wx-rocket

(Sub-orbital)
Atmospheric Research
Rockets


This page contains philatelic information on (sub-orbital) Atmospheric research rockets. Catalog numbers, years of issue, and notes on the items featured are given when available. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page.

Distinction between atmospheric layers is made for the rocket launch covers, but not for the other postal items, according to the following definitions:

A separate category of rockets is used in weather modification. They are small rockets, often based on military designs. The goal of such rockets is to deliver silver iodide into clouds in an attempt to modify their structure and therefore to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from them. These rockets carry no instrumentation. Rather, they carry their load of silver iodide and an explosive charge that makes the rocket blow up inside the targeted cloud. These rockets do not fly to high altitudes; they deliver their payload to portions of clouds in the lower or middle parts of the troposphere. Philatelic items featuring weather modification rockets are found in the weather modification page.

Launch covers
(including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers)
(farther below)
Other postal items
(stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.)
(immediately below)
(Sub-orbital) Research rockets in the LOWER atmosphere (troposphere and stratosphere) (Sub-orbital) Research rockets (both LOWER and UPPER atmosphere)
(Sub-orbital) Research rockets in the UPPER atmosphere (mesosphere and ionosphere)
Atmospheric research rockets
(on other than research rocket launch covers)


Below is a list of (sub-orbital) Atmospheric research rocket postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.).

CountryCatalog NumberType of ItemYear of IssueNotes on Content
(Sub-orbital) Research rockets (both LOWER and UPPER atmosphere)
Afghanistan632 (Mi732)1962
Afghanistan633 (Mi733)
Afghanistan632-633 fdcTwo stamps and (C.G. Junior III) cachet on FDC
Afghanistan633a (BL38)SS1
Afghanistan633a fdcSS1 and (C.G. Junior III) cachet on FDC
Afghanistan648 (Mi767)1963
Afghanistan645-648 fdcOne of four stamps and (C.G. Junior III) cachet on FDC
Afghanistan649 (Mi768)
AfghanistanC48 (Mi772)
Afghanistan649+C48-C49 fdcTwo of three stamps and cachet on FDC
AfghanistanC50a (BL42)SS1
AfghanistanC50a fdcSS1 and cachet on FDC
AfghanistanC50b (BL41)Imperforate SS1
AfghanistanC50b fdc1Imperforate SS1 on FDC
AfghanistanC50b fdc2Imperforate SS1 and cachet on FDC
ArgentinaC98 (Mi863)1965"various scientific experiments with rockets [including] measurement of winds in the atmosphere, and ionospheric investigations" (in Spanish in folder text)
ArgentinaC98 fdc1Stamp and cachet on FDC
ArgentinaC98 fdc2Stamp and cachet (same) on FDC (different cancel)
ArgentinaC99 fdcCachet (same) on FDC
Argentina772 fdcCachet (same) on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc1One of three stamps on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc2One of three stamps and cachet on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc3One of three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc4One of three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc5One of three stamps and cachet (same) on FDC (different cancel)
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc6One of three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 fdc7One of three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Argentina772+C98-C99 folderFDC folder
ArgentinaC105 (Mi898)1966Project Matienzo: Gamma Centaur rocket; also typical track of rising instrumented balloons (dashed line in stamp) that were part of the project
ArgentinaC105 fdc1Stamp and cachet on FDC
ArgentinaC105 fdc2Stamp and cachet (same) on FDC (different)
ArgentinaC105 fdc3Stamp and cachet (different) on FDC
ArgentinaC105 fdc4Stamp and cachet (different) on (airmail) FDC
ArgentinaC105 folder1FDC folder
ArgentinaC105 folder2Inside of folder (different)
ArgentinaB156 (Mi2110)1991Castor rocket
Barbados305 (Mi273)1968"HARP [High Altitude Research Project] Gun"; these large guns, the first in Barbados and the second in Yuma AZ, were used to launch Canadian Martlet sounding rockets into the UPPER atmosphere (often reaching around 80 km) from 1963 to 1967
Barbados305 varVariety: White spot on barrel
Barbados512 (Mi482)1979HARP (High Altitude Research Project) Gun. These large guns, the first in Barbados and the second in Yuma AZ, were used to launch Canadian Martlet sounding rockets into the UPPER atmosphere (often reaching around 80 km) from 1963 to 1967
Barbados513 (Mi483)
Barbados514 (Mi484)
Brazil1035 (Mi1128)1967
Brazil1035 fdc1Stamp on FDC (see this larger but incomplete image)
Brazil1035 fdc2Stamp and cachet on FDC
Brazil1035 fdc3Stamp on FDC (different)
Brazil1035 fdc4Stamp on FDC (different)
Brazil2295 (Mi2393)From MS24 (2295a (24x 2295))199025th anniv. first Brazilian launch of Nike-Apache research rocket
Brazil2295 fdcStamp and cancel and cachet on FDC
British Indian Ocean Territory377 (Mi486)2009Early research rockets: Corporal and Private
British Indian Ocean Territory377-381 fdcOne of five stamps on FDC
Canada376 fdc1 (Mi323 fdc1)(Blue and red printed) cachet on FDC1957
Canada376 fdc2 (Mi323 fdc2)(Blue and red printed) cachet (same) on FDC (different cancel)
Canada445 fdc (Mi389 fdc)(H&E) cachet on FDC1966
CanadaNone(Sarzin printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on cover1967?USAF launches of atmospheric research rockets at Fort Churchill RRF (Rocket Research Facility); (one digit in the year in the cancel appears to be inverted: "97" should be "67")
CanadaNoneMeter on on cover1970The "Churchill Research Range" in northern Manitoba, Canada, ideally located for high latitude scientific rockets, was active as a research rocket launch site from 1955 through 1989
Cape Kennedy FL (USA)LocalLocal post1965"Nike-Apache sounding rocket program" (in text)
Cape Kennedy FL (USA)Local fdcLocal post FDC
Central African Republic1060a (Mi?)One of strip of 3 (1060 (a-c))1994Bumper-WAC7,9 (WAC Corporal atop V-2) launch
Chad710b (Mi1518A)
i710b (Mi1518B)
One stamp and in selvedge of MS6 (710 (a-f)) (Mi1517A-1522A)
One stamp and in selvedge of imperforate MS6 (i710 (a-f)) (Mi1517B-1522B)
1997"Aerobee" atmospheric research rocket
China (People's Republic)None(Printed) cachet on cover, also back1990Atmospheric research rocket
China (People's Republic)NonePostal card2002Atmospheric research rocket; 50th anniv. Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Comoro Islands783b (BL366)
i783b
In (upper-right) margin of SS1 (783)
In (upper-right) margin of imperforate SS1 (i783)
1992"1952 launch of a macaque in an Aerobee rocket" (in French text)
Comoro Islands785 (Mi991)
i785

Imperforate
"Felix the Cat aboard Véronique research rocket - October 1963" (in French text)
Comoro Islands785b (BL368)
i785b
On stamp of SS1 (785)
On stamp of imperforate SS1 (i785)
Comoro Islands788b (BL371A)
i788b (BL371B)
In (left and upper-right) margins of SS1 (788)
In (left) margin of imperforate SS1 (i788)
(possibly an R-series) "research rocket (USSR)" (in French text, in left margin); (possibly an R-series) "research rocket carrying a dog (USSR)" (in French text. in upper-right margin) (such flights took place from 1951 to 1960)
Comoro Islands788a (Mi989+991+994)
i788a
On one of MS3 (783+785-788)
On one of imperforate MS3 (i783+i785-i788)
(As above for stamps)
Congo (People's Republic)C161 (Mi378)1973
Congo (People's Republic)C161 proof1Trial color proof pair
Congo (People's Republic)C161 proof2Trial color proof pair (different)
Congo (People's Republic)C161 proof3Signed proof
Congo (People's Republic)C161 fdcStamp and cachet on FDC
Congo RepublicUnknown ss (BL?)In (upper-right) margin of SS12014Research rocket at Hermann Oberth Museum
Cuba962 (Mi1024)1965
Cuba961-963 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Dubai123 (Mi367)1970
Dubai124 (Mi368)
France1100 (Mi1480)
i1100
From MS8 (1100a (8x 1100 + 8 labels))
From imperforate MS8 (i1100a (8x i1100 + 8 labels))
1964Research rocket (the drawings are similar to the French Monica sounding rockets); see also Hungary 2367
France1100 maxiMaxicard
France1100a_half fdc1100a half-sheet and cachet on FDC
France1100+label cover (Mi1480+label cover)Stamp and (PJ) cachet on cover1964Research rocket (the drawing is similar to the French Monica sounding rockets); see also Hungary 2367
FranceNonePostcard back, also front1977"Dauphin sounding rocket" (in postcard photo and in French text)
FranceNoneCachet on cover1977Dragon rocket
FranceNoneStamp-on-stamp in (lower-right) margin of SS1 cinderella2010(probably) M-100 research rocket for ionospheric auroral studies (reproduction of Russia 5060)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories29 (Mi38)
i29

Imperforate
1967"First sounding rocket launch in Adélie Land: January 1967" (in French text); auroral studies; see also FSAT C11 cover
French Southern and Antarctic Territories29 fdc1Stamp and ('FDC') cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic Territories29 fdc2Stamp and (PJ) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC11 cover (Mi? cover)Cachet on (airmail) cover1967"First scientific rocket launch in Antarctica, Adélie Land, January 1967" (in French text); see also FSAT 29
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC16a (Mi42-43)
iC16a
Strip of 2 (C16a (C15-C16 + label))
Imperforate strip of 2 (iC16a (iC15-iC16 + label))
1968"Dragon ionospheric research rockets, 1967 - 1968" (in French text)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC16a fdcStrip of 2 and (PJ) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a (Mi96-97)Strip of 2 (C40a (C39-C40 + label))1975Two Eridan sounding rockets (launched 26 January and 15 February 1975) and "magnetospheric research - Franco-Soviet program ARAKS" (in French text). The ARAKS (ARtificial Aurora between Kerguelen and Sogra) experiment was dedicated to auroral studies. As part of the program, Super-ARCAS4 rockets were launched in advance of the Eridan launches, to gather X-ray data at 30-60 km altitude
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc1Strip of 2 and cancel on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc2Strip of 2 and cancel (same) and (?) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc3Strip of 2 and cancel (same) and (PJ) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC40a fdc4Strip of 2 and (?) cachet on FDC
GabonC10 fdc (Mi178 fdc)Cachet on FDC1962Véronique research rocket
Germany (Berlin)NoneCachet on cover1961Cirrus-B6 (Cyrus-B) research rocket (see also C525 for another illustration of this rocket)
Germany (East)NoneCancel on postal card1963Research rocket above a map of Antarctica (possibly representing the 28 ARCAS4 rocket launches that took place at McMurdo base (Antarctica) from 19 June 1962 to 3 October 1963)
Germany (East)None(Printed) cachet on cover1964Antarctic ("Antarktis") research rockets for meteorology, astronomy and geophysics (possibly representing the 28 ARCAS4 rocket launches that took place at McMurdo base (Antarctica) from 19 June 1962 to 3 October 1963)
Germany (East)1898 (Mi2310)1978M-100 rocket. From 1969 through 1990, 1104 M-100s were launched from Molodezhnaya station (Antarctica). (See also Germany (East) cover 1979 below)
Germany (East)1898-1899 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
Germany (East)1898-1900 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Germany (East)NoneCachet on cover1979Atmospheric physics; "(M-100) rocket launch from Antarctic station Molodezhnaya" (in German text). (See also Germany (East) 1898 for M-100 detail)
Germany (West)NoneCancel and (red) cachet on cover1962Experimental Cirrus6 research rockets
Germany (West)NoneCancel (same) and (green) cachet on cover
Germany (West)NoneCancel and cachets on cover1963Experimental Cirrus6 research rockets launched from Cuxhaven (Germany); ("Cirrus-B" is noted in the cachet text)
Germany (West)NoneCancel and cachet on cover1967French research rockets Eridan (at left, in cachet), Dragon (centre, in cachet) and Centaure (at right, in cachet)
Germany (West)NoneCancel and cachet on cover1979Research rocket
Germany (West)NoneCancel and cachet on cover1994Upper atmospheric research rocket and mobile launcher (also in cachet instrument package (probably from a rocket) descending by parachute)
GermanyNoneCancel2003(100th anniv.) Alfred Maul's3 "photorocket" (the first instrumented rocket)
GermanyNoneCancel2003100th anniv. Alfred Maul's3 "photorocket" (the first instrumented rocket); depiction of the rocket and a parachute carrying the camera
Great BritainNone(Maia, The Band private advertising) cinderella2012Design similar to Russia 2235
Hungary1660 (Mi2102A)
i1660 (Mi2102B)

Imperforate
1965Ionospheric research rocket
Hungary1661 (Mi2103A)
i1661 (Mi2103B)

Imperforate
Research rocket (and Van Allen radiation belts)
Hungary1659+1661+1666-1667 fdc
i1659+i1661+i1666-i1667 fdc
One of four stamps on FDC
One of four imperforate stamps on FDC
(As above)
Hungary1660+1662-1665 fdc
i1660+i1662-i1665 fdc
One of five stamps on FDC
One of five imperforate stamps on FDC
HungaryC256 (Mi2197A)
iC256 (Mi2197B)

Imperforate
1965Probable "two stage" atmospheric research rocket; two launches of such rockets took place on "1965.VI.17" (date in text) - Aerobee-150 from Fort Churchill, Canada, and Nike-Apache from Wallops Island, USA.
Hungary2367+lab (Mi3043)Stamp (stamp-on-stamp: France 1100) and label1975Research rocket (the drawing is similar to the French Monica sounding rockets)
India567 (Mi?)1972Sounding rocket launched from Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (India)
India567 fdcStamp and cancel and cachet on FDC
India567 folderFDC folder
IndiaNoneCancel and cachet on cover1977RH-560 research rocket
Indonesia821 (Mi709)1972The Kartika-1 rocket, Indonesia's first sounding rocket, was tested in a launch in August 1964. Its sister rocket Kartika-2 was launched in 1965 as part of Indonesia's contribution to IQSY research.
Ivory CoastUnknown ms (Mi?)In (lower-right) margin of MS4 (a-d)2012Véronique rocket
Ivory CoastUnknown ms proof
Unknown ims proof
In (lower-right) margin of proof MS4 (a-d)
In (lower-right) margin of imperforate proof MS4 (a-d)
Ivory CoastUnknown proof fdc
Unknown imp proof fdc
MS4 proof on FDC
Imperforate MS4 proof and cachet on FDC
Japan637 cover (Mi669 cover)Cancel and (Fleetwood) cachet on cover1958(possible) Japanese Kappa research rocket (in cancel), see also cancel (1993); "IGY Rocket Project - Michikawa Rocket Center" (in cachet)
JapanNoneCancel on cover1972Japanese S-160 or S-210 research rocket. Nine ionospheric missions for auroral studies using these rockets took place between 10 Feb 1970 and 3 Dec 1971, from Syowa base (Antarctica); altitudes reached were 80-90 km for the S-160s and 115-140 km for the S-210s.
JapanNoneCancel on postal card1993(possible) Japanese Kappa research rocket, see also 637 cancel (1958)
Libya276 (Mi185)1965
Libya277 (Mi186)
Libya278 (Mi187)
Libya276-278 fdc1Three stamps and cachet on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc2Three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc3Three stamps and cachet (different color) on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc4Three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc5Three stamps on FDC, also insert
Libya276-278 fdc6Three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
MauritaniaC134 (Mi457)
iC134

Imperforate
1973Aerobee-170 launched for solar cessation studies1 in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
MauritaniaC134 dsDeluxe sheet (C134)
MauritaniaC134 varC134 with slight color variation
MauritaniaC135a (BL11)
iC135a
MS3 (C133-C135) (Mi459-461)
Imperforate MS3 (iC133-iC135)
MauritaniaC142 (Mi468)C134 overprinted in black1973Aerobee-170 launched for solar cessation studies1 in the African total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973
MauritaniaC142 varC134 overprinted in black, color variation
Montserrat863a (Mi931)From gutter-pair1995"Atmospheric sounding experiments using rockets" (in text); also a parachute and instrument package (in some early rocket research, the rocket carried data recording instruments which were returned to Earth by parachute)
New Mexico (USA)Local fdcLocal post FDC, also back1975Research rocket launch from WSMR
NigerC42 (Mi?)1964Véronique research rocket
NigerC42 fdcStamp and cachet (design like stamp) on FDC
Norway990 (Mi1063)1991Rocket for auroral studies launched from Andoya Island Rocket Range (Norway)
Norway989-990 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
NorwayNonePhonecard2001Research rocket launch at Andoya Island Rocket Range
Pakistan771 (Mi847)199230th anniv. launch of Rehbar-1, Pakistan's first weather research rocket. (See also Pakistan 1150 cover (2011) and Pakistan rocket launch cover (1962) in the LOWER atmospheric rockets table below.)
Pakistan1150 cover (Mi1378 cover)Cachet on cover2011Rehbar-1/2 (Rehbar-1 was launched 7 June 1962; Rehbar-2 was launched two days later. They were Pakistan's first weather research rockets, and provided information on winds and layer structure in the troposphere and stratosphere). (See also Pakistan 771 and Pakistan rocket launch cover (1962) in the LOWER atmospheric rockets table below.)
ParaguayC525 (Mi3606)1983Cyrus-B6 (called Cirrus-B in Germany) research rocket (see also Germany-Berlin cover 1961 for another illustration of this rocket)
Qu'aiti State in Hadhramaut (South Arabia)Mi215One of pair (Mi214-215)1968French research rocket Véronique
Qatar353 (Mi567)1973
RomaniaC73 (Mi1824)1959R-2A geophysical research rocket launched 2 July 1959 on an ionospheric and biological mission; it carried two dogs and a rabbit and reached 220 km
RomaniaC120 (Mi2087)Stamp-on-stamp: C73, C74, C751962R-2A geophysical research rocket launched 2 July 1959 on an ionospheric and biological mission; it carried two dogs and a rabbit and reached 220 km (on Romania C73)
RomaniaC119-C122 fdcOne of four stamps and cachet on FDC
RomaniaC122a (BL53)Imperforate MS4 (C119-C122)), stamp-on-stamp: C49, C51, C56, C73, C74, C75, 1200 or 1201, C58, C88, C104, C109, C110
RomaniaC122a fdcMS4 and cachet on FDC
RomaniaNoneCachet on cover1982
Russia (USSR)1959 (Mi1992)1957
Russia (USSR)2235 (Mi2261)1959See also Great Britain cinderella 2012
Russia (USSR)2495 (Mi2500)1961Research rocket for auroral and ionospheric studies
Russia (USSR)2722 (Mi2737)
i2722

Imperforate
1963
Russia (USSR)None(Printed) cachet on stamped envelope1963Research rocket launch from ship Lenin
Russia (USSR)None(TKK printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on un-stamped and un-canceled cover (AA no.19)81964IQSY upper atmospheric research rockets
Russia (USSR)None(TKK printed and green rubber-stamp) cachets on un-stamped and un-canceled cover (AA no.19)8
Russia (USSR)None(TKK printed and purple rubber-stamp) cachets on un-stamped and un-canceled cover (AA no.19)8
Russia (USSR)3288-3289 fdc (Mi3312-3313 fdc)(Kniga) cachet on FDC1966Research rocket
Russia (USSR)3700 (Mi3728)1970
Russia (USSR)None(Printed) cachet on un-stamped envelope1971M-100 rocket launch from Antarctica
Russia (USSR)NoneCancel on cover1972M-100 rocket launch from Molodezhnaya base (Antarctica)
Russia (USSR)None(Black rubber-stamp) cachet (same as the cancel in preceding item) on (airmail) cover, also back
Russia (USSR)None(Black rubber-stamp) cachet (same as in preceding item) on cover
Russia (USSR)4084 card (Mi? card)(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on card1974Atmospheric research rocket (part of Franco-Soviet cooperation in meteorology, aeronomy and space studies)
Russia (USSR)4666 (Mi4730)1978
Russia (USSR)4666 fdc1Stamp and cachet on FDC
Russia (USSR)4666 fdc2Stamp and cachet (different) on FDC
Russia (USSR)4666 pinReproduction of stamp as metal pin
Russia (USSR)4898 (Mi5029)1981
Russia (USSR)4898 fdcStamp and cachet on FDC
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1981Research rocket launch from a Russian Antarctic base
Russia (USSR)5060 (Mi5191)1982(probably) M-100 research rocket for ionospheric auroral studies
Russia (USSR)5241 (Mi5371)1984M-100 rocket; at least 1161 M-100s were launched from the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS, India), each week from 1970 to 1993
Russia (USSR)None(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on stamped envelope1986Research rocket launch from research ship Professor Zubov
Russia (USSR)None(Red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1989Research rocket launch from hydrometeorological research ship Professor Vize
RussiaNoneCancel on cover1992M-100 rocket launch from Molodezhnaya base (Antarctica)
RussiaNoneCancel on cover2001Russian research rocket launched from Molodezhnaya base (Antarctica)
RussiaNone(Blue) cancel on cover2008Russian research rocket launched from Molodezhnaya base (Antarctica)
SpainNone(Tu sello) private-post stamp~2013"French Véronique-AGI sounding rocket No 47, October 18, 1963" (in text)
Sweden857 (Mi680)One of strip of 5 (857b (853-857)) (Mi676-680), or two of booklet pane of 10 (857c (2x (853-857)), or complete booklet (857a) (MH25)1970Launch of rocket for auroral studies
Sweden853-857 fdc1One of five stamps on FDC, also insert
Sweden853-857 fdc2One of five stamps and cancel on FDC
Sweden1515 (Mi1306)1984Ionospheric rocket for auroral studies, launched from the Esrange Rocket Base (near Kiruna, Sweden)
Sweden1515 maxiMaxicard
Sweden1514-1515 fdc1One of two stamps on FDC, also insert
Sweden1514-1515 fdc2One of two stamps on FDC (different)
United States976 (Mi589)1948V-2 rocket launch at Fort Bliss2, probably as part of the Bumper-WAC7,9 program, as illustrated in the cachet of fdc5
United States976 essayEssay
United States976 fdc1Stamp and (printed and hand-written text added in 1965 by von Braun) cachet on FDC (added in 1965 by von Braun)
United States976 fdc2Stamp on FDC (Artmaster cachet)
United States976 fdc3Stamp on FDC (ArtCraft cachet)
United States976 fdc4Stamp on FDC (red printed cachet)
United States976 fdc5Stamp and (black printed) cachet on FDC
United States976 fdc6Stamp on FDC (Kolor Kover cachet)
United States976 fdc7Stamp on FDC (no cachet)
United States976 fdc8Stamp on FDC (HF cachet)
United States976 fdc9Stamp on FDC (Ken Boll/Cachet Craft cachet)
United States976 fdc10Stamp on FDC (blue and red cachet)
United States976 fdc11Stamp on FDC (black and blue cachet)
United States976 fdc12Stamp and (Fluegel Cover) cachet on FDC
United States976 cardBEP card (for Interpex)
United States1107 fdc1(Kolor Kover) cachet on FDC1958(Unidentified) research rockets (as part of the IGY program)
United States1107 fdc2(ArtCraft) cachet on FDC
United States1107 fdc3(ArtCraft) cachet (same) on FDC (different Chicago cancel)
United States1107 fdc4(ArtCraft) cachet (same) on FDC (Compex cancel)
United States1107 fdc5(ArtCraft) cachet (same) on FDC (Pole Station, Antarctica cancel)
United States1107 fdc6(ArtCraft and J. Kaplan bio) cachet on FDC
United States1107 fdc7(ArtCraft colorized) cachet on FDC
United States1107 fdc8(Harris Cachet) cachet on FDC
United States1107 fdc9Cachet (different) on FDC
United States1107 fdc10(Ken Boll/Cachet Craft) cachet on FDC
United States1107 fdc11(Fleetwood) cachet on FDC
United States1107 sc (Mi727 sc)FDC with (Fleetwood) cachet on (PCS) souvenir cardDuring the IGY, "high-altitude rockets were launched by the United States and Russia. They carried instruments to study cosmic rays, [the] magnetic field, meteors and sunlight"
United States1107 card (Mi727 card)Cachet on FDC (souvenir?) cardPossible Aerobee research rocket. 210 rockets of various types (Aerobee, Nike-Cajun, Nike-Deacon, Loki-Dart and Nike-Asp) were fired in 1957 and 1958 as part of the US contribution to IGY research. The Aerobees were launched from Churchill (Canada), White Sands and Guam.
United StatesNone1Cinderella, from (11th National Postage Stamp Show) cinderella strip of 21959Generic rockets (for scientific or other purposes)
United StatesNone2
United StatesNone(Interpex) cachet on cover1960"rocket similar to the Army's 'Sergeant'10 missile"
United StatesNone(Rank velvet) cachet on cover1962The Scout rocket was mainly used to lift small satellites into orbit, but variants were also used in some scientific research missions, particularly when high altitudes had to be achieved (the third cover is also a USA C76 FDC)
United StatesNone(Rank velvet, dense flocking) cachet on cover
United StatesNone(Rank velvet, dense flocking) cachet on cover
United StatesNone(Ship patch) cachet on cover1964Rockets represent launches from the USS Norton Sound5, including atmospheric research rockets Viking and Aerobee
United StatesNone ss(Interpex orange) cinderella SS11965IQSY upper atmospheric research rocket
United StatesNone ss(Interpex yellow) cinderella SS11965IQSY upper atmospheric research rocket
United StatesNone(USCS no.6927) cachet on cover1965"USNS Croatan in 1964, fitted out for rocket launch and telemetry as NASA Mobile Range during the International Year of the Quiet Sun"
United StatesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1967Rocket represents launches from the USS Norton Sound5, including atmospheric research rockets Viking and Aerobee
United StatesNone(Red printed) cachet on (airmail) cover (machine cancel)1967Symbolic depiction of research rocket
United StatesNone(Red printed) cachet on (airmail) cover (hand cancel)1967Symbolic depiction of research rocket
United StatesNone(R.E. Nichol) cachet on cover, also back1969"350 sounding rocket launches Wallops Isl. VA" (tracked in 1969 by NORAD from Colorado Springs)
United StatesNone(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1970Rocket represents launches from the USS Norton Sound5, including atmospheric research rockets Viking and Aerobee
United StatesNoneUn-gummed cinderella197020th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,9 launch (in text and left image of cinderella and in cover cachet); the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the right-hand image is a reproduction of USA 976; the image at the left is based on this photo of the launch)
United StatesNone(Blue and red printed) cachet on (airmail) cover1970Symbolic depiction of research rocket
United StatesNone(Black printed) cachet on cover1970Symbolic depiction of research rocket
United States1431 fdc (Mi? fdc)(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover1971"French Antarctic rocket launch" and "USA Antarctic rocket launch"
United StatesNone(GSFC blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1974Research rocket (possibly Nike Cajun)
United StatesNone(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1978Rocket represents launches from the USS Norton Sound5, including atmospheric research rockets Viking and Aerobee
United StatesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1983Rocket represents launches from the USS Norton Sound5, including atmospheric research rockets Viking and Aerobee
United StatesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1983(probable) Nike-Cajun or Nike-Apache, for magnetospheric research
United StatesNone(Milcopex) cachet on cover1983A Bumper-WAC7,9 rocket
United StatesNone(Cencopex 1984) cachet on cover1984"Scout" rocket (in text only; used in several roles, including as a scientific research rocket)
United States2699 (Mi2313)Also partial sheet with selvedge1992A Bumper-WAC7,9 rocket (design similar to the rocket in this photo of the launch)
United States2699 fdc1Stamp on FDC (multi-color cachet)
United States2699 fdc2Stamp and cancel on FDC (no cachet)
United States2699 fdc3Stamp on FDC (ArtCraft/PCS cachet)
United States2699 fdc4Stamp on FDC (ArtCraft cachet)
United States2699 fdc5Stamp on FDC (Fleetwood cachet), also back
United States2699 fdc6Stamp and tab1 on FDC (Fleetwood cachet, same), also back
United States2699 fdc7Stamp and tab2 on FDC (Fleetwood cachet, same), also back
United States2699 fdc8Stamp and tab3 on FDC (Fleetwood cachet, same), also back
United States2699 fdc9Stamp and tab1 on FDC card (Fleetwood cachet, same)
United States2699 fdc10Stamp on FDC (Artmaster cachet), also back
United States2699 fdc11Stamp on FDC (Robert C. Graebner Chapter #17 AFDCS cachet)
United States2699 fdc12Stamp and (PCS) cachet on FDC, also insert
United States2699 fdc13Stamp on FDC (Coverscape hand-painted cachet)
United States2699 fdc14Stamp on FDC (HF cachet)
United States2699 fdc15Stamp on FDC (Therome Cachets cachet)
United States2699 fdc16Stamp and (Edken) cachet on FDC (extra stamps)
United States2699 fdc17Stamp on FDC (Steve Wilson cachet)
United States2699 fdc18Stamp on FDC (Collage cachet)
United States2699 fdc19Stamp on FDC (Elmer Otto cachet), and insert
United States2699 fdc20Stamp on FDC (Fridson hand-painted cachet)
United States2699 fdc21Stamp on FDC (Geerlings cachet)
United States2699 fdc22Stamp on FDC (Kribbs cachet)
United States2699 fdc23Stamp and (David Peterman) cachet on FDC
United States2699 fdc24Stamp and (Collins) cachet on FDC (Landing NJ cancel)
United States2699 fdc25Stamp on FDC postcard (Fleetwood cachet), also back
United States2699 fdc26Stamp and (Space Voyage/First Rank) cachet on FDC (extra stamp, and signature), also detail of rocket
United States2699 fdc27Stamp and cancel and (Space Voyage/First Rank) cachet (same) on FDC (and signature), also detail of rocket
United States2699 fdc28Stamp and (Space Voyage/First Rank) cachet (same) on FDC (different extra stamp, and signature), also detail of rocket
United States2699 fdc29Stamp and (Space Voyage/First Rank) cachet (different color) on FDC (extra stamp, and signature), also detail of rocket
United States2699 fdc30Stamp and (Space Voyage/First Rank) cachet (different color) on FDC (different extra stamp, and signature), also detail of rocket
United States2699 fdc31Stamp and cancel and (Space Voyage/First Rank) cachet (same) on FDC (and signature), also detail of rocket
United States2699 sdoiStamp and (Space Voyage/First Rank) cachet (different color) on SDOI cover (and signature), also detail of rocket
United States2699 sdoi2Stamp and cancel (same) on SDOI cover
United States2699 sc(PCS) souvenir card (or commemorative panel?)
United StatesSP1022(USPS) souvenir page (2699)
United StatesCP400(USPS) commemorative panel (2699)
Upper VoltaC21 (Mi161)Also detail1965
Upper VoltaC21 dsDeluxe sheet (C21)
Upper VoltaC21 proofSigned proof
Upper VoltaC21 imperf-pairImperforate pair
Upper VoltaC21 fdcStamp on FDC (Éditions So.Ge.Im. cachet)

1When a solar eclipse occurs, there is a sudden cut-off, or cessation, of solar radiation, followed by a sudden resumption of that radiation. Solar eclipses therefore present the opportunity to investigate the effects of fast-varying solar flux on the structure, photochemistry and electrodynamics of various parts of the upper atmosphere. This includes examination of anomalies in ionization, temperature and winds. Rockets have been used to carry instruments which can make such measurements into the upper atmosphere.
2Werner von Braun and a team of German scientists and engineers conducted rocket research with around 60 V-2 rockets at the Fort Bliss/White Sands launch site after WWII and until 1952. They developed rocket flight techniques and control procedures, including telemetry, and conducted atmospheric measurements in some flights. They also experimented with mounting a small rocket, the WAC9 Corporal, atop the V-2. This combination was known as the Bumper-WAC7,9. Unfortunately the V-2 was heavy and complicated, and failures were common. Under the leadership of James Van Allen, a new small and inexpensive combination of an Aerojet booster and a Bumblebee second stage (dubbed the "Aerobee") was developed to replace the V-2. It would become a mainstay of American upper atmospheric rocket research.
3Alfred Maul (1865 - 1942) was a German engineer who in 1903 succeeded in obtaining aerial photographs of the ground from an altitude of about 600 m through the use of a camera mounted in a gunpowder rocket. The top of the rocket sprang open at 600 m, the camera descended by parachute and a timer tripped the shutter as the camera descended. Maul's rocket was the first instrumented rocket. By 1912 he had improved the technique so that the rocket carried a 20 by 25 cm photographic plate stabilized by a gyroscope. His experiments were discontinued when airplanes took over the task of aerial reconnaissance.
4The ARCAS (All-purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) was developed by the Atlantic Research Corporation for the Office of Naval Research with support from the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. It was launched with a launching tube. It was first used in July 1959, and has undergone various modifications and improvements since then.
5After WWII, the USS Norton Sound was converted into an R+D platform for missile tests. Some of the launches from this ship were of the atmospheric research rockets Viking and Aerobee. The ship was decommissioned in 1986.
6The "Cirrus" (also known as "Cyrus" - see Paraguay C525) rockets were tested at Cuxhaven, Germany, where a little-known series of experimental scientific sounding rocket launches took place from 1957 to 1964.
7At White Sands Missile Range, von Braun and his team experimented with a small WAC9 Corporal research rocket mounted on a V-2. Six launches took place between 13 May 1948 and 22 April 1949. Four were failures. This combination, called the "Bumper-WAC9", was designed to investigate problems of stage separation and ignition at high altitude, and also to allow the WAC9 Corporal to attain a much higher altitude than would be possible if it was launched by itself. It could then make scientific measurements at those high altitudes. Two later Bumper-WAC9 launches took place at Cape Canaveral in 1950. Those missions were designed to allow the smaller rocket to obtain high altitude hypersonic aerodynamic data. The July 24 launch failed, but the July 29 launch (the last Bumper-WAC9 flight) worked as planned: the WAC9 Corporal reached Mach 9 at 35 km altitude.
8AA no. = Tartuski Klub Kollektsionerov (TKK) [Tartu Collector Club] "Astronautika Annaalid" number. See Jim Reichman's Philatelic Study Report on Tartu Space Club Covers, 1962-1978, 2011. (e-mail: jgreichman (at) datawest.net).
9The early US sounding rockets were named for enlisted ranks in the US Army: Private, Corporal and Sergeant10. The plan was that each in the series would be bigger than the previous one and so would get a higher rank name. However, after the development of the Corporal, the pattern was broken: the next rocket supplied by the developers was smaller than the Corporal. As a result, the new rocket was named the WAC-Corporal, after the Women's Army Corps (WAC).
10The Sergeant was an American single-stage solid-propulsion tactical ballistic missile developed for the US Army in 1956-1962. Surplus rockets and the Sergeant's rocket motor (known commercially as Castor) became the basis for many sounding rockets and test vehicles.


Below is a list of (sub-orbital) Atmospheric research rocket launch covers (including anniversary-of-launch covers).

CountryCancel DateCancel LocationType of ItemNotes on Content
(Sub-orbital) Research rockets in the LOWER atmosphere (troposphere and stratosphere)
United States1959-02-16Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverDraco (not "Green Quail") mission to test the hypersonic glide characteristics of the rocket; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 30 km
United States1960-04-19Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club) cachet on coverScout-X test mission; first Scout rocket launched from Wallops Island; reached 48 km; mission failed when vehicle broke up after first-stage burnout
United States1960-07-13Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club/Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 28 km
United States1960-07-13Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft/Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella) on (airmail) cover
United States1961-05-09Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson black and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue Scout HETS25 A1-2 plasma mission [failed]; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 10 km
United States1961-06-01Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella) on coverMatador test mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 12 km
United States1962-04-12Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson blue and black rubber-stamp) cachets on coverBlue Scout-1 radiation measurement and re-entry test mission (failed when the second stage did not ignite); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 30 km
United States1962-04-12Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-04-12Patrick AFB, FL(A.B.Covers/Boerger) cachet on cover
United States1962-04-12Port Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft Type-C general-purpose) cachet on cover
United States1962-05-18Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet on coverNike-Smoke aeronomy mission (the separable nose cone filled with a titanium tetrachloride solution left a smoke trail in the sky, allowing the upper level winds to be determined by optical measurement); Cape Canaveral launch; probably reached around 14 km
United States1962-11-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A ionospheric mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 29 km
United States1962-11-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp and sticker) cachets on cover
United States1963-08-28WSMR, NM(Rank velvet) cachet on coverLittle Joe 2, first mission to test Apollo spacecraft launch escape system and Command Module parachute recovery system; WSMR launch; reached 8.4 km
United States1964-09-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson gray and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Biospace-6 biological mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 35 km
United States1965-05-19Las Cruces NM, WSMR Branch(Blue rubber-stamp and typed) cachet on coverLittle Joe 2, fourth mission to test Apollo spacecraft launch escape system and Command Module parachute recovery system; WSMR launch; reached 5.9 km; partial failure
United States1965-07-24Cape Canaveral FL(Printed) cachet on cover15th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cachet design includes a drawing of the rocket (identified in this annotated image) which is similar to this photo of the launch)
United States1965-08-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Biospace biological mission; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 35 km
United States1965-09-10Wallops Island VA(Sarzin and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 and HASP4 meteorological missions; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; 15 launches took place from 3-10 September 1965; the HASP4 launches probably reached around 29 km; the ARCAS2 launches reached around 60 km
United States1965-10-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) "mother-daughter" ionospheric mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch (on 9 October); reached 32 km
United States1965-10-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1965-10-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-10-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1965-10-11Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1967-08-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 biological mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 40 km
Argentina1970-02-06BA FilateliaCancel and (printed) cachet on cover5th anniv. Gamma Centaur X-ray measurement mission from Matienzo Base (Antarctica) on 6 February 1965; reached 35 km
United States1970-07-24Patrick AFB, FL (hand cancel)(Whitney green) cachet on cover20th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cachet design of the Whitney covers includes a drawing of the rocket which is similar to this photo of the launch)
United States1970-07-24Patrick AFB, FL (machine cancel)(Whitney green) cachet on cover
United States1970-07-24Cape Canaveral FL(Whitney green) cachet on cover
United States1970-07-24Cape Canaveral FLUn-gummed cinderella and (Orbit Covers) cachet on cover)
United States1970-08-04Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 biological mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 40 km
Australia1971-06-21Woomera SA(Magenta and yellow-orange printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H9 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
Australia1971-07-14Woomera SA(Black and yellow printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H10 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
Australia1971-07-27Woomera SA(Magenta and yellow printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H11 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
Australia1971-10-22Woomera SA(Purple and green printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H14 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
Australia1971-11-05Woomera SA(Magenta and yellow printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H15 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
Australia1971-11-17Woomera SA(Purple and yellow printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H18 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
Australia1972-02-23Woomera SA(Green and black printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H66 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
United States1972-02-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson gray and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 11 km
United States1972-06-13Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover(possible) Aerobee-170 Chaser ABM IR sensor technology mission; Vandenberg AFB launch on 20 June (not 13 June as in the cancel); mission failed at an altitude of 8 km; or (possible) Intelsat-4-5 launch (based on date)
Australia1972-08-22Woomera SA(Pink and black printed) cachet on coverUAR8 HASP4 H88 mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but design maximum was 29 km
United States1973-11-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTATER (TAlos-TErrier-Recruit) test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 4 km (apparent failure)
Argentina1974-02-06BA FilateliaCancel and (printed) cachet on cover9th anniv. Gamma Centaur X-ray measurement mission from Matienzo Base (Antarctica) on 6 February 1965; reached 35 km
United States1974-05-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTATER (TAlos-TErrier-Recruit) low altitude rocket test mission; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 5 km
Australia1974-09-05Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverPossible test flight of a new UAR8 rocket denoted "A"; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but assumed no higher than the stratosphere
Australia1974-09-05Woomera SA(Printed) cachet (different) on cover
Australia1974-09-06Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverTest flight of Jabiru-2 rocket; Woomera launch; reached 30 km
Australia1974-09-12Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverPossible test flight of a new UAR8 rocket denoted "A"; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but assumed no higher than the stratosphere
Australia1974-09-12Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverPossible test flight of a new UAR8 rocket, denoted "A-1" (same date as cover immediately above; it is not known whether or not these two covers refer to the same rocket); Woomera launch; altitude reached not known but assumed no higher than the stratosphere
United States1976-06-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike research rocket test; Wallops Island launch; reached 20 km
United States1977-06-16WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on cover27th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cachet design showing the launch is similar to this photo)
United States1977-06-16Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet (different) on cover
United States1980-01-21Moffett Field CA(NASA Ames Research Center) cachet on cover30th anniv. Little Joe-1B test mission for Project Mercury (also carried the rhesus monkey Miss Sam); Wallops Island launch; reached 14 km
United States1980-07-24Kennedy Space Center FL(MoF no.90) cachet on cover30th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cachet design includes a drawing of the rocket which is similar to this photo of the launch)
United States1980-07-24Satellite Beach FL(Whitney blue) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1985-07-24Cape Canaveral FL(Missile Stamp Club) cachet on cover35th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cachet design includes a drawing of the rocket which is similar to this photo of the launch)
United States1999-08-05Wallops Island VA(Printed) cachet on coverOrion Student Outreach Program education mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 40 km
United States2000-07-24Cape Canaveral FL(?) cachet on cover50th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude; (the cachet and cancel designs include a drawing of the rocket which is similar to this photo of the launch)
United States2000-07-24Cape Canaveral FL(?) cachet (different) on cover
United States2015-07-24Sagamore Beach MA(Covercraft) cachet on cover65th anniv. Bumper-WAC-87,21 launch from Cape Canaveral, 24 July 1950; the test mission failed when the first-stage V-2 exploded at 16 km; however the second-stage Corporal did successfully separate, though it barely gained any more altitude
(Sub-orbital) Research rockets in the UPPER atmosphere (mesosphere and ionosphere)
United States1950-03-31Las Cruces NM(Sticker and red printed) cachet on coverV-2 mission (on 17 February, not on the cancel date) with "cosmic and solar radiation, pressure (and) temperature experiments"; White Sands launch; reached 149 km
United States1958-12-13Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverJupiter Bioflight-1 biological mission (carried the squirrel monkey "Gordo"); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 500 km
United States1959-07-14Lompoc CA(Historical Space Covers) cachet on coverNike-Asp solar X-ray/solar flares mission (Project Sunflare II); Point Arguello launch; reached 200 km
United States1959-07-14Lompoc CA(Historical Space Covers) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1959-07-14Lompoc CA(Highway Stamp Club?) cachet on cover
United States1959-11-19Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella) on coverNike-Asp sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 255 km
United States1959-11-19Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft) cachet (different) on cover
United States1959-11-19Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet (different) on cover
Canada1959-11-19Churchill MB(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverAerobee-150 B-field profile ionosphere mission; Churchill launch; reached 106 km but the mission failed (the "Sparrow-B" in the cachet text is probably a misinterpretation of the "Aerobee" name)
United States1959-11-20Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella) on coverNike-Asp sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 236 km
United States1959-12-01Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverThor DM-18A photo mission with film camera; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 520 km
United States1959-12-01Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft) cachet on (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella) coverTrailblazer-1 re-entry vehicle test; Wallops Island launch; reached 260 km
United States1960-01-26Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverJavelin (Argo-D4) test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 951 km
United States1960-03-25Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft/Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella) on (airmail) coverAerobee-150A (Aerobee-Hi) first flight; test and micrometeoritie mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 212 km
United States1960-06-24Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachets (and signature) on (airmail) coverAerobee-150A (Aerobee-Hi) UV star photometer UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 211 km
United States1960-07-13Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club/Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverStrongarm ionospheric mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 670 km
United States1960-07-13Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachets (and signature) on (airmail) cover
United States1960-08-28Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverTrailblazer-1 re-entry test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 260 km; (a 13 cm sphere was "rammed" downward at re-entry speeds from the apogee; the spectrum and luminance of the "artificial meteorite" thus created were measured remotely from the ground)
United States1960-08-28Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club) cachet on cover
United States1960-08-29Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club) cachet on coverTrailblazer-1 re-entry test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 260 km; (a 13 cm sphere was "rammed" downward at re-entry speeds from the apogee; the spectrum and luminance of the "artificial meteorite" thus created were measured remotely from the ground)
United States1960-09-19Vandenberg AFB, CA(Zaso) cachet on coverArgo-D8 (Journeyman) cosmic rays mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 1884 km
United States1960-09-20Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue Scout Jr magnetospheric and radiation probe 1 mission; Cape Canaveral launch (on 21 September); reached 27,600 km, but no data were received due to telemetry failure
United States1960-09-21Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1960-10-04Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout-X1 radiation probe magnetospheric plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 5600 km
United States1960-10-04Wallops Island VA(Highway Stamp Club/Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1960-10-18Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover2nd Iris rocket launch; aeronomy test flight; reached 225 km
United States1960-11-22Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft/Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet (with rocket design similar to USA cinderella) on coverAerobee-150A (Aerobee-Hi) UV spectrograph and UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 183 km
United States1960-12-08Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun Langmuir probe ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 152 km
United States1960-12-10Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 716 km
United States1960-12-12Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin magnetosphere and magnetic fields mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1140 km
United States1960-12-12Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) cover
United States1961-01-07Patrick AFB, FL(Red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue Scout HETS25 A1-1 plasma/radio astronomy mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1600 km
United States1961-01-07Patrick AFB, FL(DuBeau? magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1961-01-07Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson magenta and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1961-01-19Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover3rd Iris rocket launch; aeronomy test flight; failed at 138 km
United States1961-01-19Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1961-01-30Eglin AFB, FL(Air Proving Ground Center) cachet on coverAerobee-150 mass spectrometer aeronomy mission; Eglin AFB launch; reached 204 km
United States1961-02-05Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A (Aerobee Hi) liquid hydrogen technology test mission (for Lewis Research Center); Wallops Island launch; reached 152 km
United States1961-02-05Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft) cachet on cover
United States1961-02-16Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 85 km
United States1961-02-16Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1961-03-03Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson black and magenta and cyan rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue Scout HETS25 A2-1 plasma mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 2540 km
United States1961-03-03Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1961-03-26Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-300A ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 386 km
United States1961-04-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Asp sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission [failed]; Wallops island launch; reached 180 km
United States1961-06-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun inflating sphere11 aeronomy mission on 6 Jun (cover is dated 7 Jun); Wallops Island launch; reached 150 km
United States1961-06-15Eglin AFB, FL(Air Proving Ground Center) cachet on cover(possible) ARCAS2 Arcasonde10 mission; Eglin AFB launch; possibly reached around 60 km
United States1961-06-26Wallops Island VA(Hudson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) Topside Sounder28 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch on June 24; reached 1018 km
United States1961-06-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1961-06-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover, also back
United States1961-07-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 124 km
United States1961-07-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1961-07-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) cover
United States1961-07-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) coverNike-Apache magnetic fields/magnetospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 193 km
United States1961-09-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 13 Sept); reached 431 km
United States1961-09-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1961-09-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 and inflating sphere11 aeronomy mission [failed] on 16 September (cover is dated 18 September); Wallops Island launch; reached 88 km
United States1961-09-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Asp sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission on 16 September (cover is dated 18 September); Wallops Island launch; reached 208 km
United States1961-10-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) mission to study electrically-charged helium atoms in the upper atmosphere; Wallops Island launch; reached 1544 km
United States1961-10-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) Topside Sounder28 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1055 km
United States1961-10-19Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout plasma study mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 6855 km
United States1961-10-19Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) cover
United States1961-10-27Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet (and signature) on coverSaturn-1 first suborbital launch (technology and systems test with water-filled dummy upper stages in anticipation of Project Highwater23, which was carried out in the second and third Saturn-1 test missions); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 136 km
United States1961-10-27Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft red) cachet on cover
United States1961-10-27Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft red and gray-green) cachet on cover
United States1961-10-27Port Canaveral FL(Zaso) cachet on cover
United States1961-10-27Port Canaveral FL(C. Swanson/SpaceCraft) cachet on cover
United States1961-11-15Vandenberg AFB, CA(Goldcraft) cachet on coverArgo-D8 (Journeyman) BIOS13-1 (NASA #11.04 GB) biological mission; included measuring radiation effects on biological specimens; Point Arguello launch; reached 1057 km
United States1961-11-18Lompoc CA(Sarzin) cachet on coverArgo-D8 (Journeyman) BIOS13-1 (NASA #11.05 GB) biological mission; included measuring radiation effects on biological specimens; Point Arguello launch; reached 1057 km
United States1961-11-24Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-F test ionospheric aeronomy mission; Cape Canaveral launch (on 22 November); reached 1400 km
United States1961-12-04Lompoc CA(Sarzin?) cachet on coverBlue Scout Jr magnetospheric/solar proton mission; Point Arguello launch; reached 44,400 km
United States1961-12-07Lompoc CA(Blue printed) cachet on coverAstrobee-1500 CAMBRIDGE project geodetic mission (using chemical release flares5); Point Arguello launch; reached 2190 km
United States1961-12-14Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTrailblazer-2 re-entry test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 157 km; (the nosecone was "rammed" downward at re-entry speeds from the apogee; the spectrum and luminance of the "artificial meteorite" thus created were measured remotely from the ground)
United States1961-12-14Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (same) on cover
United States1961-12-22Wallops Island VA(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-300A ionospheric mission; Wallops Island Dec 21 launch; reached 365 km
United States1962-02-12Port Canaveral FL(Boerger/A.B.Covers) cachet on coverAtlas-Agena R&D technology test mission; Cape Canaveral launch (on Feb 13); reached 1600 km
United States1962-03-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout-X-1A re-entry vehicle test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 214 km
United States1962-03-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue rubber-stamp and typed) cachet on cover
United States1962-03-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-03-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1962-03-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta and green rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; 6:23 pm (1 March) Wallops Island launch; reached 135 km
United States1962-03-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; 7:05 pm (1 March) Wallops Island launch; reached 113 km
United States1962-03-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and green rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun water vapor mission; 5:47 am Wallops Island launch; reached 145 km
United States1962-04-05Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun ozone release5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 70 km
United States1962-04-05Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson green and purple rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on (airmail) cover
United States1962-04-25Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson purple rubber-stamp and typed) cachet on coverSaturn-1 second suborbital test launch; included Project Highwater23; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 145 km
United States1962-04-25Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft) cachet on cover
United States1962-04-25Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin?) cachet on cover
United States1962-04-25Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1962-05-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun US-Japan ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 121 km
United States1962-05-17Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun US-Japan ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 127 km
United States1962-05-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun atmospheric composition aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 135 km
United States1962-05-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A sea recovery test and ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 200 km
United States1962-06-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache Pitot-1 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 125 km
United States1962-06-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-06-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Asp sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 162 km
United States1962-06-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
Pakistan1962-06-09Lahore(Printed) cachet on cover, also backRehbar-1 (Pakistan's first atmospheric research rocket); carried sodium flares which left trails that were photographed by specially-designed cameras installed at Karachi, Hyderabad and Lasbela; (see also Pakistan 771 and Pakistan 1150 cover (2011), both in the stamps table above); Sonmiani Beach (Pakistan) launch on 7 June, 1962; reached 130 km
United States1962-06-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-3 test mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 98 km
United States1962-06-15Colorado Springs CO(R.E. Nichol black and red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, also backTwo Black Brant-3 test missions, launched from Wallops Island on 15 June 1962; reached 92 and 98 km but failed; they were possibly originally scheduled to be launched in Jan 1962 from the Churchill range in Canada (as in the red printed part of the cachet) but a fire there in Dec 1961 damaged the facilities and some launches were apparently transferred to Wallops Island until they were able to start again at Churchill on 1 Oct 1962
United States1962-06-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 143 km
United States1962-06-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A airglow 2 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 208 km
United States1962-06-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A airglow 1 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 210 km
Sweden1962-08-07Kabdalis(Printed) cachet on coverNike-Cajun air sample aeronomy, magnetic storms and noctilucent clouds mission; Kronogard (Sweden) launch; reached 120 km
Norway1962-08-18Andenes(Printed) cachet on coverNike-Cajun air sample aeronomy, magnetic storms and noctilucent clouds mission; Kronogard (Sweden) launch (on 7 August); reached 120 km
Norway1962-08-18Andenes(Printed) cachet on coverNike-Cajun ionospheric mission ("to study what causes the radio blackouts during periods of sunspots and northern lights eruptions"); Andoya launch; reached 100 km
United States1962-10-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache Langmuir probe/ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 166 km
United States1962-10-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A UV astronomy for OAO sensors mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 188 km
United States1962-11-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 132 km
United States1962-11-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 165 km
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Harry A. Gordon sticker and red rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverSaturn-1 third suborbital test launch; included the second Project Highwater23 experiment (but in this case telemetry problems made the results questionable); Cape Canaveral launch; reached 167 km
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson magenta and gray-green rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Zaso sticker) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Rank velvet?) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(Purple rubber-stamp?) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-16Cape Canaveral FL(A.B.Covers/Boerger and gray-green rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-11-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A technology test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 206 km
United States1962-11-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-300A (Sparobee? -- no info on this name was found) thermosphere probe 1 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 20 Nov); reached 345 km
United States1962-11-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 122 km
United States1962-12-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTwo Nike-Apache launches from Wallops Island; ionospheric mission (1:06 PM) reached 169 km; aeronomy mission (3:34 PM) reached 131 km
United States1962-12-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 126 km
United States1962-12-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp and typed) cachet on cover
United States1962-12-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 128 km
United States1962-12-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-12-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-12-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache Langmuir probe/sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 100 km
United States1962-12-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-12-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A ionospheric mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 52 km
United States1962-12-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Norway1962-12-11Andenes(Printed) cachet on coverNike-Cajun-Ferdinand-2 polar ionospheric mission; joint NASA-Norway-Denmark project; Andoya, Norway launch; reached 123 km; "Purpose (was) to study the cosmic particles north of the Polar circle"
United States1962-12-13Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-3 test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 98 km
United States1962-12-13Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1962-12-18Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin) cachet on coverBlue Scout Jr ion engine test technology mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 2000 km
United States1962-12-18Vandenberg AFB, CA(Rank velvet) cachet on cover
United States1963-02-11Wallops Island VA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and red and green rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D8 (Journeyman) electron spectrometer magnetospheric mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 1675 km
United States1963-02-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 20 February); reached 113 km
United States1963-02-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache sodium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 20 February); reached 164 km
United States1963-03-08Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 155 km
United States1963-04-12Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A CSIRO12 VLF ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 198 km
United States1963-05-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout-X3 RFD-1 ( Re-entry Flight Demonstration #1) technology test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 145 km
United States1963-06-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on coverAerobee-150-0428 technology test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 189 km
United States1963-07-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin (Argo-D4) Topside Sounder28 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 934 km
United States1963-07-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-07-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A UV spectrograph and UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 177 km
Norway1963-09-12Andenes(Pre Bon) cachet on cover"First successful Nike-Cajun firing, 1963" (in text, but records show that a Nike-Apache rocket was actually fired); mission was to study ionospheric and solar effects on radio blackout; Andoya launch; reached 136 km
United States1963-09-18
1964-03-24
Cape Canaveral FL
Cape Canaveral FL
(Rank velvet) cachet on coverThor-DSV-2 Project ASSET17-1 and -2 re-entry vehicle test missions (the rocket released the test vehicle, a small spaceplane model, whose high-speed re-entry aerodynamic and structural properties were measured). Cape Canaveral launch, on 18 September 1963 and 24 March 1964; ASSET-1 reached 59 km; ASSET-2 reached 55 km but was destroyed due to a second-stage malfunction
United States1963-09-28Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A joint US and Japan ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 224 km
United States1963-09-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin (Argo-D4) Topside Sounder28 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch on 28 September; reached 1037 km
United States1963-09-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-10-31Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Apache vehicle environmental test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 134 km
United States1963-10-31Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-11-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A airglow aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 17 November); reached 370 km
United States1963-11-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache atmospheric composition and density mission (reached 172 km); and Nike-Cajun inflating sphere11 and atmospheric structure mission (reached 151 km); both launches from Wallops Island
United States1963-11-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1963-12-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 mission (reached 103 km); and Nike-Apache Pitot-3 aeronomy mission (reached 141 km); upper atmospheric "temperatures, densities, pressures and winds" were measured; both launches from Wallops Island
United States1963-12-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp and typed) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1963-12-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-01-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache auroral mission for Rice University; Wallops Island launch (on 14 January); reached 90 km
United States1964-01-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-01-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverFour Nike-Apache sodium release grenades5 missions; Wallops Island launches (two 15 January and two 16 January); reached 45 km (failure), 114 km, 170 km and 200 km
United States1964-01-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 mission; Wallops Island launch (on 28 January); reached 254 km
United States1964-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-300A thermosphere probe mission; Wallops Island launch (on 28 January); reached 309 km
United States1964-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-03-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBoosted ARCAS2 sodium/lithium grenades aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch on 6 March; reached 97 km
United States1964-03-24
1963-09-18
Cape Canaveral FL
Cape Canaveral FL
(Rank velvet) cachet on coverThor-DSV-2 Project ASSET17-1 and -2 re-entry vehicle test missions (the rocket released the test vehicle, a small spaceplane model, whose high-speed re-entry aerodynamic and structural properties were measured). Cape Canaveral launch, on 18 September 1963 and 24 March 1964; ASSET-1 reached 59 km; ASSET-2 reached 55 km but was destroyed due to a second-stage malfunction
United States1964-04-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverRAM22-B3 re-entry radio communications blackout test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 100 km
United States1964-04-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1964-04-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-10Wallops Island VA(Rank velvet, pink accents) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-10Wallops Island VA(Rank velvet, red accents) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-10Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insertFIRE-13 mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 837 km
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insert
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL(C. Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL(Purple and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-04-15Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on coverFIRE-13 mission; Cape Canaveral launch (on 14 April); reached 837 km
United States1964-04-16Wallops Island VA(SpaceCraft Type-A general-purpose and purple rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric/test mission; Wallops Island launch (on 15 April); reached 727 km
Iceland1964-08-01Vik(Printed) cachet on cover(French rocket) Dragon-D10 ionospheric and Van Allen belt mission; launched from Myrdalssandur (Iceland); reached 440 km
Sweden1964-08-07Kabdalis(Printed) cachet on coverTwo launches from Kronogard, Sweden; Nike-Apache air sampling aeronomy mission (reached 125 km); and Nike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission (reached 130 km); also IQSY
United States1964-08-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 mission; Wallops Island launch (on 6 August); reached 119 km
United States1964-08-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout mission to test Apollo-type ablator materials at lunar re-entry heating levels; Wallops Island launch; reached 183 km
United States1964-10-08Wallops Island VA(Swanson and Goldcraft hybrid black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric ion composition mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1004 km
United States1964-10-08Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-10-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout RFD-2 re-entry vehicle test flight; Wallops Island launch; reached 132 km
United States1964-10-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 840 km
United States1964-10-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-10-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) radio astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1100 km
United States1964-10-28Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on coverThor-SLV-2 Project ASSET17-4 re-entry vehicle test mission 1 (the rocket released the test vehicle, a small spaceplane model called the AEV-1, whose high-speed re-entry aerodynamic and structural properties were measured). Cape Canaveral launch, on 27 October; probably reached around 50 km
United States1964-10-29Patrick AFB, FL(C. Swanson purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverThor-DSV-2 Project ASSET17-4 re-entry vehicle test mission 2 (the rocket released the test vehicle, a small spaceplane model called the AEV-2, whose high-speed re-entry aerodynamic and structural properties were measured). Cape Canaveral launch; reached 50 km
United States1964-11-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin (Argo-D4) JHU (Johns Hopkins University) Airglow 7 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 867 km
United States1964-11-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1964-11-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-11-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 mission; Wallops Island launch on 5 November; reached 120 km
United States1964-11-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-11-10Wallops Island VA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverNike-Apache Sunrise ionosphere-4 ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 251 km
United States1964-11-10Wallops Island VA(NASA printed and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1964-11-12Wallops Island VA(NASA printed and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache sodium release grenades5 dual rocket aeronomy mission; one (reached 198 km) was launched from Wallops Island at 5:28 pm 10 November; the other (reached 200 km) was a ship launch from the USS Croatan at 5:25 pm 10 November
United States1964-11-12Wallops Island VA(NASA printed and purple rubber-stamp) cachet (different date) on coverNike-Apache sodium release grenades5 dual rocket aeronomy mission (different); one (reached 202 km) was launched from Wallops Island at 5:27 pm 11 November; the other (reached 156 km) was a ship launch from the USS Croatan at 5:24 pm 11 November
United States1965-01-13Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) "mother-daughter" ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1006 km
United States1965-01-13Wallops Island VA(Sarzin printed and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-04-09Cape Canaveral FL(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue Scout AFWL-14 magnetospheric mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 25,422 km
United States1965-05-12Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Sarzin) cachet on coverBlue Scout AFCRL15 magnetospheric mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 13,586 km
United States1965-05-12Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Swanson blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-05-12Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Celestial) cachet on cover
United States1965-05-18WSMR, NM(HJM black and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 aeronomy mission; WSMR launch; possibly reached around 70 km
United States1965-05-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) "mother-daughter" ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 947 km
United States1965-06-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? black and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-D ABRES31 LORV32-6 re-entry test mission; Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1800 km
United States1965-06-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric and IQSY mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 177 km
United States1965-06-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-06-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; 1:56 PM Wallops Island launch; reached 186 km
United States1965-06-18Wallops Island VA(Sarzin printed and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-06-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; 5:41 PM Wallops Island launch (on 17 June); reached 177 km
United States1965-06-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-06-18Wallops Island VA(Sarzin printed and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D8 (Journeyman) radio astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1770 km
United States1965-06-30Wallops Island VA(Sarzin printed and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-08-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch (on 24 August); reached 162 km
United States1965-09-10Wallops Island VA(Sarzin and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 and HASP4 meteorological missions; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; 15 launches took place from 3-10 September 1965; the HASP4 launches probably reached around 29 km; the ARCAS2 launches reached around 60 km
United States1965-09-10Wallops Island VA(Printed and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache RF propagation radio astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch on 9 September; reached 171 km
United States1965-09-18Wallops Island VA(Sarzin and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A FR-1 test (though no reference to this test is found in the cover) and ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch (on September 17); reached 182 km
United States1965-09-23Wallops Island VA(Sarzin and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 805 km
United States1965-09-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1965-09-27Wallops Island VA(Sarzin and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A FR-1 test (though no reference to this test is found in the cover) and ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch (on 25 September); reached 192 km
United States1965-09-27Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-01-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (on 17 January); reached 134 km
United States1966-02-17Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache E / B currents (Electricity / Birkeland currents) plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 186 km
United States1966-03-02Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A solar extreme UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 228 km
United States1966-03-02Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) geoprobe aeronomy/ionosphere mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 536 km
France1966-03-17Poste aux Armées(JG) cachet on coverVéronique solar radiance measurement mission; Hammaguir launch; altitude reached unknown
United States1966-03-25Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Javelin HITAB mission (carried instruments to measure heat and other radiation from a Titan-II rocket); Vandenberg launch; reached 130 km
United States1966-05-04Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 mission; Wallops Island launch (on 3 May); reached 119 km
United States1966-05-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin Argo-D4 radio astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 998 km
United States1966-07-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 195 km
United States1966-07-14Wallops Island VA(Sarzin?) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-16Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScanner-1 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 612 km
United States1966-08-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-08-17Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAerobee-350 test/ionosphere/solar mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 358 km
United States1966-08-25USS Robert A. Owens(Brown and green printed) cachet on cover, also backSaturn-1B (Apollo-Saturn AS-202) mission to test the launch vehicle and the Apollo Command and Service modules, including the performance of the heat shield at high re-entry speeds; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 1,143 km
United States1966-08-26Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTwo Nike-Tomahawk Thermosphere Probe aeronomy missions; Wallops Island launch; reached 287 km and 308 km
United States1966-08-26Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A Extreme UV/Solar mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 212 km
United States1966-08-29Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache aeronomy mission to make "measurements of upper atmosphere phenomena"; Wallops Island launch; reached 151 km
United States1966-09-24Wallops Island VA(Sarzin and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 930 km
United States1966-09-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1966-09-25Wallops Island VA(Sarzin? and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 280 km
United States1966-12-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAtlas-SLV-3 PRIME (Precision Recovery Including Maneuvering Entry) technology test mission (data were to be applied to later STS spacecraft); Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 1500 km
United States1967-01-24Kennedy Space Center FL(Swanson red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk diurnal thermosphere/ionosphere aeronomy mission; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 325 km
United States1967-01-24Cape Canaveral FL(Printed) cachet on coverSix Nike-Tomahawk diurnal thermosphere/ionosphere aeronomy missions; Cape Canaveral launches; reached from 320 to 336 km
United States1967-02-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Cajun aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 112 km
United States1967-02-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAstrobee-1500 solar radio frequencies mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 2380 km
United States1967-02-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAstrobee-1500 solar radio frequencies mission; Wallops Island launch (on 24 February); reached 2380 km
United States1967-03-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A OSO-3 calibration and extreme UV mission for AFCRL15; Wallops Island launch; reached 205 km
United States1967-03-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1967-03-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 141 km
United States1967-03-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1967-03-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (blue) cover
United States1967-03-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1967-03-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A OSO-3 calibration and solar extreme UV mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 229 km
United States1967-03-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1967-03-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Tomahawk GCA Corp. ion probe ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 237 km
United States1967-03-31Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium and tri-ethyl borane release grenades5 aeronomy and plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 321 km
United States1967-03-31Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJapanese MT-135 rocket, part of a US-Japan aeronomy intercomparison mission; data were compared with those from a US ARCAS2 rocket fired 16 min later; Wallops Island launch; reached 54 km
United States1967-03-31Wallops Island VA(Sarzin?) cachet on coverARCAS2 (reached 58 km) and MT-135 (reached 54 km) fired 16 min apart for US-Japan aeronomy intercomparison mission; Wallops Island launch
United States1967-04-05Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on cover8 ARCAS2 and 8 MT-135 rockets fired on 4 and 5 April for US-Japan aeronomy intercomparison missions; Wallops Island launches; all reached between 53 and 63 km
United States1967-06-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverArgo-D4 (Javelin) ISIS-X (Explorer-31) overflight and ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 792 km
Sweden1967-07-31Kiruna(Printed) cachet on coverCentaure-2B ionospheric mission; Esrange launch; reached 130 km
Italy1967-09-27Perdasdefogu(Green and red and orange rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSkylark ionosphere/solar X-rays mission; Salto di Quirra launch; reached 183 km
United States1967-10-04Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 251 km
United States1967-10-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 249 km
United States1967-10-19Wallops Island VA(Sarzin?) cachet on coverRAM22-C1 re-entry radio communications blackout test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 217 km
United States1967-10-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1967-11-09Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on coverSaturn-5 (Apollo-4) program test and photographic mission37; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 18,256 km
United States1967-11-09Cape Canaveral FL(Rank velvet) cachet on cover
Australia1967-12-01Woomera SA(Black rubber-stamp) cachet (and signatures) on coverHAD (High Altitude Density rocket) aeronomy inter-comparison mission (collected data for calibration of Wresat-1 instruments); Woomera launch; reached 100 km
United States1967-12-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A biological mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 137 km
United States1967-12-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1968-01-22Cape Canaveral FL(Whitney black and red) cachet on (airmail) coverSaturn-1B (Apollo-5) launch to test the Lunar Module (LM) and other systems in spaceflight conditions; Cape Canaveral launch; the LM reached 222 km
United States1968-01-22Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover
United States1968-01-22Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover
United States1968-01-22Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers) cachet on cover
United States1968-01-22Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers) cachet (different) on cover
United States1968-01-22Cape Canaveral FL(Red-brown printed) cachet on cover
United States1968-02-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and red rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverFive Nike-Apache aeronomy missions, 21 and 22 February, reached 150-190 km; also one Nike-Apache sodium-lithium grenades5 release aeronomy mission, 22 February, reached 168 m; all launches were from Wallops Island
United States1968-04-04Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on coverSaturn-5 (Apollo-6) launch to test various mission systems; Cape Canaveral launch; reached 184 km
United States1968-04-04Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover
United States1968-04-04Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1968-04-04Cape Canaveral FL(Whitney green and black) cachet on cover
United States1968-04-04Cape Canaveral FL(Whitney green and black) cachet on (airmail) cover
French Guiana1968-04-09Kourou(Le Burin d'Or) cachet on coverVéronique-AGI sea recovery test flight; Kourou launch; reached 114 km; this was the first rocket to be launched from Kourou; the 7th anniv. of this launch was commemorated in two 1975 Kourou rocket launch covers: cover1 and cover2
Sweden1968-06-07Kiruna(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverCentaure-2B meteorites mission; Esrange launch; reached 138 km
United States1968-06-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-150A biological mission; Wallops Island launch (on 24 June); reached 144 km
United States1968-08-22Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on coverRAM22-C2 re-entry radio communications blackout test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 227 km
United States1968-08-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1968-08-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Norway1968-09-23Andenes(Black rubber-stamp and hand-written) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk ionospheric plasma mission; Andoya launch; reached 321 km
Norway1968-10-01Andenes(Black rubber-stamp and hand-written) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk ionospheric plasma mission; Andoya launch; reached 228 km
Australia1969-04-02Glenelg SA(Black and red rubber-stamp) cachets on coverTwo Skylark missions for ionospheric and X-ray measurements: SL724 (Skylark-5C, 1 April, reached 192 km); and SL502 (Skylark-6AC, 02 April, reached 273 km); Woomera launches
Australia1969-04-02Woomera SA(Black and purple rubber-stamp) cachets on coverTwo Skylark-3 missions for solar UV and X-ray measurements; SL604 (22 April, reached 181 km) and SL606 (17 April, reached 202 km); cancel date on cover apparently incorrect (should read 22 April); Woomera launches
United States1969-05-01Wallops Island VA(Sarzin?) cachet on coverBlack-Brant test mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 215 km
Australia1969-07-25Woomera SA(Black and purple rubber-stamp) cachets on coverHAD (High Altitude Density rocket) aeronomy intercomparison mission (collected data for calibration of Nimbus-3 instruments); Woomera launch; reached 115 km
Australia1969-07-25Woomera SA(Black and blue and red rubber-stamp) cachets (and signatures) on cover
Australia1969-07-25Woomera SA(Black and purple and red rubber-stamp) cachets (and signatures) on coverHAT (High Altitude Test rocket) aeronomy intercomparision mission (collected data for calibration of Nimbus-3 instruments); Woomera launch; reached 80 km
Australia1969-08-06Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAero-High barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 225 km
Australia1969-08-06Woomera SA(Black and purple rubber-stamp) cachets on (airmail) cover
United States1969-09-10Colorado Springs CO(R.E. Nichol rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, also backNike-Apache barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; White Sands launch; reached 200 km
Australia1969-10-16Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark-3 barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 318 km
Australia1969-10-18Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark-3 barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 318 km
United States1969-11-08Wallops Island VA(Black printed) cachet on coverBlack-Brant IR astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 189 km
United States1969-11-08Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-03-05Eglin AFB, FL(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 solar eclipse test mission (preparing for the 7 March 1970 total solar eclipse); Eglin AFB launch; reached 73 km
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.4) cachet on (airmail) cover, also insertThirty-two sounding rockets of various types (Aerobee-170, Tomahawk Sandia, ARCAS2, Javelin and several with the Nike booster (Iroquois, Tomahawk, Apache, Cajun)) for solar eclipse/cessation studies1; Wallops Island launches; altitudes reached varied from the lowest (around 65 km, ARCAS2 and Nike-Cajun) to the highest (829 km, Javelin)
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.4) cachet on (airmail) cover, also insert
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(NASA? black printed) cachet on cover
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-03-07Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.5) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (airmail) coverAerobee-150 solar eclipse/cessation studies1 mission (observed the "solar flash spectrum" of the solar corona in the far UV); 1:36PM launch from Wallops Island; reached 142 km
Australia1970-03-24Glenelg SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark-B5 X-ray survey mission; Woomera launch; reached 179 km
United States1970-05-07Eglin AFB, FL(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Iroquois tracer release aeronomy mission; Eglin AFB launch; reached 159 km
Australia1970-05-20Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on (airmail) coverCockatoo UAR8 mission to measure UV radiation and Moon reflectivity; Woomera launch; reached 96 km
Australia1970-05-27Glenelg SA(Printed) cachet on coverKookaburra UAR8 aeronomy mission; measurements of temperature, wind and ozone; Woomera launch; reached 85 km
Australia1970-05-27Glenelg SA(Printed) cachet on coverAero-High aluminium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 177 km
Australia1970-05-27Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAerobee astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km
Australia1970-05-30Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAerobee astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km
Australia1970-06-03Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAerobee-150 astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km
Australia1970-07-14Glenelg SA(Printed) cachet on coverKookaburra UAR8 aeronomy mission; measurements of temperature, wind and ozone; Woomera launch; reached 85 km
Australia1970-07-14Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark-B5 solar corona study mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km
Australia1970-07-17Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark-B5 solar corona study mission; Woomera launch; reached 200 km
United States1970-09-01Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverJavelin aeronomy/exosphere mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 800 km
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda #16) cachet on (airmail) coverScout mission: RAM22-C (3rd Radio Attenuation Measurement) re-entry vehicle test; Wallops Island launch; reached 269 km
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Printed) cachet on cover
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on cover
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover
United States1970-09-30Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1970-10-09Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverCastor mission: SPED30-2 re-entry vehicle test; Wallops Island launch; reached 85 km; (in preparation for the forthcoming Viking missions, this test was designed to simulate entry into the Martian atmosphere from space)
United States1970-10-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-10-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-10-09Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.18) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1970-10-09Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1970-10-10Virginia Beach VA(Typed and black, red, and blue rubber-stamp) cachets on coverReturn of SPED30 test vehicle and parachute to port by USNS Range Recoverer
Australia1970-10-22Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverCockatoo UAR8 mission to measure UV radiation and Moon reflectivity; Woomera launch; reached 105 km
United States1970-11-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTrailblazer-2 re-entry test mission for AFCRL15; Wallops Island launch; reached 321 km
United States1970-11-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1970-11-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1970-11-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlue Scout Jr UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 1480 km
United States1970-11-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1970-11-24Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1971-01-16Eglin AFB, FL(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTomahawk-Sandia aeronomy mission; Eglin AFB launch; reached 144 km
United States1971-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBoosted ARCAS2 plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 122 km
United States1971-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on (airmail) cover
United States1971-01-29Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Australia1971-02-03Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverKookaburra UAR8 aeronomy mission; measurements of temperature, wind and ozone; Woomera launch; reached 85 km
Australia1971-03-03Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAero-High-4 and Aero-High-5 double launch: aluminium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 178 km
United States1971-03-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover2 Nike-Cajun (reached 113 km) and 3 Nike-Apache (reached 171-181 km) aeronomy missions; Wallops Island launches
French Guiana1971-06-08Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverVéronique biological and ionospheric mission; Kourou launch; reached 210 km; this was the first in a series of co-operative Franco-German missions
United States1971-06-10Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-350 airglow and aeronomy ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 328 km
United States1971-06-10Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1971-06-10Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on cover
French Guiana1971-06-12Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverVéronique co-operative Franco-German biological and ionospheric mission; Kourou launch; reached 210 km
United States1971-06-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson yellow-green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverScout Planetary Atmospheric Entry Test (PAET24); Wallops Island launch; reached 377 km
United States1971-06-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1971-06-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1971-06-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson gold and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1971-06-21Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on cover
United States1971-06-21Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on cover
Australia1971-06-22Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverKookaburra UAR8 aeronomy mission; measurements of temperature, wind and ozone; Woomera launch; reached 85 km
Australia1971-06-23Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverKookaburra UAR8 aeronomy mission; measurements of temperature, wind and ozone; Woomera launch; reached 85 km
United States1971-06-29Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAerobee-170 Chaser-1 ABM IR sensor technology mission ("Direct Measurement Explorer" (Explorer-31) was part of the mission); Vandenberg AFB launch; reached 161 km
United States1971-07-13Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch (on 12 July); reached 270 km
India1971-08-11Trivandrum(Printed) cachet on coverM100 launch from Thumba Rocket Range
Australia1971-09-09Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverUnknown rocket with unknown mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached unknown
Australia1971-09-18Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverUnknown rocket UAR8 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached unknown
India1971-09-21Trivandrum(Printed) cachet on coverRohini-300 ionospheric mission; Thumba, India launch; altitude reached not known
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverScout plasma/barium release joint NASA/MPE14 Barium Ion Cloud (BIC) mission to measure magnetic and electric fields in the magnetosphere; Wallops Island launch (on 20 September); reached 31,479 km
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.6) cachet on cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Orbit Cover) cachet on cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on cover
United States1971-09-21Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet (and "cancel delayed" rubber-stamp) on cover
Australia1971-09-21Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAero-High-6 aluminium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached approximately 177 km
Australia1971-09-27Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1002 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 224 km
India1971-10-07Trivandrum(Printed) cachet (different) on coverM100 launch from Thumba Rocket Range
Australia1971-10-12Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverA3-H UAR8 mission, including "sensing [at levels] between met[eo] balloon ceiling and satellite [data]"; synoptic measurements of solar radiation, wind and ozone; Woomera launch
United States1971-11-23Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAerobee-170 CHASER-2 ABM IR sensor technology mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 145 km
Australia1971-11-25Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverKookaburra UAR8 aeronomy mission; measurements of temperature, wind and ozone; Woomera launch; reached 85 km
Australia1971-11-25Woomera SA(Printed) cachet (same) on cover (signed)
Australia1971-12-10Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL903 solar X-ray mission; Woomera launch; reached 198 km
French Guiana1971-12-14Kourou(Purple and red-brown rubber-stamp) cachet on coverMR-12 aeronomy test mission; Soviet research ship Professor Zubov launch; reached 151 km
French Guiana1971-12-14Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1971-12-15Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverMR-12 aeronomy mission; Soviet research ship Professor Zubov launch; reached 170 km
French Guiana1971-12-15Kourou(Lollini) cachet (slightly different) on cover
French Guiana1971-12-16Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverVéronique-61M co-operative Franco-Russian ionospheric sounding mission; Kourou launch; reached 227 km
United States1972-03-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk plasma physics mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 243 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16, MT-135 and Super-ARCAS2 aeronomy intercomparison mission #2; Wallops Island launches; the rockets reached roughly 60 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson green and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16 and MT-135 aeronomy intercomparison mission #3; Wallops Island launches; the rockets reached roughly 60 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson green and red rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 10:33 AM; reached 61 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 11:08 AM; reached around 80 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 2:26 PM; reached around 80 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 7:39 PM; reached around 80 km
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1972-03-15Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverThree Super-ARCAS2 aeronomy missions; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launches at 11:08 AM, 2:26 PM and 7:39 PM; all reached around 80 km
United States1972-03-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16, MT-135 and Super-ARCAS2 aeronomy intercomparison mission #5; Wallops Island launches; the rockets reached roughly 60 km
Australia1972-03-16Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1023 lithium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 260 km
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16, MT-135 and Super-ARCAS2 aeronomy intercomparison mission #9; Wallops Island launches; the rockets reached roughly 60 km
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on coverThirty Rocketsonde10 "meteorological rockets launched in a week long cooperative experiment ending March 20, 1972, to test weather data systems for France, Japan and the United States" (in text); Wallops Island launches; altitudes reached were around 60 km
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 1:27 PM; reached around 60 km
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 3:00 PM; reached 59 km
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 3:45 PM; reached around 60 km
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverMT-135 aeronomy missions; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; released dropsondes; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 55 km
United States1972-03-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverLoki-Datasonde/Starute16, MT-135 and Super-ARCAS2 aeronomy intercomparison mission #10; Wallops Island launches; the rockets reached roughly 60 km
United States1972-03-21Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2aeronomy mission; part of a rocket data intercomparison project; Wallops Island launch at 8:46 PM 20 March; reached around 60 km
United States1972-03-21Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1972-03-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Javelin cesium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 100 km
Australia1972-03-27Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverEarth resources experiment; Skylark SL1081 atmospheric observations were then compared to aircraft and ERTS-A satellite measurements; Woomera launch; reached 279 km
United States1972-03-27Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Javelin cesium release grenades5 mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 100 km
United States1972-04-03Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Javelin cesium release grenades5 mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 100 km
United States1972-04-12Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached around 60 km
United States1972-05-17Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached around 60 km
United States1972-06-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached around 60 km
United States1972-09-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAstrobee research rocket test; Wallops Island launch; reached 199 km
United States1972-09-26Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1972-10-03Kourou(Printed) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-13 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1972-10-09Chatanika AK(Red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverTomahawk-Sandia barium release grenades5 mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 500 km
Australia1972-10-19Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1022 ionospheric composition and scattering mission; Woomera launch; reached 150 km
Australia1972-10-26Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1003 solar spectrum and X-ray measurement mission; Woomera launch; reached 195 km
United States1972-11-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached around 60 km
French Guiana1972-11-17Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 aeronomy mission (incorrectly spelled 'ARCA'); part of the EXAMETNET9 program, with CNES (France) and NASA co-operation; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1972-12-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 185 km
Australia1972-12-07Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1202 lunar occultation X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 248 km
Australia1972-12-11Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1005 measurement of concentration of O2 and various neutral and ionised atoms; Woomera launch; reached 196 km
United States1972-12-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached around 60 km
Australia1973-01-31Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1205 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 218 km
Japan1973-02-08Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.20) cachet on coverMT-135P-T6 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 63 km
Japan1973-02-23Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.15) cachet on coverK-9M-43 cesium release5 ionospheric mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 306 km
Australia1973-03-01Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1010 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 199 km
Australia1973-03-14Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1004 imaging spectrograph solar X-ray mission; Woomera launch; reached 225 km
United States1973-03-14Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart ROBINSphere11 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 120 km altitude
United States1973-03-16Chatanika AK(Red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Tomahawk plasma/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 249 km
Australia1973-03-20Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1102 diffraction grating specgtrograph solar UV mission; Woomera launch; reached 225 km
United States1973-03-20Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 magnetic field mapping mission; Poker Flat launch; probably reached around 225 km
United States1973-03-21Chatanika AK(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 magnetic field mapping mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 225 km
United States1973-03-21Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet (slightly different) on cover
United States1973-03-21Chatanika AK(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAstrobee-D airglow/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 78 km
United States1973-03-21Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
French Guiana1973-03-21Kourou(Printed) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-16 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-03-21Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
United States1973-03-22Chatanika AK(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverBlack-Brant aeronomy/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 183 km
United States1973-03-22Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover
United States1973-03-27Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 magnetic field mapping mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 233 km
United States1973-03-27Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverPaiute-Tomahawk ICECAP 1973 aeronomy mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 255 km
French Guiana1973-03-28Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-17 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-03-28Kourou(Printed) cachet on cover
United States1973-03-30Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk plasma/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 243 km
United States1973-03-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Arcasonde10 mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 56 km
French Guiana1973-04-04Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-18 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-04-04Kourou(Printed) cachet on cover
United States1973-04-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Arcasonde10 mission; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 56 km
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverVéronique-61M solar extreme UV mission; Kourou launch; reached 200 km
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(Club Philatélique de Kourou and ship Croix du Sud rubber-stamp) cachets on cover
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(printed and ship Croix du Sud rubber-stamp) cachets on cover
French Guiana1973-04-17Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
Australia1973-04-18Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 214 km
Australia1973-04-18Woomera SA(Printed) cachet (different) on cover
French Guiana1973-04-18Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-19 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-04-18Kourou(Printed) cachet on cover
French Guiana1973-05-09Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-20 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-05-09Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1973-05-09Kourou(Printed) cachet on cover
French Guiana1973-05-30Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-21 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-05-30Kourou(Printed) cachet on cover
United States1973-06-04WSMR, NM(Swanson/DuBeau? red and blue rubber-stamp) cachet (design based on Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose cachet) on coverAerobee-170A solar observation mission (2 June, reached 175 km) and Black Brant solar extreme UV rocket calibration mission (4 June, reached 132 km but mission failed); both launches, from WSMR, were part of a joint WSMR-Skylab series of experiments
French Guiana1973-06-07Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-22 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-06-07Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
French Guiana1973-06-07Kourou(Printed) cachet on cover
United States1973-06-13WSMR, NM(Szostek) cachet on coverBlack_Brant-5C solar UV/X-ray mission (observed the same region of the Sun as the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), for data comparison and calibration); White Sands launch; reached 241 km
United States1973-06-28Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTerrier-Recruit probable aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; altitude reached not known
Sweden1973-08-01Kiruna(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache aeronomy mission; Esrange launch; reached 109 km
Japan1973-08-21Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.33) cachet on coverK-9M-43 sodium (Latin "natrium") release5 aeronomy mission; resulting luminous cloud was observed in daylight for the first time ever; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 355 km
Japan1973-09-05Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.24) cachet on coverMT-135P-T7 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 57 km
French Guiana1973-09-10Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-23 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-09-12Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-24 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1973-09-18Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverUte-Tomahawk Polar Disturbed Ionosphere mission with rocket balloon; Poker Flat 6 AM launch; reached 127 km
United States1973-09-18Chatanika AK(Magenta and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverUte-Tomahawk Polar Disturbed Ionosphere mission with rocket balloon; Poker Flat 8 AM launch; reached 129 km
United States1973-09-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS unknown aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 65 km
Australia1973-09-19Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverKookaburra aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 121 km
Australia1973-09-19Woomera SA(Printed) cachet (different) on cover
United States1973-10-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Arcasonde10 aeronomy mission; 11:15 AM Wallops Island launch; reached 59 km
United States1973-10-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverARCAS2 Arcasonde10 aeronomy mission; 2:04 PM Wallops Island launch; probably reached around 60 km
French Guiana1973-10-10Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-25 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-10-31Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-40 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission to study the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1973-10-31Kourou(Printed) cachet on cover
Australia1973-11-02Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAerobee astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 175 km
Australia1973-11-07Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAerobee astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 167 km
Australia1973-11-10Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAerobee astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 175 km
French Guiana1973-11-29Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-41 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1973-12-04Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-5C barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 570 km
United States1973-12-10WSMR, NM(Szostek) cachet on coverBlack Brant-5C CALROC-3 (Calibration Rocket 3) solar extreme UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 269 km; (cameras "photograph areas of solar activity while astronauts in Skylab use their telescope mount to photograph the same regions")
French Guiana1973-12-12Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-42 launch; France - NASA program of co-operation and the 13th launch of a meteorological research rocket in 1973 as part of the program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-01-09Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-45 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Japan1974-01-16Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.29) cachet on coverK-9M-45 aeronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 365 km
United States1974-01-16Chatanika AK(Magenta and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk falling sphere - TMA release mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 298 km (TMA is trimethyl aluminum, a neutral tracer released by the falling sphere which could be observed; the observations were used to calculate ionospheric winds and densities)
United States1974-01-21Chatanika AK(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk barium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 298 km
Japan1974-01-22Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.30) cachet on coverL-3H-8 X-ray astronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 1571 km (but data transmission was lost at 500 km)
Japan1974-02-01Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.31) cachet on coverJCR-10 test mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 120 km
Japan1974-02-02Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.32) cachet on coverMT-135P-T9 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 60 km
French Guiana1974-02-04Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-46 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-02-04Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
Australia1974-02-05Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1203 extreme UV survey mission; Woomera launch; reached 197 km
United States1974-02-07Chatanika AK(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAstrobee-D tracking test mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 91 km
Japan1974-02-10Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.34) cachet on coverMT-135P-T10 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 60 km
United States1974-02-13Chatanika AK(Red and green and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverBlack-Brant-5C aeronomy mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 200 km
United States1974-02-13Chatanika AK(Magenta and black rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on (airmail) cover
French Guiana1974-02-14Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-47 mission; France - NASA meteorological co-operation (in text of Lollini cachet); Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-02-14Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
United States1974-02-18Chatanika AK(Red and green and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Hydac aeronomy mission, including falling spheres for air density; Poker Flat launch; reached 150 km
United States1974-02-18Chatanika AK(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1974-02-21Chatanika AK(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-5C aeronomy mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 180 km
French Guiana1974-02-22Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-43A and 35-44B aeronomy missions; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launches; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-02-22Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-43B mission in support of isentropic balloon program; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-02-22Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on cover
French Guiana1974-02-25Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-44B aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-02-25Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
United States1974-02-26WSMR, NM(Szostek) cachet on coverBlack Brant-5C LPSP (Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planétaire) EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) solar mission; White Sands launch; mission failed at 98 km; (the cover text says that this was a Pioneer-10 Jupiter flyby data calibration mission, but that appears incorrect, since that flyby took place on 3 December 1973)
French Guiana1974-02-27Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-48 mission in support of isentropic balloon program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-02-27Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-03-13Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-49 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-03-13Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
Australia1974-03-20Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverLorikeet aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 100 km
United States1974-03-22Chatanika AK(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverStrypi Acanta-Contiga aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 200 km, but mission failed
French Guiana1974-03-22Kourou(Club Philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverNASA 1974 campaign: multiple aeronomy launches from approximately 19 March to 27 March of Nike-Cajun (reached 85-120 km), Super-Loki (reached 65-75 km) and Super-ARCAS2 (reached around 75 km) rockets; "Nike-Ozone" as written in the cachet is not a rocket type. It probably refers to one of the atmospheric constituents measured during the campaign. All launches were from Kourou.
French Guiana1974-03-22Kourou(Club Philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverTwo Nike-Cajun chemical release grenades5 aeronomy missions to measure "upper atmospheric structure, temperature and wind speeds" (in French text); Wallops Island launches; both reached 120 km altitude. NOTE: these launches were part of the 1974 NASA campaign noted in the cover immediately above.
French Guiana1974-03-27Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-50 aeronomy mission; the 9th launch in the 1974 co-operative NASA-France program of meteorological rocket missions; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-03-27Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
United States1974-04-12Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAstrobee-D ionospheric mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 129 km
French Guiana1974-04-17Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-51 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-04-17Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
Australia1974-04-23Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1207 ionospheric physics mission; Woomera launch; reached 178 km
French Guiana1974-05-02Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-52 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-05-15Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-53 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1974-05-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Apache aeronomy and ionospheric mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 138 km
French Guiana1974-05-29Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-54 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1974-05-31Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSuper Loki Datasonde/Starute16 aeronomy mission (goal was to obtain data to compare with those from the "NOAA-3" weather satellite); Poker Flat launch; reached 60 km
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on cover54 missions in Project ALADDIN18 '74, mostly for aeronomy, but also for some other specialized studies; Javelin, Black-Brant, Tomahawk and Nike-Apache rockets, as well as several other types, were used; Wallops Island launches (on 29 and 30 June); the aeronomy missions generally reached 75-100 km, while others flew to the 150-250 km range of altitudes.
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk ALADDIN18 '74 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (at 5:05 PM 29 Jun); reached 186 km
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverNike-Cajun ALADDIN18 '74 aeronomy/extreme UV astronomy mission; Wallops Island launch (at 8:10 PM 29 Jun); reached 100 km
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson purple and blue rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverThree Ute-Tomahawk ALADDIN18 '74 chemical release aeronomy missions; Wallops Island launches on 29 June at 5:20 PM, 9:06 PM, and 11:45 PM (reached 186 km, 203 km, and 201 km, respectively)
United States1974-06-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1974-08-19Chatanika AK(Red-brown and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSuper Loki "noctilucent cloud study"; Poker Flat launch; reached 66 km
French Guiana1974-09-04Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-55 research rocket in support of isentropic balloon program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-09-04Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on cover
French Guiana1974-09-04Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-09-11Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverCentaure-2C aeronomy mission under co-operation of ESRO, CNES, and IASB (Aeronautics and Space Institute of Belgium); Kourou launch; reached 120 km
French Guiana1974-09-11Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-56 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-09-12Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-09-12Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverCentaure-2C nitrogen oxide release aeronomy mission; Kourou launch; reached 140 km
Japan1974-09-15Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.43) cachet on coverK-9M-46 ionospheric plasmas mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 336 km
French Guiana1974-09-18Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-57 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km; (the RAVEN balloons mentioned in the two Lollini cachets appear to have had no direct relation to the rocket mission)
French Guiana1974-09-18Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-09-18Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on cover
Japan1974-09-20Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.45) cachet on coverK-9M-48 ionospheric X-ray/UV mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 340 km
French Guiana1974-10-02Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-58 research rocket (part of the international balloons campaign); Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-10-02Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-10-02Kourou(Lollini printed) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-10-16Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-59 research rocket (part of the international balloons campaign); Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-10-16Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-10-30Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-60 research rocket (part of the international balloons campaign); Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-10-30Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-11-13Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-61 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-11-13Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-11-18Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverEridan FAUST #2 (FAr Ultraviolet Space Telescope) UV astronomy mission; Kourou launch; reached 220 km
French Guiana1974-11-27Kourou(Printed) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-62 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-11-27Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-11-27Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
French Guiana1974-12-04Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-64 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1974-12-06Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 306 km
French Guiana1974-12-18Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-65 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1974-12-18Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-01-09Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS235-66 research rocket; (part of the EXAMETNET9 program); Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km; the second cover also mentions the Kourou "assembly hall" for the French rockets Centaure, Dragon, Rubis, Eridan and Véronique
French Guiana1975-01-09Kourou(Lollini printed) cachet on cover
Japan1975-01-17Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.47) cachet on coverK-9M-49 airglow aeronomy mission; measurements of ozone, oxygen and ionospheric plasmas; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 363 km
United States1975-01-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverPaiute-Tomahawk ALADDIN18 -'75 sphere aeronomy/plasma mission; Wallops Island launch on 17 June at 6:35 PM; reached 190 km
United States1975-01-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Japan1975-01-20Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.48) cachet on coverS-310-1 test mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 192 km
Japan1975-01-23Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.49) cachet on coverK-9M-50 X-ray astronomy and plasmas mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 350 km
Australia1975-01-28Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverMeadowlark research rocket first flight; Woomera launch; designed for altitudes up to 350 km
French Guiana1975-01-30Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-67 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Japan1975-02-05Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.51) cachet on coverETV test mission; Tanegashima launch ("Q-2" in cachet text refers to the second launch from pad "Q"); reached 168 km
French Guiana1975-02-06Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-68 aeronomy mission for measurements just before the launch by a Diamant rocket of the STARLET satellite; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Japan1975-02-07Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.52) cachet on coverMT-135P-T14 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 61 km
French Guiana1975-02-13Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-69 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-02-26Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-70 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-03-12Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-71 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km; also STARLETTE, spelled "STARLET" (in the two Lollini cachets)
French Guiana1975-03-12Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on cover
French Guiana1975-03-12Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
United States1975-03-17Chatanika AK(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk plasma/electric fields/aurora mission; Poker Flat launch; reached 270 km
Australia1975-03-18Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark launched on 14 March for solar X-ray measurements at the time of Helios-A solar perihelion; Woomera launch; reached 270 km; payload was recovered on 18 March
Australia1975-03-20Sydney Philatelic Sales Centre(Printed) cachet on coversupposedly an aeronomy mission according to the cachet text, but Turana6 was not an atmospheric research rocket
French Guiana1975-03-26Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-72 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-03-26Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
Australia1975-04-04Sydney Philatelic Sales Centre(Printed) cachet on coversupposedly an aeronomy mission according to the cachet text, but Turana6 was not an atmospheric research rocket
French Guiana1975-04-16Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-73 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Australia1975-04-24Sydney Philatelic Sales Centre(Printed) cachet on coversupposedly an aeronomy mission according to the cachet text, but Turana6 was not an atmospheric research rocket
Australia1975-04-28Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAero-High aluminium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 180 km
French Guiana1975-04-29Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-74 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km; also 7th anniv. the first rocket launch from Kourou
French Guiana1975-04-29Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on cover
French Guiana1975-04-29Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-05-14Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-75 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-05-28Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-77 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-05-28Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-05-28Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on cover
Australia1975-05-29Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverUnknown type upper atmospheric research rocket test mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known
French Guiana1975-05-30Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on coverVéronique-3M FAUST #3 (FAr Ultraviolet Space Telescope) UV astronomy mission; Kourou launch; reached 172 km
French Guiana1975-05-30Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-06-11Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-78 research rocket; CNES-NASA cooperative aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-06-11Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-06-11Kourou(Lollini) cachet on cover
French Guiana1975-06-18Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-79 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Australia1975-06-24Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1105 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 180 km
Australia1975-08-12Adelaide SA(Printed) cachet on coverUnknown type upper atmospheric research rocket mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known
Australia1975-08-13Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverUnknown type upper atmospheric research rocket mission; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known
Japan1975-08-17Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.54) cachet on coverTT-210 test mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 113 km
Australia1975-08-21Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark upper atmospheric research rocket; Woomera launch; altitude reached not known
Australia1975-08-21Woomera SA(Printed) cachet (changed colors) on cover
Russia (USSR)1975-09-07Baikonur Karaganda Oblast(Purple and red and green printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on (known fake29) coverVertikal-3 solar UV/X-ray mission; Kapustin Yar launch on 2 September; reached 502 km
French Guiana1975-09-09Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-80 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-09-09Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet (different) on cover
Japan1975-09-10Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.60) cachet on coverMT-135P-T15 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch (cachet incorrectly gives Uchinoura); reached 59 km
French Guiana1975-09-17Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-81 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Japan1975-09-24Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.62) cachet on coverK-10-11 X-ray astronomy and solar UV mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 196 km
French Guiana1975-09-29Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-82 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1975-10-29Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-83 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Australia1975-11-07Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverCockatoo-C3009 lithium release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 150 km
Australia1975-11-25Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1112 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 251 km
Australia1975-12-04Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverCorella-C1002 chemical release grenades5 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 220 km
United States1975-12-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(DuBeau? cyan rubber-stamp) cachet on coverUte-Tomahawk ESCAPE-II (Sphere) aeronomy mission; Vandenberg launch; reached 164 km
French Guiana1975-12-18Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-84 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1976-01-15Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverTerrier-Malemute test mission [failed]; Wallops Island launch; reached 81 km
United States1976-01-15Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (same) on cover
United States1976-01-15Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1976-01-21Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-85 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1976-01-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAstrobee-D plasma physics mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 76 km
French Guiana1976-01-28Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-86 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1976-01-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 ion densities plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 70 km
United States1976-01-30Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
French Guiana1976-02-18Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-87 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1976-02-18WSMR, NM(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverBlack Brant-5C Solar UV and X-ray mission for OSO-8 data calibration; White Sands launch; reached 282 km
United States1976-02-24WSMR, NM(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverAerobee-170 solar X-ray/extreme UV mission; White Sands launch; reached 221 km
Australia1976-02-26Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverKookaburra K2021 aeronomy mission to measure density-height and wind profiles; Woomera launch; probably reached around 85 km
French Guiana1976-03-17Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-88 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1976-04-01Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-89 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1976-04-14Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-90 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1976-04-21Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverViper-Dart Datasonde/Starute16 aeronomy mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 68 km
United States1976-04-21Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
French Guiana1976-04-29Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-91 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1976-05-12Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-92 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Australia1976-05-13Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverSkylark SL1115 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached 231 km
French Guiana1976-06-02Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-93 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1976-06-09Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-94 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
United States1976-06-18Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on coverGP-A (Gravity Probe A) mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 10,230 km; (carried a precise clock that measured slight changes in the clock rate due to the lower gravity force aloft during the 1 hour and 55 minutes of flight time)
United States1976-06-18Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet (different colors) on cover
United States1976-06-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Japan1976-08-21Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.69) cachet on coverS-310-3 ionization and electron temperature and number density mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 195 km
French Guiana1976-09-15Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-95 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Japan1976-09-16Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.72) cachet on coverK-9M-55 ionospheric temperature and electron density mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 359 km
Japan1976-09-18Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.73) cachet on coverK-9M-56 ionospheric ozone and nitric oxides mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 300 km
Japan1976-09-25Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.75) cachet on coverMT-135P-T17 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 59 km
French Guiana1976-09-29Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-96 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
French Guiana1976-10-13Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-97 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km
Australia1976-11-10Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverBlack-Brant (not "Brandt", as in the cachet text) APD-VB42 cosmic X-ray mission; Woomera launch; reached 215 km
French Guiana1976-12-01Kourou(Club philatélique de Kourou) cachet on coverSuper-ARCAS2 35-100 aeronomy mission; part of the EXAMETNET9 program; Kourou launch; probably reached around 75 km; this was the 100th launch in the Super-ARCAS2-35 series
United States1977-01-08Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverNike-Tomahawk plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 138 km
Australia1977-02-16Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAerobee-200 X-ray astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached approximately 280 km
Australia1977-02-18Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAerobee-170 UV astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached approximately 280 km
Australia1977-02-18Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAerobee-200 UV astronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached approximately 280 km
Australia1977-02-22Woomera SA(Printed) cachet on coverAerobee-170 aeronomy mission; Woomera launch; reached approximately 280 km
Japan1977-02-24Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135P-T18 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch; probably reached around 60 km
United States1977-08-10Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverFirst day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1977-08-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1977-08-10Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1977-08-12Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverSecond day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-12Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1977-08-12Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1977-08-15Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverThird day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-15Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1977-08-16Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverFourth day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-16Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Japan1977-08-16Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.81) cachet on coverL-3H-9 ionospheric radio wave mission in advance of EXOS-A and EXOS-B launches; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 1294 km
United States1977-08-17Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverFifth day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-18Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSixth day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSeventh day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover
United States1977-08-19Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on cover
United States1977-08-22Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverEighth day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-23Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverNinth and last day of dual-launch experiment26 to compare stratospheric and mesospheric measurements: Super-Loki (with Starute16) launched from Wallops Island and M100B (with Soviet parachute system) launched from the Soviet hydrometeorological research ship Akademik Korolev; rockets reached around 70 km
United States1977-08-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
Japan1977-08-25Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.82?) cachet on coverTT-500 test mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 300 km
Japan1977-09-14Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.96) cachet on coverK-10-13 X-ray/UV astronomy mission "as preliminary test for the coming launch of [the] 7th scientific satellite" (which was Astro-A/Hinotori, launched in 1981); Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 204 km
Japan1977-09-15Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.87) cachet on coverS-210-12 aeronomy mission; measurements of ozone, aerosols and ionospheric electron density; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 114 km
Japan1978-01-22Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.90) cachet on coverK-9M-62 electron temperature and solar X-ray mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 369 km
United States1978-01-31WSMR, NM(Black rubber-stamp and typed) cachet on coverBlack Brant solar corona X-ray mission; White Sands launch; reached 273 km; also Explorer-1 anniversary cover
Japan1978-02-17Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135P-T21 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 64 km
Japan1978-02-26Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverK-9M-60 UV and X-ray astronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 340 km; [what appears to be a three-axis-stabilized satellite is a Galactic X-ray instrument]
United States1978-05-13WSMR, NM(Blue rubber-stamp and typed) cachet on cover30th anniv. launch of Bumper-WAC-17,21 at WSMR on 13 May 1948; it was a successful test mission, in which the V2 booster reached 112 km and the WAC Corporal upper section reached 128 km
United States1978-06-11Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverNike-Apache (Wallops Island launch; reached 220 km) and MR-12 (Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 170 km) JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization missions
United States1978-06-20Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverNike-Apache (Wallops Island launch; reached 184 km) and MR-12 (Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 175 km) JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization missions; "Nike-Tomahawk" rockets, launched from Wallops Island, were also used in the program; see, for example, 1978-06-25
United States1978-06-20Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
United States1978-06-23Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverMR-12 JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization mission; Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 168 km
United States1978-06-23Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverMR-12 JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization mission; Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch; reached 168 km; "Nike-Apache" rockets, launched from Wallops Island, were also used in the program; see, for example, 1978-06-11 and 1978-06-20
United States1978-06-25Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverTwo MR-12 (Soviet research ship Professor Vize launches, at 7:31 PM and 9:31 PM; both reached 165 km) and Nike-Tomahawk (Wallops Island launch; reached 315 km) JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization missions; "Nike-Apache" rockets, launched from Wallops Island, were also used in the program; see, for example, 1978-06-11 and 1978-06-20
United States1978-06-25Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverMR-12 JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization mission; Soviet research ship Professor Vize launch (at 9:31 PM); reached 165 km
United States1978-08-14WSMR, NM(Swanson blue rubber-stamp and typed) cachet (design based on Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose cachet) on coverBlack Brant HRTS (High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph) solar UV mission; White Sands launch; reached 220 km, but mission failed
Japan1978-08-20Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.97) cachet on coverK-9M-64 aurora and IR/UV/X-ray astronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 319 km; [what appears to be a three-axis-stabilized satellite is a Galactic X-ray instrument (on cover2)]
Japan1978-08-20Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on cover
Japan1978-08-24Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135P-T22 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 62 km
Japan1978-08-26Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.100) cachet on coverMT-135P-T23 meteorological sounding mission; atmospheric observations were made by parachute-borne instruments released from the rocket; Tanegashima launch; reached 60 km
United States1978-09-11WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on coverBlack Brant SPAR-527 microgravity mission; White Sands launch; reached 165 km (102 miles; the "1.2 miles" in the text is incorrect)
United States1978-09-27Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverlast JASPIC19 launches: Nike-Apache (from Wallops Island on 27 September; reached 183 km) and MR-12 (from Soviet research ship Professor Vize on 26 June; reached 165 km); JASPIC19 intercomparison plasma/ionization missions
Japan1979-01-21Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (JapanCover no.104) cachet on coverK-9M-66 barium release5 and plasma and electron energy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 336 km
Canada1979-02-24Ear Falls ON(Space Voyage) cachet on coverSeven solar eclipse preparatory missions with rockets of several types (Super Loki, Nike Tomahawk, ARCAS, and Super ARCAS) were launched at Red Lake ON on 24 and 25 February. Altitude reached was generally around 80 km. The eclipse took place on 26 February, when three eclipse/aeronomy rocket missions were launched (two Taurus Orions and one Nike Iroquois). All three reached around 200 km.
United States1979-10-17WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on coverSPAR-627 microgravity mission; White Sands launch; reached 185 km
Japan1980-02-23Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135P-T27 aeronomy mission "gathers meteorological data" (in cachet text); Tanegashima launch; reached 57 km
United States1980-04-18MSFC, AL(Space Voyage) cachet on cover"SPAR VII27 shipped from MSFC" (Marshall Space Flight Center); it was launched by a Black Brant rocket on 14 May 1980 from the White Sands Missile Range and reached an altitude of 204 km
United States1980-05-14WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on coverBlack Brant SPAR-727 microgravity mission; White Sands launch; reached 204 km
Japan1980-09-02Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (NASDA?) cachet on coverOne K-10 and three K-9M launches: 17 Jan 1979 K-9M aeronomy/ionosphere/"electron density" and "electron temperature" mission (reached 353 km); 27 Aug 1980 K-10 cosmic X-ray/IR astronomy mission (reached 219 km); 2 Sep 1980 K-9M aeronomy/ionosphere/EXOS-C satellite data comparison mission (reached 230 km); 4 Sep 1980 aeronomy mission (reached 308 km but payload failed); Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launches
Japan1980-09-13Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (NASDA?) cachet on coverMT-135P-T28 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 61 km
Sweden1980-11-16Kiruna(Printed and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverAeronomy mission EBC-B E9B; (Super-Loki launch of E2 payload as part of the international research program Energy Budget Campaign); Esrange launch; reached 104 km
United States1980-11-18WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on coverSPAR-827 microgravity mission; White Sands launch; reached 198 km
Japan1981-01-15Minamitane(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverTT-500A Space Processing of Materials test mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 300 km
Japan1981-02-12Tanegashima(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135P-T28 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch on 13 September 1980; reached 61 km;
MT-135P-T29 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch on 15 September 1980; reached 60 km;
MT-135P-T30 aeronomy mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 61 km
United States1981-08-10Wallops Island VA(Black rubber-stamp and typed) cachet on (airmail) coverTaurus-Orion plasma mission; Wallops Island launch on 8 August; reached 200 km
United States1981-09-24Wallops Island VA(Black rubber-stamp and typed) cachet on (airmail) coverOrion plasma mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 71 km
Japan1982-02-18Uchinoura (scenic and regular cancels)(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverK-9M-72 ionospheric radio waves mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 13 February, 1982; reached 328 km;
K-9M-73 ionospheric/plasma/fields mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 15 January, 1982; reached 303 km;
K-9M-74 UV/X-ray astronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch on 18 February, 1982; reached 315 km; [what appears to be a three-axis-stabilized satellite is a Galactic X-ray instrument]
United States1982-06-17WSMR, NM(Space Voyage) cachet on coverAries extreme UV astronomy mission; White Sands launch; reached 247 km
Japan1987-09-09Uchinoura(Scenic) cancel and (Space Voyage) cachet on coverMT-135 three dropsonde meteorological missions; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launches (two 9 Sep and one 11 Sep, 1987 - the "1988" in the cachet for the 11 Sep launch is an error); reached 58, 57, and 56 km
United States1989-08-20Minamitane(Watanabe) cachet on cover, also insertTR-1-3 test flight (1/4 scale model of the H-II rocket); Tanegashima launch; reached 85 km
Japan1990-01-20Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on coverDYANA34 DUD35-2 aeronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 77 km
Japan1990-01-29Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on coverDYANA34 DUD35-3 aeronomy mission; Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launch; reached 80 km
Japan1991-02-16Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on coverThree S-520 launches: 16 Feb 1991 extreme UV astronomy mission (reached 337 km); 2 Feb 1992 IR astronomy mission (reached 338 km); and 18 Feb 1993 ionosphere/active "plasma study"/"electron density" mission (reached 272 km); Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launches
Japan1992-02-02Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on coverThree S-520 launches: 16 Feb 1991 extreme UV astronomy mission (reached 337 km); 2 Feb 1992 IR astronomy mission (reached 338 km); and 18 Feb 1993 ionosphere/active "plasma study"/"electron density" mission (reached 272 km); Uchinoura (Kagoshima) launches
Japan1993-09-17Minamitane(Watanabe) cachet on cover, also insertTR-1A microgravity mission; Tanegashima launch; reached 264 km
United States1998-08-14WSMR, NM(Printed) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-9 X-ray astronomy mission; White Sands launch; reached 300 km
United States1999-07-04Wallops Island VA(Printed) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-5 chemical release5 ionosphere mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 250 km
United States1999-07-04Wallops Island VA(T. Chamberlain) cachet on cover
United States1999-12-17Wallops Island VA(Printed) cachet on coverTerrier-Orion microgravity mission; Wallops Island launch; reached 168 km
United States2006-02-08WSMR, NM(Printed) cachet on coverTerrier-Black Brant MOSES (Multi-order Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph) solar extreme UV mission; WSMR launch; reached 282 km
Sweden2006-04-05(Black rubber-stamp) cachetHawk-Orion REXUS20 science and technology mission; Esrange launch; reached 95 km
United States2007-03-20Colorado Springs CO, Peterson AFB(Printed) cachet on coverFalcon-1 technology test mission; Kwajalein Atoll (Omelek Island) launch; reached around 325 km but mission failed when second stage shut down
United States2007-03-20El Segundo CA(Printed) cachet (different) on cover
United States2007-11-06WSMR, NM(Printed) cachet on coverBlack-Brant-9 solar extreme UV mission; White Sands launch; reached 300 km; studied "the physical properties of the solar corona"; observations provided calibrations for data from the "SOHO, TRACE and Solar-B" satellites
Sweden2010-03-04(Black rubber-stamp) cachetHawk-Orion REXUS20 science and technology mission; Esrange launch; reached 88 km
United States2011-10-24Sagamore MA(Coverscape) cachet on cover65th anniv. launch of V-2 upper atmospheric and photographic mission; carried experiments for cosmic and solar radiation and wind measurement for the Applied Physics Lab at Johns Hopkins University; also carried a motion picture camera that photographed Earth for the first time from a high altitude (around 100 km); flight reached 105 km
United States2012-03-23WSMR, NM(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverBlack Brant IR astronomy mission; WSMR launch (on 22 March); reached 320 km
Atmospheric research rockets (on other than rocket launch covers)
United States1962-06-01Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft Type-C general-purpose) cachet on KH4-5 and OSCAR-2 launch coverScout rocket (at right)
United States1962-09-01Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft Type-C general-purpose) cachet on KH5-6 launch coverScout rocket (at right)
United States1962-09-17Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft Type-C general-purpose) cachet on KH4-12 and US-ERS-2 launch coverScout rocket (at right)
United States1963-12-21Patrick AFB, FL(Sokolsky) cachet on TIROS-8 launch cover, also annotated cachetVarious research rockets
United States1963-12-21Cape Canaveral FL(Sokolsky) cachet on TIROS-8 launch cover, also annotated cachet
United States1968-10-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert2 front from ESRO-1A launch cover, also insert2 back and insert1 and cover frontdata were correlated with "measurements made simultaneously with sounding rockets launched from the ESRO range at Kiruna, Sweden"
United States1969-10-01Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on ESRO-1B launch coverexperiments "coordinated with rockets from Kiruna, Sweden"
United States1969-10-01 (insert1)
1969-10-01 (insert2 back)
Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert1 and insert2 back from ESRO-1B launch cover, also insert2 front and cover front"measurements made simultaneously with sounding rockets launched from the ESRO launch site at Kiruna, Sweden"
United States1969-10-01 (insert1)
1969-10-01 (insert2 back)
Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert1 and insert2 back from ESRO-1B launch cover, also insert2 front and cover front
United States1969-11-07Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert2 front from Azur launch cover, also insert2 back and insert1 and cover frontPreparatory work in 1966 and 1967 "consisted of a series of rocket launchings - from sites in Canada, Sweden and Brazil - designed to check out the satellite's instrumentation"
United States1969-11-07Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert2 front from Azur launch over, also insert2 back and insert1 and cover front
United States1976-03-16Auburn MA(GSFC Stamp Club printed) cachet on 50th anniv. first liquid fuel rocket flight/launch cover"Sounding rocket"
United States1976-09-28WSMR, NM(Blue rubber-stamp and typed) cachet on stratospheric balloon launch coverV-2 research rocket
United States1978-05-20GSFC, MD(GSFC blue rubber-stamp) cachet (same design as two above) on Pioneer-12 launch cover"Sounding rocket"
United States1978-10-24GSFC, MD(GSFC blue rubber-stamp) cachet (same) on Nimbus-7 and CAMEO launch cover"Sounding rocket"
United States1983-01-25Greenbelt MD(GSFC blue rubber-stamp) cachet (same) on IRAS and PIX-2 launch cover"Sounding rocket"

1When a solar eclipse occurs, there is a sudden cut-off, or cessation, of solar radiation, followed by a sudden resumption of that radiation. Solar eclipses therefore present the opportunity to investigate the effects of fast-varying solar flux on the structure, photochemistry and electrodynamics of various parts of the upper atmosphere. This includes examination of anomalies in ionization, temperature and winds. Characteristics of the solar corona can also be observed (often in the far ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum). Rockets have been used to carry instruments which can make such measurements into the upper atmosphere.
2The ARCAS (All-purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) was developed by the Atlantic Research Corporation for the Office of Naval Research with support from the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. It was launched with a launching tube. It was first used in July 1959, and has undergone various modifications and improvements since then.
3The FIRE (Flight Investigation of Re-Entry) payload was an instrumented cone built like a small Project Apollo space capsule. It was launched by an Atlas-Antares rocket in a sub-orbital flight and released to fall through the atmosphere and mimic the re-entry of an Apollo space capsule. The goal of the mission was to measure the thermal characteristics and temperature of the capsule during the re-entry. A second mission with the same goal (FIRE-2) took place on 22 May 1965.
4The HASP (High Altitude Sounding Projectile) was a small research rocket based on the Loki-2 missile and modified by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory to be attached to a 127 mm (5 inch) shell. The unit was fired from a naval gun, after which the rocket took over to lift a 2.6 kg payload (an instrument container known as a "dart") up to around 29 km, where the dart opened to release an instrument package attached to a parachute. As the package descended, it measured temperatures and sent them to receiving stations below. The parachute had a metallic coating and so could be tracked by radar, allowing upper wind speeds and directions to be calculated. Here is a diagram of the HASP system, and here is a picture of the dart, the parachute and the instrument package.
5In these experiments, grenades of barium or other chemicals were carried aloft to explode in the upper atmosphere; the resulting clouds could be observed and tracked to estimate upper atmospheric winds, turbulence and cloud radiance properties. Also, by using the times of arrival of the sound waves created by the explosions at an array of ground stations, calculations estimating the upper winds could be made.
6Turana was a recoverable drone used for gunnery and missile defense training by the Royal Australian Navy. Rocket launch covers (canceled Sydney Philatelic Sales Centre or Sydney G.P.O) were issued for at least five launches in 1975, on envelopes with a cachet describing an aeronomy mission including sensing at levels between meteo balloon ceilings and satellite data, along with synoptic measurements of solar radiation, wind and ozone. This cachet text had already been used in at least one earlier rocket cover (e.g. A3-H upper atmospheric research rocket, from 12 October 1971). Its use on Turana launch covers is almost certainly misleading and incorrect. However, a hint of the true nature of the Turana vehicle is found in one supplementary word in the cachet on these covers: the word "intercept".
7At White Sands Missile Range, von Braun and his team experimented with a small WAC21 Corporal research rocket mounted on a V-2. Six launches took place between 13 May 1948 and 22 April 1949. Four were failures. This combination, called the "Bumper-WAC"21, was designed to investigate problems of stage separation and ignition at high altitude, and also to allow the WAC21 Corporal to attain a much higher altitude than would be possible if it was launched by itself. It could then make scientific measurements at those high altitudes. Two later Bumper-WAC21 launches took place at Cape Canaveral in 1950. Those missions were designed to allow the smaller rocket to obtain high altitude hypersonic aerodynamic data. The July 24 launch failed, but the July 29 launch (the last Bumper-WAC21 flight) worked as planned: the WAC21 Corporal reached Mach 9 at 35 km altitude.
8UAR: Upper Atmospheric Research
9EXAMETNET: Experimental Inter-American Meteorological Rocket Network
10The Rocketsonde was an instrumented package, ejected in the upper atmosphere by a rocket, that made meteorological observations as it descended by parachute. It was typically carried by the Loki-Datasonde, Deacon or ARCAS rockets. In the latter case, it was sometimes referred to as an Arcasonde.
11The ROBINSphere (Radar OBservable INflation Sphere) system was designed to measure high altitude atmospheric density and wind through radar observations of an inflatable sphere with a diameter of about 1 m. When flown on rockets such as the Viper-Dart and Nike-Cajun, the system provided data as the sphere descended from approximately 90 km to approximately 40 km. It appears that the ROBINSphere was also flown on ARCAS rockets, which had a lower maximum altitude. With them, data would have been available in a lower slice of the atmosphere, possibly from around 60 km down to around 40 km.
12CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia's national science agency)
13BIOS: Biological Investigation Of Space
14MPE: Max Planck Institut für extraterrestrische Physik
15AFCRL: Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (Cambridge MA)
16The Starute was part of the Super-Loki Datasonde package that was carried aloft by the Super-Loki rocket and released at high altitudes. A thermistor in the Datasonde measured the temperature as it descended, while the balloon-like Starute, made of mylar, acted as a parachute and radar reflector for the Datasonde and therefore also as a wind sensor through data provided by radar tracking. In practice, the Datasonde could provide useful estimations of temperature and winds at levels between about 20 km and 70 km.
17ASSET: Aerothermodynamic-elastic Structural Systems Environmental Test
18ALADDIN: Atmospheric Layering and Density Distribution of Ions and Neutrals
19JASPIC: Joint American Soviet Particle InterCalibration
20REXUS: Rocket-borne EXperiments for University Students
21The early US sounding rockets were named for enlisted ranks in the US Army: Private, Corporal and Sergeant33. The plan was that each in the series would be bigger than the previous one and so would get a higher rank name. However, after the development of the Corporal, the pattern was broken: the next rocket supplied by the developers was smaller than the Corporal. As a result, the new rocket was named the WAC-Corporal, after the Women's Army Corps (WAC).
22Radio Attenuation Measurements - the RAM missions tested the effectiveness of aerodynamic shaping (in the A series) and of water injected into the flow field (in the B and C series) in minimizing the loss of radio signals from a spacecraft in the radio blackout period of atmospheric re-entry.
23In Project Highwater, the Saturn-1's dummy second and third stages were filled with 109,000 litres of water (weighing approximately 95 tons) to provide structural stability and the correct weight for a fully-fueled Saturn Apollo rocket. At its apogee of 145 km, the rocket was destroyed by the Apollo Control engineers to release the water into the upper atmosphere, to see what might be the effects on radio transmissions and on the local weather. A massive ice cloud and lightning-like effects were observed.
24With the goal of eventual interplanetary missions in mind, scientists and engineers were preparing to make measurements of atmospheric structure and characteristics using instruments aboard an entry vehicle. The Planetary Atmospheric Entry Test (PAET) program tested instrument packages with accelerometers, radiometers, pressure, temperature and humidity sensors and a mass spectrometer to make various upper atmospheric measurements. The test results were used in support of later missions to Mars (Viking), Venus (Pioneer-Venus), Jupiter (Galileo) and Saturn (Cassini-Huygens).
25HETS: Hyper Environmental Test System (USAF missions to investigate radiation in the magnetosphere)
26These paired rocket tests were designed make measurements in the stratosphere and ionosphere and to then compare the results. A total of 22 such intercomparison tests, summarized in this table, took place from 10 August through 23 August 1977.
27SPAR: Space Processing Applications Rocket
28A Topside Sounder is a satellite designed to determine ion concentration within the ionosphere as measured from above the ionosphere.
29Known fake cover, with a made-up Baikonur postmark, suspected to have been created by Boris Khoroshev from Moscow, and sold by a stamp dealer in Western Europe. There were no Baikonur Cosmodrome official postmarks until 1975 for the Apollo-Soyuz events. Reference the article written by Russian collector Oleg Vaisberg published as an Appendix called "Russian (Soviet) Space Covers" to Bruce Cranford's book Space Covers: Dictionary and Identifier. See also, an analysis of the situation in a book published in 2008 called Commemorative Space Covers from Collector Clubs of the Soviet Union, 1957 to 1980. Another indicator on these fakes is the use of a "first day" cachet that appears on most, but not all, of these fakes.
30SPED: Supersonic Planetary Entry Decelerator
31ABRES: Advanced Ballistic Re-Entry System
32LORV: Lunar Orbit Rescue Vehicle
33The Sergeant was an American single-stage solid-propulsion tactical ballistic missile developed for the US Army in 1956-1962. Surplus rockets and the Sergeant's rocket motor (known commercially as Castor) became the basis for many sounding rockets and test vehicles.
34DYANA (Dynamics Adapted Network for the Atmosphere) was an international co-operative project to observe the temperature and wind speed and direction in the high atmosphere. The observations were provided by the Super Loki's Starute16 DUD35 system.
35DUD: DYANA-Uchinoura Datasonde
37To demonstrate the structural and thermal integrity of the space vehicle and to verify adequacy of the Block II heatshield design for entry at lunar return conditions; also, a 70 mm still camera photographed Earth's surface every 10.6 seconds, taking 715 good-quality high-resolution pictures.


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