GOES-O was launched on 27 June 2009 and successfully reached geostationary orbit on 8 July 2009 to officially become GOES-14.

The first official visible, IR, and Sounder images were taken in July and August 2009.

The Science Test started on 30 November 2009, with GOES-14 located at 104.5 degrees West, and ended 5 weeks later, on 4 January 2010. The GOES-14 Imager and Sounder are now in storage mode.

GOES-O decal

Tech Report cover The results of the GOES-14 Science Test, provided by numerous contributors over the succeeding months, have been compiled by Don Hillger and Tim Schmit. The report has been approved for public release and is available at NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 131 (with Corrigendum, revised 2010-11-12). The report is available on CD as well. A copy of the CD will be sent to anyone who requests one. (Send e-mail requests to the address at the bottom of this page.)

A similar GOES-15 Science Test was conducted starting in August 2010. See the GOES-15 Science Test for information on that event.

A RAMSDIS Online display of real-time GOES-14 data is now available at http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/ramsdis/online/goes-14.asp. Selected bands and views are available. The full-disk images in particular give an indication where GOES-14 is viewing the Western Hemiphere, as some of the scan sectors may vary widely in location and size.

Another online display of real-time GOES-14 imagery is avaible at http://tinyurl.com/yzz4dgm, provided by Scott Bachmeier (CIMSS).

Or to access all of the GOES-14-relevant posts on the CIMSS Satellite Blog at http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/category/goes-14


GOES-14 Science Test Schedules and Daily Implementation Reverse Chronology of GOES-14 Significant Events GOES-14 Reference Information/Websites


GOES-14 Science Test Schedules

The test schedule changed daily at 1630 UTC and ran for 24 hours. On weekends the schedules for Saturday and Sunday were determined Friday afternoon.

Test Schedule NameImagerSounderPurpose
C1CONContinuous 5-minute CONUS sector26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesTest navigation, ABI-like (temporal) CONUS scans
C2SRSOContinuous 1-minute rapid-scan (with center point specified for storm analysis)26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesTest navigation, ABI-like (temporal) mesoscale scans
C3SRSOContinuous 30-second rapid-scan (with center point at one of three locations: Huntsville AL, Norman OK, or Washington DC)126-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesCoordination with lightning detection arrays in Huntsville AL, Norman OK, and Washington DC areas
C4RTNEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
C5RTNEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
C6FDContinuous 30-minute Full Disk (including off-earth measurements)Sectors on both east and west limbs every hour (including off-earth measurements)2Imagery for noise, striping, etc.
C7MOON (depends on moon availability)Capture moon off edge of earth (when possible) for calibration purposes Inserted into GOES-east routine operationsTest ABI lunar calibration concepts
"C8" (inserted into C5 GOES-east routine schedule)Emulation of 2 km ABI resolution thru spatial over-sampling (19 minutes for a small sector per specific line-shifted scan strategy)Emulation of GOES-east routine operationsABI-like higher-resolution data emulation
C59RTN (modified C5 GOES-east routine schedule)Partial-image frames3 testing (such frames are available during semi-annual satellite-eclipse/keep-out-zone periods)Emulation of GOES-east routine operationsAWIPS testing and product generation

1 Including the Hazardous Weather Testbed in North Alabama (centered at Huntsville AL, 34.72 N -86.65 E), the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array (centered at Norman OK, 35.28 N -97.92 E), and the Washington DC lightning mapping array (centered over Falls Church VA, 38.89 N -77.17 E).
2 Limb sectors similar to GOES Sounder scans during previous GOES Science Tests.
3 Partial-image frames include the following:
CONUS & CONUS replacement, Northern HEMI & Northern HEMI replacement, Southern HEMI & Southern HEMI replacement, and Northern HEMI-extended & Northern HEMI-extended replacement


Daily Implementation of GOES-14 Science Test Schedules

(Daily starting time: 1630 UTC)

Starting Date [Julian Day]
(Day of Week)
Test Schedule NameImagerSounderPurpose
Start of 5-week Science Test
November 30 [334]
(Monday)
C5RTNEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsSome final changes in software at Satellite Operations are still being implemented
December 01 [335]
(Tuesday)
C6FDContinuous 30-minute Full Disk (including off-earth measurements)Sectors on both east and west limbs every hour (including off-earth measurements)Imagery for noise, striping, etc.
December 02 [336]
(Wednesday)
C2SRSOContinuous 1-minute rapid-scan (centered at 34.7 N / 85.6 W, 1 deg E of Huntsville AL)26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesSignificant weather event over SE U.S.
December 03 [337]
(Thursday)
"C8" (inserted into C5 schedule)Emulation of GOES-east routine operations (with special scans inserted)Emulation of GOES-east routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons (plus ABI-like higher-resolution data emulation)
December 04 [338]
(Friday)
C1CONContinuous 5-minute CONUS sector26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesABI-like (temporal) CONUS scans
December 05 [339]
(Saturday)
C2SRSOContinuous 1-minute rapid-scan (centered at 28.59 N / 80.65 W, Kennedy Space Center)26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesCoordination with lightning mapping array over KSC
December 06 [340]
(Sunday)
C5RTNEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
December 07 [341]
(Monday)
C4RTNEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
December 08 [342]
(Tuesday)
C2SRSOContinuous 1-minute rapid-scan (centered at 34.7 N / 86.6 W, Huntsville AL)26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesCoordinate with lightning detection array in Huntsville AL
December 09 [343]
(Wednesday)
C1CONContinuous 5-minute CONUS sector26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesABI-like (temporal) CONUS scans
December 10 [344]
(Thursday)
C4RTNEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
December 11 [345]
(Friday)
C1CONContinuous 5-minute CONUS sector26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesABI-like (temporal) CONUS scans
December 12 [346]
(Saturday)
C4RTNEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
December 13 [347]
(Sunday)
C4RTNEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
December 14 [348]
(Monday)
C5RTNEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
December 15 [349]
(Tuesday)
C5RTNEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
December 16 [350]
(Wednesday)
C5RTNEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
December 17 [351]
(Thursday)
C59RTNPartial-image frames testing (modified C5 GOES-east routine schedule)Emulation of GOES-east routine operationsAWIPS testing and product generation
December 18 [352]
(Friday)
C2SRSOContinuous 1-minute rapid-scan (centered at 32 N / 82 W, on the Georgia coast)26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesSignificant weather event over SE U.S.
December 19 [353]
(Saturday)
C2SRSOContinuous 1-minute rapid-scan (centered at 39 N / 77 W, Washington DC)26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesSignificant east coast snowstorm
December 20 [354]
(Sunday)
C2SRSOContinuous 1-minute rapid-scan (centered at 50 N / 123 W, Whistler BC, Canada)26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesMountain snow study for 2010 Olympics
December 21 [355]
(Monday)
C4RTNEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
December 22 [356]
(Tuesday)
C4RTNEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
December 23 [357]
(Wednesday)
C4RTNEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
December 24 [358]
(Thursday)
C2SRSOContinuous 1-minute rapid-scan (centered at 35.1 N / 89.8 W, Memphis TN)26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesLarge weather system over central U.S.
December 25 [359]
(Friday)
C1CONContinuous 5-minute CONUS sector26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesABI-like (temporal) CONUS scans
December 26 [360]
(Saturday)
C1CONContinuous 5-minute CONUS sector26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesABI-like (temporal) CONUS scans
December 27 [361]
(Sunday)
C1CONContinuous 5-minute CONUS sector26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesABI-like (temporal) CONUS scans
December 28 [362]
(Monday)
C6FDContinuous 30-minute Full Disk (including off-earth measurements)Sectors on both east and west limbs every hour (including off-earth measurements)Imagery for noise, striping, etc.
December 29 [363]
(Tuesday)
C5RTNEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsEmulation of GOES-east routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
December 30 [364]
(Wednesday)
C1CONContinuous 5-minute CONUS sector26-minute CONUS sector every 30 minutesABI-like (temporal) CONUS scans
December 31 [365]
(Thursday)
C4RTNEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
January 01 [001]
(Friday)
C4RTNEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
January 02 [002]
(Saturday)
C4RTNEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
January 03 [003]
(Sunday)
C4RTNEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-west routine operationsRadiance and product comparisons
January 04 [004]
(Monday)
C7MOON1Capture moon off edge of earth (when possible) for calibration purposes Inserted into GOES-east routine operationsTest ABI lunar calibration concepts
End of 5-week Science Test
Starting January 05 [005] thru January 19 [019]C5RTN or C4RTNEmulation of GOES-east or west routine operationsEmulation of GOES-east or west routine operationsGOES-14 operated in this schedule until it was put into storage mode

1 Additional (and better) moon images were taken on 10 August 2009.


Reverse Chronology of GOES-14 Significant Events:

The following sections are presented in reverse chronological order, with the newest information at the top. Older information may be outdated or superseded.



2011 September 07:

Presentation on GOES-14 status (as of mid-2010):

ftp://ftp.ssec.wisc.edu/ABI/HI/HI_Schmit_GOES_status.ppt



2010 January 04:

For a report on GOES-14 PLT related results as of last week. See GOES-14 PLT Science Test Report 20100104, provided by Fred Wu (NOAA/STAR).


GOES-14 vs. GOES-11 vs. GOES-12 animation

For images of an explosive eruption of the Galeras volcano in Colombia (located in the Andes Mountains near Colombia’s border with Ecuador) around 00:43 UTC on 03 January 2010 see http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/4302, provided by Scott Bachmeier (CIMSS).


GOES-14 vs. GOES-11 animation

For images of a large hazy plume streaming northeastward from the Hawaiian Islands on 31 December 2009 – 01 January 2010 see http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/4255, provided by Scott Bachmeier (CIMSS).

2009 December 29:

GOES-14 1-minute visible rapid scan over Louisiana and Mississippi

For an animation of GOES-14 1-minute interval rapid-scan visible images over Louisiana and Mississippi from 24 December 2009 see ftp://rammftp.cira.colostate.edu/lindsey/g14/24dec09_srso_vis_loop.gif, provided by Dan Lindsey (NOAA/STAR).

For other animations from 23 and 24 December go to the following locations:


GOES-14 water vapor animation

For images of a pair of stratospheric intrusion vortices that developed over the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. on 26-27 December 2009 see http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/4241, provided by Scott Bachmeier (CIMSS).


2009 December 28:

GOES-14 vs. GOES-12 drifting ice

For images of drifting ice as seen by GOES-14 vs. GOES-12 on 27 December 2009 see http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/4223, provided by Scott Bachmeier (CIMSS).


2009 December 23:

GOES-14 1-minute visible rapid scan over Whistler BC, Canada

For an animation of GOES-14 1-minute interval rapid-scan visible images of frontal snow in the coastal mountain of British Columbia on 20 December 2009 see ftp://rammftp.cira.colostate.edu/lindsey/g14/20dec09_srso_vis_loop.gif, provided by Dan Lindsey (NOAA/STAR).


GOES-14 dust storm in Arizona

For other images of the large dust storm in Southern Arizona on 22 December 2009 see http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/4181, provided by Scott Bachmeier (CIMSS).


2009 December 21:

GOES-14 1-minute visible rapid scan over the eastern U.S.

For an animation of GOES-14 1-minute interval rapid-scan visible images of the record-setting East Coast winter storm on 18-19 December 2009 see http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/projects/svr_vis/eastcoast_snowstorm/ch1loop.asp, provided by Dan Lindsey (NOAA/STAR).


GOES-14 1-minute IR rapid scan over the eastern U.S.

For an animation of GOES-14 1-minute interval rapid-scan IR images of the record-setting East Coast winter storm on 18-19 December 2009 see http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/4163, provided by Scott Bachmeier (CIMSS).


2009 December 20:

For a report on GOES-14 PLT related results as of last week. See GOES-14 PLT Science Test Report 20091218, provided by Fred Wu (NOAA/STAR).


For information on the GOES-14 Imager Spectral Response Function (SRF) differences between RevD and RevE see GOES-14 RevE SRFs, provided by Mat Gunshor (CIMSS).


2009 December 18:

GOES-14 rapid scan over the SE U.S.

For a 1-minute interval loop of GOES-14 rapid-scan visible imagery over the low pressure center in the Gulf of Mexico see http://tinyurl.com/ygb3ecp, courtsey of Scott Bachmeier (CIMSS).


2009 December 17:

GOES-12 vs. 14 truncated full-disk image

Above is a comparison of a truncated/partial GOES-14 full-disk visible image compared to an equivalent GOES-12 full-disk image, taken during the partial-image frames testing on 17 December 2009, provided by Tim Schmit (NOAA/STAR).


2009 December 15:

For a repot on GOES-14 PLT related results as of last week. See GOES-14 PLT Science Test Report 20091214.ppt, provided by Fred Wu (NOAA/STAR).


2009 December 14:

GOES-14 lake-effect cloud bands

For a comparison of GOES-14 visible images with other satellite images of lake-effect cloud bands over Lake Superior on 11 December 2009, see http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/4102, provided by Scott Bachmeier (CIMSS).


GOES-14 rapid scan over northern Alabama

An animated loop of 1-minute visible imagery for 8 December 2009 centered over active convection in northern Alabama with overlaid lightning is available at ftp://rammftp.cira.colostate.edu/lindsey/g14/8dec09_vis_lma_loop.gif, provided by Eric Brunning (NOAA/UMD) and Dan Lindsey (NOAA/STAR).


2009 December 10:

GOES comparison

For a comparison of terrain-induced cloud features off the coast of western North America on 7 December, see http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/4094, provided by Scott Bachmeier (CIMSS).


g14_IR_lightning2.gif

Eric Brunning has updated his GOES-14 science test page with a new loop of lightning and IR for the severe convection over northern Alabama, 345-545 UTC on 9 December 2009. See http://cics.umd.edu/~ebruning/GOES14sciencetest.html


2009 December 9:

g14_IR_lightning.gif

This 10.7 µm GOES-14 image from 0827 UTC on 3 December 2009 has lightning data overlaid. Lightning data (1-minute) are from the KSC LDAR II network, showing flash extent density at 4 km resolution. This is double the resolution of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper.

Eric Brunning (UMD) also put together loops of the 3 December 2009 activity over Kennedy Space Center, and created a web page for them, where he describes what he did in more detail. There's a 3-hour IR loop and a 1-hour visible loop with lightning overlaid. Eric wants to thank all for their assistance in helping to get the dataset together. See http://cics.umd.edu/~ebruning/GOES14sciencetest.html


2009 December 8:

3dec09_c8_preliminaries

This summary chart contains a cloud image animation, a result of the "C8" schedule called to emulate 2 km ABI resolution data, provided by Seiichiro Kigawa (Japan Meteorological Agency, Kiyose-shi, Tokyo, Japan).


2009 December 7:

GOES-14 rapid scan over Florida

An animated loop of 1-minute visible imagery from 5 December 2009 centered over active convection in Florida is available at ftp://rammftp.cira.colostate.edu/lindsey/g14/5dec09_srso_vis_loop.gif, provided by Dan Lindsey (NOAA/STAR).


2009 December 3:

GOES hot spot comparison

For a comparison of hot spot detection for fires in British Columbia, Canada on 1 December, see http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/4053, provided by Scott Bachmeier (CIMSS).


2009 December 2:

GOES-14 rapid scan over the SE U.S.

An animated loop of 1-minute visible imagery from 2 December 2009 centered over active convection in the SE U.S. is available at ftp://rammftp.cira.colostate.edu/lindsey/g14/2dec09_srso_vis_loop.gif, provided by Dan Lindsey (NOAA/STAR).


GOES-14 full-disk visible

Animations of full-disk imagery from 1 December 2009 are available at the following URLs, provided by Dan Lindsey (NOAA/STAR):

Band-1/visible: http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/projects/svr_vis/1dec09/ch1loop.asp
Band-2/SW-IR: http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/projects/svr_vis/1dec09/ch2loop.asp
Band-3/WV: http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/projects/svr_vis/1dec09/ch3loop.asp
Band-4/LW-IR: http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/projects/svr_vis/1dec09/ch4loop.asp
Band-6/IR: http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/projects/svr_vis/1dec09/ch6loop.asp


2009 December 1:

GOES navigation comparison

For an example of improved Image Navigation and Registration (INR) for GOES-14 see http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/4010, provided by Scott Bachmeier (CIMSS).


2009 November 29:

For a fine example of detail in the GOES-14 water vapor band, compared to that of GOES-11 and 12, see the CIMSS Satellite Blog http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/blog/archives/3973.

GOES-14 Defived Product Images (DPIs) of TPW, LI, and Clouds are available at http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/goes/rt/sounder-dpi.php


2009 November 20:

A GOES Readiness Review sponsored by Office of Satellite Data Processing & Distribution (OSDPD) was held on 20 November. Presentations were given by Don Hillger and Tim Schmit, as well as several others. Don and Tim's presentations can be downloaded below:


2009 November 16:

The GOES-R Calibration Working Group hosted a seminar on GOES-14 OV (On-orbit Verification) on 16 November. The seminar consisted of a series of three presentations on the GOES-14 Science Test. Presentations were given by Don Hillger, Tim Schmit, and Fred Wu. The presentations can be downloaded below:


2009 August 26:

The image below is a comparison of GOES-12 and GOES-14 Imager band-6, showing the improved spatial resolution provided by the GOES-14 Imager in this band. This image also confirms the correction for the detector ordering of Imager band-6.

2PANEL_G12_G14_BAND6_DANNY_COLOR.GIF

See also a PowerPoint presentation, which includes before and after slides showing the band-6 detector reordering for GOES-14 images.


2009 August 21:

Statement about Investigation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-14) Imager Channel 6 (13.3 µm) Line Switch Anomaly: During the Post Launch Test (PLT), STAR scientists at CIMSS found that the Channel 6 image appeared fuzzy. This was also observed by scientists at NASA, and confirmed by the OSDPD and by STAR scientists at CIRA. This is the channel for which dual detectors replaced the earlier design of single detector for GOES-12/13. Ensuing investigation at the Office of Satellite Operations (OSO), NASA, and STAR revealed that data from the two detectors were not in proper order in the GOES Variables (GVAR) data stream. With the data re-ordered, the image becomes normal. OSO engineers currently have a software solution to this anomaly. Compared to GOES-12, the new capability of imaging at higher spatial resolution by this channel of GOES-14 significantly improves the quality of the imagery. [Contributed by Fred Wu, with input from several NOAA and NASA scientists.]

See also the following NASA links, where it is noted that "The satellite and instrument performed well. However, the ground system had problems writing the new rebroadcast format for channels 3 and 6, where the right-hand side of the image was partly over-written with the left-hand side. The post-launch checkout is performed to discover and fix such problems": http://goes.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/goes/090817_GOES14_firstir_I06_small.jpg and/or http://goes.gsfc.nasa.gov/text/goes14results.html.


2009 August 18:

A comparison of the first GOES-14 Sounder images from 1946 UTC on 18 August 2009 to equivalent GOES-12 imagery.

GOES14_SNDR_20PL.GIF

GOES12_SNDR_20PL.GIF

See also a PowerPoint presentation, which includes slides of the first GOES-14 images.


2009 August 17:

The first GOES-14 full-disk Imager infrared images were transmitted at 1732 UTC on 17 August 2009.

First_GOES-14_full-disk_band-2_image_1732_UTC_17_August_2009

First_GOES-14_full-disk_band-3_image_1732_UTC_17_August_2009

First_GOES-14_full-disk_band-4_image_1732_UTC_17_August_2009

First_GOES-14_full-disk_band-5_image_1732_UTC_17_August_2009

GOES-14_full-disk_band-1_image_1732_UTC_17_August_2009


A comparison of the first GOES-14 full-disk infrared images to equivalent GOES-12 imagery.

GOES14_IMAGER_IR_ALLBANDS_COLOR.GIF

GIA12TS_ASPB.GIF

For some larger full-disk images, see http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/star/GOES-14FirstImage.php and http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/media/spotlight/goes14/ir.html


2009 July 27:

The first GOES-14 full-disk Imager visible image was transmitted at 1730 UTC on 27 July 2009.

First_GOES-14_full-disk_visible_image_1730_UTC_27_July_2009

For a larger version of the image click here.

For other higher-resolution GOES-14 visible images see the CIMSS Satellite Blog.


2009 July 8:

GOES-O successfully reached geostationary orbit at 89.5 degrees West longitude on 8 July 2009 to officially become GOES-14.

GOES-O_significant_events_2009-July


2009 June 27:

GOES-O was successfully launched on 27 June 2009 at approximately 18:51 EDT from Cape Canaveral.

For launch photos, see http://www.launchphotography.com/GOES-O.html

All indications are that the spacecraft is healthy. Over the next 10 days the spacecraft will be raised to geosynchronous orbit at 90 degrees West longitude where it will be check out by Boeing until 17 July 2009. NASA will then take the lead for fully activation the satellite instruments and services over the next 6 months.

The GOES-O Science Test, which will be conducted about 150 days (5 months) after the launch of GOES-O, will start in the late-November/December 2009 time frame.


2009 June 25:

GOES-O_baseline_plan_2009-June


2009 February 24:

Preliminary GOES-O Schedule


Reference Information/Websites:

See also the following information about GOES-O:


A similar Science Test was conducted for GOES-13 in December 2006. See the GOES-13 Science Test for information on that event.

Animated mailbox
If you would like to be (or know of someone else who should be) on the mailing list to be notified of updates to GOES Science Test information, send an e-mail message to: hillger@cira.colostate.edu or Don.Hillger@noaa.gov
(The NOAA Science Tests are co-lead by Tim Schmit, NOAA/NESDIS/STAR/ASPB @ CIMSS.)