended for low-bandwidth users). Be sure to have your speakers on and the volume loud enough to hear the presentation. Also be sure that you are using a flash enabled browser.
Audio playback (recommended for low-bandwidth users) - This is an audio playback version in the form of a downloadable VISITview and can be taken at anytime.
Create a directory to download the audio playback file (38 MB) from the following link: http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/training/visit/training_sessions/lightning_meteorology_2/lightning_meteorology_2_audio.exe
After extracting the files into that directory click on either the visitplay.bat or visitauto.bat file to start the lesson. If both files are present, use visitauto.bat
- Talking points are available for this lesson and may be printed out to easily review the session in detail at any time.
- NWS regional lightning ground maps (replaces the old link found at the end of the training session)
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- Zajac, B. A., and J. F. Weaver, 2002: An introductory course on forecasting with lightning data. Preprints, Symposium on the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS), Orlando, FL, AMS.
- Developed: 2002
- Updated: 2004