Chinese Super-Smog

No, not a Super-Smörg, super smog. Smog that is so thick, you can taste it. The smog in many parts of eastern China has been so bad this winter, it is literally “off-the-charts“. Based on our Environmental Protection Agency‘s not-very-intuitive Air Quality Index (see pages 13-16, in particular) any value above 300 is hazardous to everyone’s health. The scale doesn’t even go above 500 because the expectation is that the air could never get that polluted. Applying this scale to the air in Beijing, the local U.S. Embassy reported an Air Quality Index value of 755 on 13 January 2013. Visibility has been reduced to 100 m at times. This video (from 31 January 2013) gives a vivid description of the problems of the smog:

If that wasn’t bad enough, here’s video from NBC News where Brian Williams reveals a factory was on fire for three hours before anyone noticed because the smog was so thick!

Did you happen to notice in the beginning of the NBC video that the “air pollution is so bad that the thick smog can now be seen from space”? Of course, the satellite image shown in that clip came from MODIS. (It must have friends in high places. That, or people get the MODIS images out on their blogs less than two weeks after the event occurred, unlike this blog.) Needless to say, VIIRS has seen the smog, too, and it is terrible.

For comparison purposes, here’s what a clean air day looks like over eastern China:

VIIRS "true color" RGB composite of channels M-03, M-04 and M-05, taken 05:21 UTC 28 September 2012

VIIRS "true color" RGB composite of channels M-03, M-04 and M-05, taken 05:21 UTC 28 September 2012

This is a “true color” composite taken 05:21 UTC 28 September 2012. (As always, click on the image, then on the “2040×1552″ link below the banner to see the full resolution image.) There appears to be some air pollution in that image (look near 33° N latitude between 112° and 116° E longitude), but it’s not that noticeable.

Here’s what it looks like when Beijing is reporting record levels of air pollution (04:56 UTC 14 January 2013):

VIIRS true color RGB composite of channels M-03, M-04 and M-05, taken 04:56 UTC 14 January 2013

VIIRS true color RGB composite of channels M-03, M-04 and M-05, taken 04:56 UTC 14 January 2013

You may have heard of a “brown cloud of pollution“. Here the clouds actually appear brown thanks to all that pollution. Notice the area around Shijiazhuang – the most polluted city in China – and how brown those clouds are in comparison to the clouds on the left and right edges of the image. Then look south from Shijiazhuang to where everything south and west of the cloud bank has a dull gray color. That is all smog! It’s enough to make anyone with a respiratory condition want to cough up a lung just from seeing this.

Now, this is a complicated scene with clouds, snow, ice and smog. So, to clear things up (in a manner of speaking), here is the same image with everything labelled:

VIIRS true color RGB composite of channels M-03, M-04, and M-05, taken 04:56 UTC 14 January 2013

VIIRS true color RGB composite of channels M-03, M-04, and M-05, taken 04:56 UTC 14 January 2013

The gray smog can be seen around Beijing as well, but it pales in comparison to the rest of eastern China. Think about that! Replay the videos above and consider that might not have even been the worst smog in China at the time!

Too bad there are a lot of clouds over the area. What does it look like on a “clearer” day? (“Clearer”, of course, refers to the amount of clouds, not air pollution.) It looks worse! The image below was taken at 04:32 UTC on 26 January 2013:

VIIRS true color RGB composite of VIIRS channels M-03, M-04, and M-05, taken 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

VIIRS true color RGB composite of VIIRS channels M-03, M-04, and M-05, taken 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

The area covered by smog rivals the area of South Korea, which is visible on the right side of the image. (One of the reports I linked to above put the figure at 1/7th of the land area of China covered by smog around this time, which is actually a lot bigger than South Korea!) I’m just counting the smog in the image that is thick enough to completely obscure the surface. There is likely smog that isn’t as obvious (and isn’t labelled) in that image. The snow between Shijiazhuang, Tianjin and Beijing is covered by smog that isn’t quite thick enough to totally obscure it. And the large area of snow south of Tianjin is likely covered with smog. (It sure is a lot dirtier in appearance than the snow near the top of the image.)

If you don’t believe my labels, the “pseudo-true color” or “natural color” RGB composite clearly identifies the low clouds (which usually appear a dirty, off-white color even without smog), ice clouds (pale cyan) and snow (vivid cyan):

VIIRS false color RGB composite of channels M-05, M-07 and M-10 (a.k.a. "natural color"), taken 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

VIIRS false color RGB composite of channels M-05, M-07 and M-10 (a.k.a. "natural color"), taken 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

Notice the smog in this image. It is an unholy grayish-greenish color with a value near 70-105-93 in R-G-B color space. The “natural color” composite is made from channels M-05 (0.67 µm, blue), M-07 (0.87 µm, green) and M-10 (1.61 µm, red), which are longer wavelengths than their “true color” counterparts. Longer wavelengths mean reduced scattering by atmospheric aerosols, so the higher green value may be due to the strong surface vegetation signal in M-07 being able to penetrate through the smog. (Either that or the smog is composed of some chemical compound that has a higher reflectivity value in M-07 than in the other two channels.)

I’ve looked at the EUMETSAT Dust, Daytime Microphysics and Nighttime Microphysics/Fog RGBs, which you might think would show super-thick smog and they don’t. At least, it’s not obvious.

The EUMESAT Dust RGB applied to VIIRS, valid 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

The EUMESAT Dust RGB applied to VIIRS, valid 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

The Dust RGB above uses M-14 (8.55 µm), M-15 (10.7 µm) and M-16 (12.0 µm) and requires there to be a large temperature contrast between the dust (cool) and the background surface (hot). Smog almost always occurs when there is a temperature inversion (the air at the ground is colder than the air above) so the necessary temperature contrast won’t exist.

The Daytime Microphysics RGB shows the smoggy areas are a slightly different color than other cloud-free surfaces, but that color can be confused with other non-smoggy surfaces. The clouds really stand out, though:

The EUMETSAT Daytime Microphysics RGB applied to VIIRS, valid 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

The EUMETSAT Daytime Microphysics RGB applied to VIIRS, valid 04:32 UTC 26 January 2013

Perhaps, with a different scaling, the smog might stand out more.

The Nighttime Microphysics RGB from the night before (18:50 UTC 25 January 2013) is interesting. Notice the cloud identified by the letter “B” and the non-cloud next to it, “A”:

The EUMETSAT Nighttime Microphysics/Fog RGB applied to VIIRS, valid 18:50 UTC 25 January 2013

The EUMETSAT Nighttime Microphysics/Fog RGB applied to VIIRS, valid 18:50 UTC 25 January 2013

Now compare this with the Day/Night Band image from the same time:

VIIRS Day/Night Band image of eastern China, taken 18:50 UTC 25 January 2013

VIIRS Day/Night Band image of eastern China, taken 18:50 UTC 25 January 2013

This was a day before full moon. Thanks to the moon, clouds, snow and smog are visible in addition to the city lights. Points “A” and “B” have nearly identical brightness in the Day/Night Band, but only “B” shows up as a cloud in the Nighttime Microphysics RGB. These lighter areas around “A” and “B” are partially obscuring city lights, indicating “B” is a cloud, while “A” is smog. (If either was snow, you’d be able to see the city lights more clearly. See the lighter area northwest of Beijing, which is snow.)

Nothing sees super-smog like the true color composite, but the Day/Night Band will see it as long as there is enough moonlight. Smog as optically thick as a cloud… *hacking cough* … Yuck!

2 thoughts on “Chinese Super-Smog

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