weather balloon

Weather Balloons and Radiosondes
(and Pilot Balloons, Tracking Theodolites, Tracking Antennas and Equipment,
and Eole Isentropic, Un-Manned Stratospheric Balloons, and Dropsondes)

radiosonde

Below are checklists of weather balloons and balloon-related devices on postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.). Catalog numbers, years of issue, and notes on the items featured are given when available. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page.

Equipment carried aloft with weather balloons: Weather balloons always carry with them an instrument package known as a radiosonde. Some balloons also have a parachute that allows the package to drift gently back to the surface after the balloon bursts. Some older systems also carried a boxy radar reflector that would efficiently reflect the energy from a tracking radar. As will be seen in the table of weather balloon stamps, different systems can have different combinations of these three attachments.

1964 Common Design FDCs from 8 African countries: The 8 FDC entries from 1964, highlighted in pale yellow in the table below, all have the same ('FDC') cachet (except for color differences). That Common Design is for the 4th World Meteorological Day, and also features a weather balloon.

Launch covers
(including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers)
(farther below)
Other postal items
(stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.)
(immediately below)
Weather balloons and radiosondes Weather balloons and radiosondes
Pilot balloons (pibals) and tracking theodolites
Weather balloon tracking antennas and tracking equipment
Ozonesondes (ozone sounding balloons) Ozonesondes (ozone sounding balloons)
Isentropic balloons2 Eole-program isentropic balloons1 (from Argentina) and other isentropic balloons
Un-manned stratospheric balloons (scientific, but non-isentropic) Un-manned stratospheric balloons
Dropsondes Dropsondes


Below is a list of Weather balloons on postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.).

CountryCatalog NumberType of ItemYear of IssueType of Weather Balloon or Radiosonde
Weather balloons and radiosondes
Afghanistan1360 (Mi1644)1989Weather balloon / radiosonde
Albania1210 (Mi1338)1969Weather balloon / radiosonde
Albania1208-1210 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Algeria351 (Mi451)
i351

Imperforate
1966Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde with vertical sequencer2 (with 3 cups)
Algeria351 fdc1Stamp on FDC (Alger cancel)
Algeria351 fdc2Stamp on FDC (Oran cancel)
Algeria351 fdc3Stamp on FDC (different)
Algeria351 fdc4Stamp on FDC ('FDC' cachet)
Algeria351 dsDeluxe sheet (351)
AlgeriaNone(Alger) cancel1969Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
AlgeriaNone(Oran) cancel on cover
Angola860 (Mi915)1993Weather balloon
Argentina769 (Mi856)1965(probable) weather balloon in launch shelter
Argentina769 fdc1Stamp and cachet on FDC
Argentina769 fdc2Stamp and cachet (different) on FDC
Argentina770 cover (Mi857 cover)Cachet on cover1965(probable) weather balloon in launch shelter
ArgentinaC105 (Mi898)1966Project Matienzo: Track of rising instrumented balloons (dashed line in stamp); Gamma Centaur research rocket
ArgentinaC105 fdc1Stamp and cachet on FDC
ArgentinaC105 fdc2Stamp and cachet (same) on FDC (different)
ArgentinaC105 fdc3Stamp and cachet (different) on FDC
ArgentinaC105 fdc4Stamp and cachet (different) on (airmail) FDC
ArgentinaC105 folderFDC folder
ArgentinaNone(Two) cachets on cover1969Two weather balloons / radiosondes, one with horizontal sequencer2 (with 4 vanes that are angled for half their area)
ArgentinaNone(Two) cachets on cover (different)1969Two weather balloons / radiosondes, one with horizontal sequencer2 (with 4 vanes that are angled for half their area)
ArgentinaNone(Printed) cachet on cover1970penguin holding weather balloon (cachet design is a modified version of the cachets found in NZ cover 1961 and NZ cover 1978)
Argentina977 fdc1 (Mi1127 fdc1)Cachet on FDC1972Weather balloon / radiosonde with horizontal sequencer2 (with 4 vanes that are angled for half their area)
Argentina977 fdc2 (Mi1127 fdc2)Cachet (different) on FDC
Argentina977 card (Mi1127 card)Cachet (same) on FDC card
Argentina977 cover1 (Mi1127 cover1)Cancel and cachet on cover1972Weather balloon / radiosonde with horizontal sequencer2 (with 4 vanes that are angled for half their area)
Argentina977 cover2 (Mi1127 cover2)Cachet (different color) on cover1972(partial) Weather balloon / radiosonde with horizontal sequencer2 (with 4 vanes that are angled for half their area)
ArgentinaNoneCachet on cover1984Weather balloon
ArgentinaNoneCachet on cover1988Weather balloon / radiosonde; also "Ozonesonde" (in Spanish text in left cachet)
ArgentinaNoneCachet on cover1988Weather balloon / radiosonde
ArgentinaNoneCachet on cover1993Weather balloon / radiosonde; also "Ozonesonde" (in Spanish text in left (purple) cachet, or in more detail in this black version)
Australia431 fdc (Mi395 fdc)(WCS) cachet on FDC1968Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde with vertical sequencer2 (likely with 3 cups)
Australia431-432 fdc1(WCS) cachet (different color) on FDC
Australia431-432 fdc2(WCS) cachet (different color) on FDC
Australia431-433 fdc1(WCS) cachet on FDC (Nedlands South cancel)
Australia431-433 fdc2(WCS) cachet (different color) on FDC (Mewcastle cancel)
Australia431-433 fdc3(WCS) cachet (same) on FDC (Brisbane cancel)
Australia432 fdc (Mi396 fdc)(WCS) cachet (slightly different colors) on FDC
AustraliaNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, also back2007Weather balloon
AustraliaNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet (same) on cover2009Weather balloon
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL117n (Mi138)One of MS20 (L117 (a-t))2001Weather balloon / radiosonde
BelgiumC16 (Mi1111)1958Weather balloon / radiosonde
BelgiumNoneCachet on cover2010(probable) weather balloon launch shelter, modern version of Argentina 769
Belgium2655 (Mi?)In (upper-right) margin of MS5 (2655 (a-e))2013weather balloon / parachute
Brazil2127 (Mi2244)In (upper-right) margin of SS11988Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Brazil2127 fdcSS1 on FDC
British Antarctic Territory21 (Mi21)1969Two weather balloons / radar reflectors
British Antarctic Territory144 (Mi147)1987Weather balloon / radar reflector
British Antarctic Territory237 (Mi247)1996Weather balloon
British Antarctic Territory235-238 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC
British Antarctic Territory235-238 fdc2One of four stamps on FDC (different)
British Antarctic Territory239 (BL3)In (right) margin of SS1
British Antarctic Territory239 fdc1SS1 on FDC
British Antarctic Territory239 fdc2SS1 on FDC (different)
British Antarctic Territory430c+d (Mi563-564)From MS8 (430 (a-h))2011Weather balloons
Burma275 (Mi276)1980Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
BurundiC265a (Mi1415)Stamp-on-stamp: UN 50 on one of block of 4 (C265 (a-d)) (Mi1415-1418)1977Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Canada479 (Mi420)1968Weather balloon
Canada479 fdc1Stamp on FDC (H&E cachet)
Canada479 fdc2Stamp on FDC (Cole cover cachet)
Canada479 fdc3Stamp on FDC (Rosecraft cachet)
Canada479 fdc4Stamp on FDC (Jackson Covers/C. Chickering cachet)
Canada479 fdc5Stamp and (purple rubber-stamp) cachet on FDC (Jackson Covers/C. Chickering cachet)
Canada479 fdc6Stamp on FDC (Schering cachet), also back
Canada479 fdc7Stamp on FDC (? cachet)
Canada479 fdc8Stamp on FDC (? cachet, different)
Canada479 fdc9Stamp on FDC (Mapleaf cachet)
Canada479 scSouvenir card
Central African RepublicC18 fdc (Mi56 fdc)('FDC') cachet on FDC1964Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Chad100 fdc (Mi115 fdc)('FDC') cachet on FDC1964Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Chad227 (Mi305)1970Weather balloon / parachute / radar reflector / radiosonde
Chad227 dsDeluxe sheet (227)
Chad227 fdcStamp and (printed) cachet on FDC
Chad227 proof1Signed proof (orange)
Chad227 proof2Signed proof (green)
Chad227 proof3Signed proof (grey)
Chad227 proofsColor proof strip
China (People's Republic)368 (Mi396)1958Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde with horizontal sequencer2 (with 4 cups)
China (People's Republic)367-369 fdcOne of three stamps and cachet on FDC
China (People's Republic)484 (Mi512)1960Weather balloon / radar reflector / radiosonde with horizontal sequencer2 (with 3 or more cups)
China (People's Republic)1384 (Mi1394)1978Weather balloon / radiosonde
China (People's Republic)1384-1388 fdcOne of five stamps on FDC
China (People's Republic)None(Printed) cachet on cover, also back1990Weather balloon/ radiosonde
China (People's Republic)3067 (Mi3195)2000Balloon tethersonde
China (People's Republic)3066-3069 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC
China (People's Republic)3066-3069 fdc2One of four stamps and cachet on FDCBalloon tethersonde, weather balloon / radiosonde
China (People's Republic)NoneCancel on postal card, with detail same as cachet on PRC 367-369 fdc2010Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde with horizontal sequencer2 (with 4 cups)
China (Taiwan)1337 (Mi452)1962Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
China (Taiwan)1337 specimenOverprinted with bars through face value
China (Taiwan)1338 fdc1Cachet on FDCWeather balloon
China (Taiwan)1338 fdc2Cachet (different) on FDCWeather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
China (Taiwan)1339 (Mi454)Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
China (Taiwan)1339 specimenOverprinted with bars through face value
China (Taiwan)1337+1339 fdc1One of two stamps and (rubber-stamp) cachet on FDC (Taipei cancel)Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
China (Taiwan)1337+1339 fdc2One of two stamps and (rubber-stamp) cachet (same) on FDC (Tainan cancel)
China (Taiwan)1337-1339 fdcOne of three stamps and (rubber-stamp) cachet on FDC
China (Taiwan)1337-1339 folderFDC folder
China (Taiwan)1651-1652 fdc1 (Mi766-767 fdc1)(Printed and purple rubber-stamp) cachets on FDC (Taipei cancel)1970Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
China (Taiwan)1651-1652 fdc2 (Mi766-767 fdc2)(Printed and purple rubber-stamp) cachets (same) on FDC (different Taipei cancel)
Congo (Republic)111 fdc (Mi42 fdc)('FDC') cachet on FDC1964Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
CroatiaNoneCachet on postal card2013Weather balloon (upper right of the TV screen)
Cuba962 (Mi1024)1965Weather balloon
Cuba961-963 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Cuba1221 (Mi1291)1967Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde (at lower-right)
Cuba1592 (Mi1666)1971Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Cuba1589-1592 fdcOne of four stamps and cancel on FDC
Cyprus960 (Mi959)On stamp and on (left) selvedge of block of 4 (4x 960)2000Weather balloon / radiosonde
Cyprus960 specimenOverprinted "specimen"
Cyprus960 fdc1Stamp on FDC
Cyprus960 fdc2Stamp on FDC (different)
Cyprus960 scSouvenir card, also back
Cyprus957-960 cardAdvertising postcard (957-960)
Denmark489 fdc (Mi521 fdc)(MN) cachet on FDC1972Weather balloon / radiosonde
Denmark1004 (Mi1077)1994Wegener's weather balloon, 1906-1908 Danish Greenland expedition (same design as cachet on Greenland 268-269 fdc)
Denmark1004-1005 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
Dominica356 (Mi356)1973Weather balloon / radar reflector / radiosonde with vertical sequencer2 (with cups)
Dominica354-360 fdcOne of seven stamps on FDC
Dominica354-360 proofs1Proof sheet
Dominica354-360 proofs2Proof sheet (different)
Dubai121 (Mi365)1970Weather balloon / parachute / radar reflector
Dubai122 (Mi366)Weather balloon / parachute / radar reflector / radiosonde with vertical sequencer2 (with 6 cups)
Finland531 (Mi728)1973Weather balloon / radiosonde
Finland531 fdc1Stamp(s) on FDC
Finland531 fdc2Stamp on FDC (different)
Finland938 (Mi1249)1994Weather balloon / radiosonde
Finland938 fdcStamp(s) on FDC
France1903 fdc (Mi2416 fdc)('FDC') cachet on FDC1983Weather balloon / radiosonde
FranceNoneCancel on aerogramme1996Weather balloon
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Green) cachet on cover1984Weather balloon / possible radar reflector or parachute / radiosonde
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Green) cachet on cover (different)1984Weather balloon / possible radar reflector or parachute / radiosonde
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Red) cachet (same) on cover (different)1984Weather balloon / possible radar reflector or parachute / radiosonde
French Southern and Antarctic Territories100+111 cover (Mi? cover)(Round rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1985Weather balloon / radar reflector / radiosonde
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Round rubber-stamp) cachet (same) on cover (different)1985Weather balloon / radar reflector / radiosonde
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Round rubber-stamp) cachet (same) on cover (different)1985Weather balloon / radar reflector / radiosonde
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC92 (Mi218)1986Weather balloon
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC92 fdcStamp on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC92 fdc2Stamp on FDC ('FDC' cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC92 cover (Mi218 cover)Stamp and cachet on cover1986Weather balloon
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Green-blue) cachet on cover1986Weather balloon / radiosonde (possibly with temperature sensor on extended arm)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Annotated) cachet on cover1986Weather balloon
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Green with red number) cachet on cover1988Weather balloon / radiosonde (possibly with temperature sensor on extended arm)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Round rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1991Weather balloon / radar reflector / radiosonde
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Round rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1992Weather balloon / radar reflector / radiosonde
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNoneCachet on cover (blue)1993Weather balloon / radiosonde
French Southern and Antarctic Territories189a cover (Mi311-312 cover)(Two black) cachets on cover1993Two weather balloons / radiosondes
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNoneCachet on cover199411,000th weather balloon / radiosonde
French Southern and Antarctic Territories294f stamp (Mi464)On stamp in booklet pane of 7 (294a-g) and on stamp and in (center) margin of one SS1 (294f); booklet contains 28 stamps (14 in two different booklet panes of 7 and in 14 SS1 with margin design the same as each stamp); also booklet cover and back)2001Weather balloon / radiosonde; "release of the weather balloon" (in text)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNoneCachet on cover2004Two weather balloons launched from meteo (MTO) observatory at Martin de Viviès base
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNoneCachet on cover2007Weather balloon
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNoneCachet on cover2007"Ballon sonde météorologique"
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover2009(small) weather balloon / radiosonde
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover2009Weather balloon / radiosonde
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on cover2009Weather balloon
French Southern and Antarctic Territories495 cover (Mi? cover)(Round rubber-stamp) cachet on cover2015weather balloon / radiosonde
Gabon170 fdc (Mi196 fdc)('FDC') cachet on FDC1964Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
GermanyNonePostcard back, also front1918Early instrumented balloon (possibly carrying a meteorograph)
Germany (East)NoneCancel and cachet on cover1986Sounding balloon, 1911-1912 German Antarctic expedition
Germany (West)None(Blue) cachet on cover1981Weather balloon / radiosonde (above the ship's stern)
Ghana503 (Mi520A)
i503 (Mi520B)

Imperforate
1973Weather balloon / parachute / radar reflector / radiosonde with vertical sequencer2 (with cups)
Ghanai503-i506 fdcOne of four imperforate stamps on FDC
Ghanai507 fdc (BL51B fdc)(ArtCraft) cachet on FDCWeather balloon
Gilbert and Ellice Islands220 (Mi215)1973Weather balloon / radiosonde / radar reflector
Gilbert and Ellice Islands218-221 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
Great BritainNoneInstrument return card, also back1982Radiosonde instrument return card
Great BritainNoneInstrument return card (different), also back1982Radiosonde instrument return card
Great BritainNoneInstrument return card, also back1983Radiosonde instrument return card
Great BritainNoneInstrument return card (different), also back1983Radiosonde instrument return card
GreeceNoneCachet (design and color based on UN 49) on WMD cover1970Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
GreeceNoneCachet (design and color based on UN 50) on WMD cover1970Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Greenland268-269 fdc (Mi247-248 fdc)Cachet on FDC1994Wegener's weather balloon, 1906-1908 Danish Greenland expedition (same design as Denmark 1004)
GreenlandUnknown (Mi?)2017Weather balloon
GreenlandUnknown fdcOne of two stamps and cancel and cachet on FDC
Grenada493 (Mi519)1973Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde with vertical sequencer2 (with cups)
Hungary1664 (Mi2106A)
i1664 (Mi2106B)

Imperforate
1965Weather balloon / parachute / radar reflector / radiosonde
Hungary1660+1662-1665 fdc
i1660+i1662-i1665 fdc
One of five stamps on FDC
One of five imperforate stamps on FDC
Indonesia840 fdc (Mi728 fdc)Cachet on FDC1973Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde with horizontal sequencer2 (with 4 vanes that are angled for half their area)
Iraq644 (Mi716)1972Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde with horizontal sequencer2 (uncertain design; may be 4 angled vanes or 4 cups)
Iraq645 (Mi717)
Ivory Coast213 (Mi266)1964Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Ivory Coast213 fdc1Stamp and (Éditions So.Ge.Im.) cachet (same design as stamp) on FDC
Ivory Coast213 fdc2Stamp and ('FDC') cachet on FDC
Ivory Coast213 fdc3Stamp and (PJ) cachet on FDC
Jamaica746 (Mi760)1991Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Jamaica747 (Mi761)
Jamaica746-747 fdcTwo stamps and (reproductions of stamps on) cachet on FDC
Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania260 (Mi248)1973Weather balloon / parachute / radar reflector / radiosonde with (possible) horizontal sequencer2 (indeterminate whether cups or vanes)
Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania259-262 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania cancel)
Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania259-262 fdc2One of four stamps on FDC (Kampala, Uganda cancel)
Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania259-262 cardPresentation card
Korea (South)2142 (Mi2398)From MS20 (2142b (20x 2142))2004Symbolic weather balloon (light-blue shape)
Korea (South)2142aImperforate MS4 (4x i2142)
Korea (South)2142 fdcStamp on FDC
Kuwait272 (Mi269)1965Weather balloon / parachute / radar reflector / radiosonde
Kuwait273 (Mi270)
Kuwait274 (Mi271)
Kuwait272-274 fdc1Three stamps on FDC
Kuwait272-274 fdc2Three stamps on FDC (different)
Kuwait1132 (Mi1224)1990Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Kuwait1133 (Mi1225)
Kuwait1134 (Mi1226)
Kuwait1132-1134 fdcThree stamps on FDC
Libya276 (Mi185)1965Four weather balloons
Libya277 (Mi186)
Libya278 (Mi187)
Libya276-278 fdc1Three stamps and cachet on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc2Three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc3Three stamps and cachet (different color) on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc4Three stamps on FDC
Libya276-278 fdc5Three stamps on FDC (different), also insert
Libya276-278 fdc6Three stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Libya359 (Mi274)1969Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Libya359 fdc1Stamp on FDC
Libya359 fdc2Stamp on FDC (different)
Libya359 fdc3Stamp and cachet on FDC(As above for stamp); cachet has same design as UN 49 and 50
Libya507-508 fdc (Mi423-424 fdc)Cachet on FDC1973Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde; cachet has same design as UN 49 and 50
Macedonia185 fdc (Mi194 fdc)Cachet on FDC2000Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Mali45 (Mi62)
i45

Imperforate
1963Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Mali46 (Mi63)
Mali47 (Mi64)
Mali45-47 fdc1Three stamps on FDC ('FDC' cachet)
Mali45-47 fdc2Three stamps and (Éditions So.Ge.Im.) cachet on FDC
Mali45-47 fdc3Three stamps and (PJ) cachet on FDC
Mauritania175 fdc (Mi229 fdc)('FDC') cachet on FDC1964Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
MexicoC323 fdc (Mi1227 fdc)Cachet on FDC, also detail1967"Globo sonda"; Weather balloon / radiosonde with horizontal sequencer2 (possibly with cups)
Namibia690 (Mi698)1991Weather balloon / radiosonde
Namibia690-693 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC, also insert
Namibia690-693 fdc2One of four stamps on FDC (different)
New ZealandNoneCachet on cover1961Weather balloon (same design as NZ cover 1978; for another use see Argentina cover 1970)
New ZealandNoneCachet on cover1978Weather balloon (same design as NZ cover 1961; for another use see Argentina cover 1970)
New Zealand794 (Mi892)1984Weather balloon / radiosonde
New Zealand791-794 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
New Zealand794 fdcStamp and (Benham) cachet on FDC
New Zealand794a (Mi889-892)MS4 (791-794)
New Zealand794a cover1MS4 on cover1985Weather balloon / radiosonde
New Zealand794a cover2MS4 on cover (different)
NigerC41 fdc (Mi70 fdc)(Brown) cachet on FDC1964Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde; cachet has same design as UN 49 and 50
Norway1500 (BL34)In (lower-left) margin of MS2 (1500 (a-b)) (BL34)2007Weather balloon
Norway1500 fdcMS2 on FDC
Norway1500 folderMS2 in FDC folder
Poland2976 (Mi3275)1990Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Poland2976-2977 fdcStamp on FDC
Portugal1114 (Mi1147)1971Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Portugal1113-1115 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Qatar348 (Mi562)1973Weather balloon / parachute / radar reflector / radiosonde with vertical sequencer2 (probably cups)
RomaniaNoneCachet on stamped envelope1984Weather balloon / radiosonde
Russia (USSR)1765 (Mi1791)1955(faint) Weather balloon
Russia (USSR)1766 (Mi1792)
Russia (USSR)2091 (Mi2104)1958Weather balloon / radiosonde
Russia (USSR)2091 cover (Mi2104 cover)Stamp on cover1958Weather balloon / radiosonde; also International Geophysical Year (IGY)
Russia (USSR)1766 cover (Mi1792 cover)Stamp on cover1959(faint) Weather balloon
Russia (USSR)2234 (Mi2260)1959Weather balloon
Russia (USSR)2235 (Mi2261)Weather balloon / radiosonde
Russia (USSR)2495 (Mi2500)1961Weather balloon / radiosonde
Russia (USSR)None(Lower-right purple rubber-stamp) cachet on stamped envelope~1961Weather balloon
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on cover1961Weather balloon / radiosonde with horizontal sequencer2 (whirling); "10,000 radiosonde launches, 30-3-1961" from North Pole-8 Arctic drifting station
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on cover (no stamp, different cancel)
Russia (USSR)3700 (Mi3728)1970Weather balloon
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1979Weather balloon / radiosonde, 50 years of Soviet radiosondes
Russia (USSR)4898 (Mi5029)1981Weather balloon / radiosonde
Russia (USSR)4898 fdcStamp on FDC
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1982Weather balloon / radiosonde
Russia (USSR)None(Printed) Cachet on stamped envelope1982Weather balloon / radiosonde
Russia (USSR)NoneCancel and cachet on postal card1984Weather balloon / radiosonde
Russia (USSR)NoneCancel (different) and cachet (same) on postal card1984Weather balloon / radiosonde
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1985Weather balloon / radiosonde
Russia (USSR)None(Red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1987Weather balloon / radiosonde
RussiaNone(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover; also same violet cachet1991Weather balloon / radiosonde
RussiaNone(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on stamped envelope1991Weather balloon
RussiaNone(Square rubber-stamp) cachet on stamped envelope1992Weather balloon
RussiaNoneCachet on cover1993Balloon launch from Molodezhnaya Antarctic base
RussiaNoneCachet on cover1994Weather balloon / radiosonde
RussiaNoneCachet1994Weather balloon / radiosonde
Russia6575a (BL30)In margin of MS5 (6571-6575 + label)2000Weather balloon
RussiaY1081100 roubles (silver coin)2007Weather balloon
Russia7206 cover (Mi? cover)Cachet on cover2011Weather balloon / radiosonde
RussiaNoneCachet on stamped envelope2011Weather balloon
St. Pierre and Miquelon431 (Mi495A)
i431 (Mi495B)

Imperforate
1974Weather balloon / parachute / radar reflector
St. Pierre and Miquelon431 fdcStamp and ('FDC') cachet on FDC
St. Pierre and Miquelon431 dsDeluxe sheet (431)
Salvador, El1195-1196 fdc (Mi1738-1739 fdc)Cachet on FDC1989Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Saudi Arabia456 (Mi389)1967Weather balloon / radiosonde with horizontal sequencer2 emphasized (probably 4 angled vanes)
Saudi Arabia457 (Mi390)
Saudi Arabia458 (Mi391)
Saudi Arabia459 (Mi392)
Saudi Arabia460 (Mi393)
Saudi Arabia456-460 fdcFive stamps on FDC
Saudi Arabia670 (Mi577)1975Weather balloon / radar reflector
SenegalC62 (Mi372)
iC62

Imperforate
1968Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde with vertical sequencer2 (probably cups)
SenegalC62 proof1Signed proof (green)
SenegalC62 proof2Signed proof (blue)
SenegalC62 fdcStamp on FDC
SenegalC62 dsDeluxe sheet (C62)
Senegal1442 (Mi1953)
i1442

Imperforate
2000Weather balloon / radiosonde
Senegal1442 dsDeluxe sheet (1442)
South AfricaNoneCachet on cover1979Balloon tethersonde
South Africa613 (Mi629)1983Weather balloon
South Africa613 maxi1Stamp and cachet on maxicard
South Africa613 maxi2Stamp and cachet (different) on maxicard
South Africa610-613 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC
South Africa610-613 fdc2One of four stamps on FDC (different)
South AfricaNoneCachet on cover1995Weather balloon / radiosonde
SpainNone(Printed) cachet on cover1979Weather balloon / radiosonde
SpainNoneAerogramme1999Weather balloon / radiosonde
Staffa (Scotland)LocalLocal post stamp1978Weather balloon
Staffa (Scotland)Local fdcLocal post stamp on FDC
Staffa (Scotland)Local sheetLocal post FDC on information sheet
SyriaC452 (Mi1097)1970Weather balloon / radiosonde with (possible) horizontal sequencer2 (indeterminate whether cups or vanes)
SyriaC453 (Mi1098)
Thailand1173 (Mi1196)One of booklet pane of 5 (1173a (5x 1173))1987Weather balloon / radiosonde
Thailand1461 (Mi1479)1992Weather balloon / radiosonde
Thailand1472 (Mi1498)From strip of 5 (1472a (5x 1472)), also booklet of 51992Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Thailand1472 fdc1Stamp on FDC (two cancels), also insert
Thailand1472 fdc2Stamp on FDC
Tunisia441 fdc (Mi633 fdc)('FDC') cachet on FDC1964Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
United Nations49 (Mi55)1957Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
United Nations49 maxiMaxicard
United Nations49 fdc1Stamp and (C. George) cachet on FDC
United Nations49 fdc2Stamp and (C. George) cachet (different color) on FDC
United Nations49 fdc3Stamp and cachet (different) on FDC
United Nations49 fdc4Stamp and (Ken Boll/Cachet Craft) cachet on FDC
United Nations49 fdc5Stamp and (Fleetwood) cachet on FDC (3-line cancel)
United Nations49 fdc6Stamp and (Fleetwood) cachet (same) on FDC (4-line cancel)
United Nations49 fdc7Stamp and (velvet) cachet on FDC
United Nations49 fdc8Stamp and (Artmaster) cachet on FDC
United Nations49 fdc9Stamp on FDC (ArtCraft cachet)
United Nations50 (Mi56)
United Nations50 fdc1Stamp and (ArtCraft) cachet on FDC (3-line cancel)
United Nations50 fdc2Stamp and (ArtCraft) cachet (same) on FDC (4-line cancel)
United Nations50 fdc3Stamp and (C. George) cachet on FDC
United Nations50 fdc4Stamp and (C. George) cachet (different color) on FDC
United Nations50 fdc5Stamp and (velvet) cachet on FDC
United Nations50 fdc6Stamp and (Fleetwood) cachet on FDC
United Nations50 fdc7Stamp and (Artmaster) cachet on FDC
United Nations50 fdc8Stamp on FDC (Ken Boll/Cachet Craft cachet)
United Nations50 fdc9Stamp on FDC (Ken Boll/Cachet Craft cachet, different colors)
United Nations50 fdc10Stamp on FDC (The Aristocrats/Day Lowry cachet)
United Nations49-50 fdc1Two stamps on FDC (ArtCraft cachet)
United Nations49-50 fdc2Two stamps and (ArtCraft) cachet on FDC
United Nations49-50 fdc3Two stamps and (Rank II) cachet on FDC
United Nations49-50 fdc4Two stamps and (Fleetwood) cachet on FDC
United Nations49-50 fdc5Two stamps and (Knoble) cachet on FDC
United Nations49-50 fdc6Two stamps on FDC (printed cachet)
United Nations49-50 fdc7Two stamps on FDC (Ken Boll/Cachet Craft cachet)
United Nations49-50 fdc8Two stamps on FDC (Ken Boll/Cachet Craft black cachet)
United Nations49-50 fdc9Two stamps and (The Aristocrats/Day Lowry) cachet on FDC
United Nations188 fdc1 (Mi204 fdc1)(ArtCraft) cachet on FDC (2-line cancel), also detail1968Weather balloon
United Nations188 fdc2 (Mi204 fdc2)(ArtCraft) cachet (same) on FDC (3-line cancel), also detail
United Nations188-189 fdc (Mi204-205 fdc)(ArtCraft) cachet on FDC, also detail
United Nations49-50 cover (Mi55-56 cover)Two stamps on FDC1974Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
United Nations550 fdc (Mi575 fdc)(Fleetwood) cachet on FDC1989Weather balloon
United Nations551 fdc (Mi576 fdc)(Fleetwood) cachet (same) on FDC
Upper Volta130 fdc (Mi145 fdc)('FDC') cachet on FDC1964Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Upper VoltaC63 (Mi258)
iC63

Imperforate
1969Weather balloon / radiosonde
Upper VoltaC63 dsDeluxe sheet (C63)
Upper VoltaC63 proof1Signed proof (green)
Upper VoltaC63 proof2Signed proof (brown)
Upper VoltaC63 fdcStamp on FDC (Éditions So.Ge.Im. cachet)
Vanuatu565 (Mi889)1992Weather balloon / radiosonde
Vanuatu565-568 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
Vietnam (South)235 (Mi312)1964Weather balloon / parachute / radiosonde
Vietnam (South)236 (Mi313)
Vietnam (South)237 (Mi314)
Vietnam (South)238 (Mi315)
Vietnam (South)238 dsDeluxe sheet (238)
Vietnam (South)235-238 fdc1Four stamps and cachet on FDC
Vietnam (South)235-238 fdc2Four stamps and cachet (different color) on FDC
Vietnam (South)235-238 fdc3Four stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Vietnam (South)235-238 fdc4Four stamps and cachet (different color) on FDC
Vietnam (South)235-238 fdc5Four stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Vietnam (South)235-238 fdc6Four stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Vietnam (South)235-238 fdc5Four stamps on FDC
Vietnam (South)235-238 fdc6Four stamps on FDC (different)
Vietnam (South)235-238 fdc7Four stamps on FDC (different)
Vietnam (South)235-238 fdc8Four stamps on FDC (different)
Vietnam (South)235-238 fdc11Four stamps on FDC (different)
Vietnam (South)235-238 fdc12Four stamps on FDC (different)
Vietnam (South)447 fdc1 (Mi525 fdc1)(Black and white) cachet on FDC1973Weather balloon / parachute / radar reflector / radiosonde
Vietnam (South)447 fdc2 (Mi525 fdc2)(Green and red) cachet on FDC
Vietnam (South)447 fdc3 (Mi525 fdc3)(Orange) cachet on FDC
Vietnam (South)447 fdc4 (Mi525 fdc4)(Yellow and green) cachet on FDC
Vietnam (South)447 fdc5 (Mi525 fdc5)(Yellow and red) cachet on FDC
Vietnam (South)447 fdc6 (Mi525 fdc6)(Blue and red) cachet on FDC
Vietnam (South)447 fdc7 (Mi525 fdc7)(Red) cachet on FDC
Vietnam (South)447 fdc8 (Mi525 fdc8)Cachet (different) on FDC
Vietnam (South)447 fdc9 (Mi525 fdc9)Cachet (different color) on FDC
Vietnam (South)447 folder1Cachet from FDC folder, also inside
Vietnam (South)447 folder2Cachet from FDC folder (different color)
Vietnam (South)447 folder3Cachet from FDC folder (different color)
Vietnam (South)447 scCachet from souvenir card
Vietnam2338 (Mi2413)
i2338

Imperforate
1992Weather balloon / radiosonde
Vietnam2338-2339 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
Ozonesondes (ozone sounding balloons)
Ozone-related items, other than ozonesondes, are found on the ozone page.
ArgentinaNoneCachet on cover1988Ozonesonde and Antarctic ozone hole; also radiosonde (in right cachet)
ArgentinaNoneCachet on cover1990Ozonesonde; recommencement of ozone soundings at Vicecomodoro Marambio Meteorological Station
ArgentinaNone(Purple) cachet on cover, or in more detail in this black version1993"Ozonesonde" (in Spanish text); also weather balloon / radiosonde (in (upper-right) cachet)
British Antarctic Territory176 (Mi177)1991Ozonesonde "balloon launch at Halley IV"
British Antarctic Territory176-179 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC, also insert and insert back
Burundi1113b (Mi?)One of MS4 (1113 (a-d)), also detail2012"Release of ozonesonde balloons at the South Pole" (in French text)
Burundi1113b ss (BL?)On stamp of SS1 (1113b)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC115 (Mi277A)
iC115 (Mi277B)
One of strip of 2 (C116a (C115-C116 + label)), or five of MS10 (C116b (5x 166a (115-116)))
One of imperforate strip of 2 (iC116a (iC115-iC116 + label))
1991Ozonesonde balloon for ozone study
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC115 fdcStamp on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC116a fdc1One of strip of 2 on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC116a fdc2One of strip of 2 and cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC116a fdc3One of strip of 2 and cachet (different) on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC116a fdc4One of strip of 2 on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC116a scSouvenir card
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC116a cover (Mi277-278 cover)One of strip of 2 and (blue-green) cachet (detail of same cachet, except black) on cover1991(As above for stamp); "Terre Adélie ozonosondage 1990-1991" (referring to ozonesonde launches from the Dumont d'Urville station, in cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Dark-blue) cachet (detail of same cachet, except black) on cover1991"Terre Adélie ozonosondage 1990-1991" (referring to ozonesonde launches from the Dumont d'Urville station)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1991Ozonesonde and "Terre Adélie ozonosondage 1990-1991" (referring to ozonesonde launches from the Dumont d'Urville station)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories206 cover (Mi334 cover)Cachet on cover1996"Ozonosondage" at Dumont d'Urville base, Antarctica
French Southern and Antarctic Territories224 cover (Mi359 cover)(Balloon-shaped) cachet on cover1998"Sondages ozone" at Dumont d'Urville base, Antarctica
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Balloon-shaped) cachet on cover1999"Sondages ozone" at Dumont d'Urville base, Antarctica
French Southern and Antarctic Territories304+315 cover (Mi? cover)Cachet on cover2003Ozonesonde; also O3
French Southern and Antarctic Territories331 cover (Mi? cover)Cachet on cover2004Ozonesonde; also O3
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNoneCachet on cover2007Antarctic ozone soundings [by balloon] (in French text); also O3
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Printed and blue rubber-stamp) cachets on cover2015Ozonesondes; "23 juillet 2015 - sondage ozone"; also graphic based on the ozonesonde data with a vertical profile of ozone partial pressure in mPa
Germany (East) / Russia (USSR)NoneCancel and (black) cachet on cover (with Russian stamp)1989Ozonesonde
Germany (East)NoneCancel and (violet) cachet on cover1989Ozonesonde
Pilot balloons (pibals) and tracking theodolites
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL6 fdc (Mi? fdc)(WCS) cachet on FDC1961(Possible) pilot balloon tracking theodolite (no balloon depicted)
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL6 fdc1Stamp and (WCS) cachet on FDC (Adelaide cancel)
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL6 fdc2Stamp and (WCS) cachet (same) on FDC (Melbourne cancel)
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL6 fdc3Stamp on FDC
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL14 (Mi16)1966Pilot balloon and tracking theodolite
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL12+L14 cover (Mi12+14 cover)One of two different stamps on cover1979Pilot balloon and tracking theodolite
BelgiumB799 (Mi1450)1966(possible) pilot balloon and tracking theodolite, 1963-1965 Belgian Antarctic expedition
BelgiumB797+B799 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
BelgiumB797-B800+B800 stamp folderFDC folder
British Antarctic Territory82-85 fdc (Mi84-87 fdc)Cachet on FDC1981Pilot balloon tracking theodolite (no balloon depicted)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories8 (Mi10)1957Pilot balloon tracking theodolite (no balloon depicted)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories9 (Mi11)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories10 (Mi12)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories189 (Mi312)One of pair (189a (188-189 + label)) (Mi311-312)1993Pilot balloon tracking theodolite; also pilot balloon (on maxicard cachet)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories189 maxiMaxicard
French Southern and Antarctic Territories189a fdcOne of pair on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic Territories189a sheetInformation sheet
Germany (East)NoneCachet (reproduction of Russia 1767) on cover1962Pilot balloon tracking theodolite (no balloon depicted)
RomaniaB415 (Mi1167)See balloon detail1948Pilot balloon and tracking theodolite
RomaniaB416a (BL38)Imperforate MS4 (B413-B416), colors (slightly) changed
RomaniaNonePostal card1998Pilot balloon tracking theodolite (no balloon depicted), 1898-1899 Belgica Antarctic expedition
Ross Dependency (New Zealand)L97 (Mi?)2006Triangular pilot balloon and tracking theodolite
Russia (USSR)1767 (Mi?)1955Pilot balloon tracking theodolite (no balloon depicted)
Russia (USSR)1767a (BL27)MS4 (4x 1767)
Russia (USSR)1767b (BL30)MS4 (1767a (4x 1767)) overprinted in red1962Pilot balloon tracking theodolite (no balloon depicted)
Russia (USSR)1767b fdcMS4 on FDC
Russia (USSR)3251 fdc (Mi3275 fdc)Cachet on FDC1966Pilot balloon
Russia7189 (Mi?)2009Pilot balloon
Russia7189 fdcStamp on FDC
South Africa613 maxi (Mi629 maxi)Cachet on maxicard1987Pilot balloon tracking theodolite (no pilot balloon depicted, instead a weather balloon with radar reflector and radiosonde)
United Nations188 fdc (Mi204 fdc)(Cachet Craft) cachet on FDC, also theodolite detail1968Pilot balloon with (possible) light for night launch, and tracking theodolite
United StatesUX57 fdc1(Cachet Craft Cachets) cachet on FDC1970Pilot balloon with (possible) light for night launch
United StatesUX57 fdc2(ArtCraft) cachet on FDCPilot balloon and tracking theodolite
Weather balloon tracking antennas and tracking equipment
(See also APT-like (multiple-helix and multiple-Yagi) tracking antennas on the APT page.)
ArgentinaNoneCachet on cover1984Weather balloon tracking antenna
ArgentinaNoneCachet on cover1988Weather balloon tracking antenna
Belize972 (Mi1071)1991Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
China (Taiwan)2222 (Mi1374)1981(possible) weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome on building
China (Taiwan)2221-2222 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
China (Taiwan)2221-2222 folderOne of two stamps (not shown in image) in FDC folder
China (Taiwan)3574k_1 (Mi2986-2995)In (lower) margin of MS10 (3574k (a-j + 10 labels))2004Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome on roof of Central Weather Bureau (CWB) HQ in Taipei
China (Taiwan)3574k_2 (Mi2986-2995)In (lower) margin of MS10 (3574k (a-j + 7 labels)) (different)
China (Taiwan)3574k_3 (Mi2986-2995)In (lower) margin of MS10 (3574k (a-j + 5 labels)) (different)
Czechoslovakia837 maxi (Mi1056 maxi)On maxicard background only1957(possible) weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
French Southern and Antarctic Territories100+111 cover (Mi? cover)(Round rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1985(possible) weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Annotated) cachet on cover1986Weather balloon tracking antenna
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Round rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1991(possible) weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Round rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1992(possible) weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
French Southern and Antarctic Territories333 (Mi?)2004Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome at Alfred Faure base (on building at back of the group of buildings)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories437 (Mi?)2011Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome at Martin de Viviès base (atop building at upper right in background)
Germany (East)None(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1984Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome (on hillock in background)
Germany (West)NoneCancel1979(possible) weather balloon tracking antenna
Gilbert and Ellice Islands220 (Mi215)1973Wind-finding (weather balloon tracking) radar
Gilbert and Ellice Islands218-221 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
Great BritainNone(Maia, The Band, private advertising) cinderella2012Weather balloon tracking antenna (at lower right, but no balloon visible); (design similar to Russia 2235, in which the balloon is visible)
Korea (North)2998 (Mi3201)1991Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
Korea (North)3545 (Mi?)In (right) margin of MS2 (a-b)1996Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
Korea (North)3545 fdcMS2 on FDC
Malagasy RepublicC78 (Mi519)
iC78

Imperforate
1964(probable) weather balloon tracking antenna (feedhorn missing, or not visible); the same type of antenna is found in the (Fleetwood) cachet of UN 49 fdc1 and 49 fdc2
Malagasy RepublicC78 dsDeluxe sheet (C78)
Malagasy RepublicC78 proof1Signed proof (green)
Malagasy RepublicC78 proof2Signed proof (black)
Malagasy RepublicC78 fdc1Stamp on FDC (PJ cachet)
Malagasy RepublicC78 fdc2Stamp on FDC ('FDC' cachet)
Malagasy RepublicC78 fdc3Stamp and (Éditions So.Ge.Im.) cachet on FDC
NigerC55 (Mi117)
iC55

Imperforate
1966Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome on stern of ship
NigerC55 dsDeluxe sheet (C55)
NigerC55 proofSigned proof
NigerC55 proof-pairColor proof pair
NigerC55 maxiMaxicard
NigerC55 fdcStamp on FDC (printed cachet)
Panama457D (Mi782)1964Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
Panama457D specimenOverprinted "specimen"
RomaniaNonePostal card2007Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
Russia (USSR)2235 (Mi2261)1959Weather balloon tracking antenna; see also Great Britain cinderella 2012
Russia (USSR)NonePostal card1981Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on postal card (Moscow cancel)1984Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet (same) on postal card (Tallinn cancel)1984Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on cover1994Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
Russia6575a (BL30)In (lower-left) margin of MS5 (6571-6575 + label)2000Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
Russia6939 (Mi1304)2005Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
Russia6939-6941 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Russia6941a (BL?)On selvedge of MS6 (6936-6941)
RussiaNoneCancel2006Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
Russia7140 cachet (Mi1549 cachet)(Green rubber-stamp) cachet on 7140 fdc, or on 7140a fdc2009Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
RussiaNoneCachet on cover2010Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
SpainNone(Printed) cachet on cover1979Weather balloon tracking antenna
UkraineNone(Multi-color printed) cachet on cover1999Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
United Nations49 fdc1 (Mi55 fdc1)(Fleetwood) cachet on FDC (3-line cancel)1957Weather balloon tracking antenna and tracking equipment; the same type of antenna is found in Malagasy Republic C78
United Nations49 fdc2 (Mi55 fdc2)(Fleetwood) cachet (same) on FDC (4-line cancel)
United Nations49-50 fdc1(Fleetwood) cachet (same) on FDC
United Nations49-50 fdc2(The Aristocrats/Day Lowry) cachet on FDCWeather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome
United States1431 fdc (Mi? fdc)(Fleetwood) cachet on cover1971Weather balloon tracking antenna shelter dome (in background)
Eole-program isentropic balloons1 (from Argentina) and other isentropic balloons
Argentina977 (Mi1127)1972Eole-program balloon
Argentina977 fdc1Stamp on FDC
Argentina977 fdc2Stamp on FDC (different)
Argentina977 fdc3Stamp on FDC (different)
Argentina977 cardStamp in FDC card
Argentina977 folderStamp in FDC folder (partial)
Argentina977 scSouvenir card (Buenos Aires cancel)
Argentina977 scSouvenir card (Rosario cancel)
Argentina977 cover1 (Mi1127 cover1)Stamp on cover1972Eole-program balloon
Argentina977 cover2 (Mi1127 cover2)Stamp on cover (different)
Argentina977 cover3 (Mi1127 cover3)Stamp on cover (different)
Argentina977 cover (Mi1127 cover)Stamp on cover1973Eole-program balloon
Argentina977 cover (Mi1127 cover)Stamp on cover1974Eole-program balloon
Argentina977 cover1 (Mi1127 cover1)Stamp on cover1975Eole-program balloon
Argentina977 cover2 (Mi1127 cover2)Stamp on cover (different)
Central African RepublicC115 (Mi326A)
iC115 (Mi326N)

Imperforate
1973Eole-program balloon; also Eole satellite
Central African RepublicC115 proof1Signed proof (blue)
Central African RepublicC115 proof2Signed proof (black)
Central African RepublicC115 proof3Signed proof (red)
Central African RepublicC115 proofsColor proof strip
Central African RepublicC115 fdcStamp on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC50 (Mi128)
iC50
Also annotated
Imperforate
1979FGGE tropical constant level balloon (an isentropic balloon); the balloon data were collected by a NOAA/ATN satellite as part of "Programme Argos"
Mali174 (Mi331)
i174

Imperforate
1972Eole-program balloon
Mali174 dsDeluxe sheet (174)
Mali174 fdcStamp and (printed) cachet on FDC
Un-manned stratospheric balloons
AjmanMi1257A
Mi1257B

Imperforate
1972Apparent Earth-based test of a stratospheric balloon that could be used in future exploration of Mars
ArgentinaNoneCachet on cover1974Stratospheric balloon launch from Orcadas Meteorological Observatory
Argentina977 cover (Mi1127 cover)Cachet (same) on cover (different)1974Stratospheric balloon launch from Orcadas Meteorological Observatory
ArgentinaNoneCachet (same) on cover (different)1974Stratospheric balloon launch from Orcadas Meteorological Observatory
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serb Admin.)126g (Mi191)One of booklet pane of 7 (126 (a-g + 2 labels)) (Mi185-191), also selvedge detail2000(possible) stratospheric balloon and payload
Brazil955 cover (Mi1031 cover)Cachet on cover1965Stratospheric balloon
Canada376 fdc1 (Mi323 fdc1)(Blue and red printed) cachet on FDC (Ottawa cancel)1958Stratospheric balloon
Canada376 fdc2 (Mi323 fdc2)(Blue and red printed) cachet (same) on FDC (Kitchener cancel)
China (People's Republic)None(Printed) cachet on cover, also back1990Stratospheric balloon
Comoro Islands789 (BL365)In (right) margin of SS11992Stratospheric balloon
FranceNoneCachet on cover1977Stratospheric balloon
France-Corsica-BastiaNone1Local post1, from MS4 (4x local1)1988Stratospheric balloon
France-Corsica-BastiaNone2Local post (different), from MS4 (4x local2)
France-Corsica-BastiaNone2 specimenLocal post2, overprinted "specimen"
French Southern and Antarctic Territories24 (Mi29)1963Stratospheric balloon
French Southern and Antarctic Territories24 proofColor proof
French Southern and Antarctic Territories24 proofsColor proof strip
French Southern and Antarctic Territories24+C6 fdc1Stamp and (green printed) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic Territories24+C6 fdc2Stamp and (blue printed) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC71 cover (Mi? cover)Cachet on cover1983Stratospheric balloon
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC81 (Mi192)One of strip of 2 (C82a (C81-C82 + label)) (Mi192-193)1983Stratospheric balloon
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC82a fdcStrip of 2 and cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic Territories189 maxi (Mi312 maxi)Cachet on maxicard1993Stratospheric balloon
French Southern and Antarctic Territories189a fdc (Mi311-312 fdc)('FDC') cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic Territories468d (Mi785)One of strip of 5 (468 (a-e + 5 labels)) (Mi782-786), or five of MS25 (468f (5x 468 (a-e + 5 labels))2012Antarctic stratospheric balloon (Concordias mission, McMurdo)
Germany (East)371 (Mi616)1958Stratospheric balloon
Germany (East)371-372 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
Germany (West)NoneCachet on cover1994Stratospheric balloon
GermanyNoneCancel2000Stratospheric balloon
ISO (Sweden)Local ssIn (lower-right) margin of imperforate silver local post SS11978Stratospheric balloon
ISO (Sweden)Local ssIn (lower-right) margin of imperforate gold local post SS1
Mongolia372 (Mi378)1965Stratospheric balloon
Mongolia372+375+C7-C8 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
Mozambique946 (Mi1015)1985Stratospheric balloon
RomaniaC281 (Mi4578)1989"[altitude] limit of [stratospheric] balloon: 20 miles"
RomaniaC278+C281-C282 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Sweden1892 (Mi1664)One of booklet pane of 3 (1893a (1891-1893)), with booklet cover, and booklet interior (1893b (2x 1893a)) (MH159, Mi1663-1665)1991Stratospheric balloon
Sweden1893a fdcBooklet pane of 3 on FDC
Sweden1893a folderInside of folder (2x (1893a (1891-1893)))
Sweden1893a blackBlackprint
Sweden2605b (Mi?)On one of pair (2605 (a-b)) (Mi2687-2688), or two of booklet pane of 4 (2605c (2x 2605)), also booklet cover and booklet interior2009Stratospheric balloon
Sweden2605c fdcOn two of four stamps on FDC
United StatesNone(GSFC blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1974Stratospheric balloon
United StatesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1983Stratospheric balloon
Dropsondes
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC92 (Mi218)1986 Dropsondes descending by parachute; also detail of one of the dropsonde instrument packages (in the stamp)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC92 fdcStamp and (purple rubber-stamp) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC92 fdc2Stamp and ('FDC') cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC92 cover (Mi218 cover)Stamp and cachet on cover1986Dropsondes descending by parachute; also detail of one of the dropsonde instrument packages (in the stamp)

1Instrumented long flight-time southern hemispheric Earth-circling constant-density (isentropic) meteorological balloons, launched from different locations in Argentina and tracked by French Eole satellites.
2Sequencers are wind-driven anemometer-like devices used, in lieu of other means, for mechanical switching among the various measurements (pressure, temperature, and humidity) recorded by radiosonde packages. Sequencers can be mounted so that the arms lie in a vertical or a horizontal plane. Since a weather balloon floats with the horizontal wind, no relative horizontal wind is present to turn a sequencer. Therefore, sequencers (either cups in a vertical plane or angled vanes in a horizontal plane) are designed to turn under the influence of the relative vertical wind due to the ascent of the radiosonde.


Below is a list of Weather balloons and other scientific balloons on balloon, satellite, and rocket launch covers.

CountryCancel DateCancel LocationType of ItemNotes on Content
Weather balloons and radiosondes
United States1967-11-06Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on ATS-3 launch cover"Omega signals" being tested for radiosonde balloon navigation as part of the "OPLE7" program
United States1967-11-06Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Orbit Covers) cachet on ATS-3 launch cover
United States1969-08-12Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Orbit Covers, no logo) cachet on ATS-5 launch cover"Omega signals" being tested for radiosonde balloon navigation as part of the "OPLE7" program
United States1969-08-12Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Orbit Covers, no logo) cachet (same) on ATS-5 launch cover
Australia1971-10-12Woomera SACachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"Met[eo] balloon ceiling" (i.e. highest level typically reached by radiosonde balloons) (in text)
United States1974-11-01Las Cruces NM(WSMR Cover no.36) cachet on coverDa Vinci-1 balloon flight8
Ozonesondes (ozone sounding balloons)
United States1975-07-18Palestine TX(Riser pink and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)stratospheric balloon launch; "measurement of ozone concentration" (in text)
Isentropic balloons2
United States1971-08-16Wallops Island VA(Space Voyage) cachet on Eole launch coverEarth as symbolic Eole-program1 balloon
United States1971-08-16Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on Eole launch coverThirteen (13) Eole-program1 balloons
United States1971-08-16Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on Eole launch coverThirteen (13) Eole-program1 balloons
United States1971-08-16Wallops Island VA(Solar Covers no.27) cachet on Eole launch cover, also insert"To collect meteorological information from 500 [isentropic] balloons floating freely in the southern hemisphere"
United States1971-08-16Wallops Island VA(Riser/Andromeda/Cygnus Cover no.5) insert from Eole launch cover, also insert2 and frontcollects and transmits "meteorological data stored in [isentropic] balloons"
Australia1973-03-02Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet on coverrecovery of Boomerang-18 isentropic balloon launched 24 January 1973
Australia1973-03-02Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet (slightly different) on cover
French Guiana1974-02-13Kourou(Lollini) cachet on launch coverIsentrope-1 balloon
French Guiana1974-02-22Kourou(Lollini) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverIsentrope-2 balloon
French Guiana1974-02-22Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
French Guiana1974-02-27Kourou(Lollini) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverIsentrope-3 balloon
French Guiana1974-09-04Kourou(Lollini) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverIsentrope-4 balloon
French Guiana1974-09-04Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
United States1974-05-17Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on SMS-1 launch cover"On radio command from the ground ..., balloon drops sonde to measure local weather, relaying data via balloon and satellite"
French Guiana1974-09-25Kourou(Lollini) cachet on launch coverIsentrope-5 balloon
French Guiana1974-09-25Kourou(Lollini) cachet (different) on launch coverIsentrope-5 balloon
French Guiana1974-10-02Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"Campagne internationale ballons"; also the "SMS" satellite used for data relay
French Guiana1974-10-02Kourou(Lollini printed) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover
French Guiana1974-10-16Kourou(Lollini) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"Campagne internationale ballons"; also the "SMS" satellite used for data relay
French Guiana1974-10-30Kourou(Lollini) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"Campagne internationale ballons" (in text only); also an incorrect drawing of the "SMS" satellite used for data relay
United States1975-02-06Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on SMS-2 launch cover"On radio command from the ground ..., balloon drops sonde to measure local weather, relaying data via balloon and satellite"
French Guiana1975-10-03Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverProgram of 13 CBS4 missions, from 7 July 1974 to 6 November 1975 (including one launch on 3 October 1975, the date of these covers)
French Guiana1975-10-03Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
United States1975-10-16Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on GOES-1 launch cover"Campagne internationale ballons"; also the SMS satellite used for data relay
United States1975-10-16Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on GOES-1 launch cover (different)
United States1977-06-16Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on GOES-2 launch coverIsentropic balloon probably used for data relay in the GOES data collection system
Un-manned stratospheric balloons (scientific, but non-isentropic)
(Selected) launch covers depicting or referring to stratospheric balloons. No attempt is made to be complete. Additional stratospheric balloon items can be found associated with Viking pre-launch, Pioneer-12/13 pre-launch, Galileo pre-launch, and COS-B pre-launch events.
United States1962-12-13Holloman AFB, NM(SpaceCraft) cachet on cover, also insert"Stargazer" stratospheric balloon launch
United States1963-03-01Palestine TX(Zaso? sticker) cachet on coverStratoscope-II balloon launch (the first successful mission after a failed test in December, 1962). The goal was to obtain information on water vapour and CO2 in the Martian atmosphere through IR spectroscopic measurements made from the balloon at an altitude of 80,000 feet (~24 km).
United States1963-03-01Palestine TX(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on cover
United States1963-03-01Palestine TX(Red printed) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.1)
United States1963-03-01
1964-11-05
Palestine TX
Satellite Beach FL
(Rank velvet, brown printing) cachet on coverStratoscope-II balloon launch (the first successful mission after a failed test in December, 1962). The goal was to obtain information on water vapour and CO2 in the Martian atmosphere through IR spectroscopic measurements made from the balloon at an altitude of 80,000 feet (~24 km).
Mariner-3 launch
United States1963-03-01
1964-11-05
Palestine TX
Satellite Beach FL
(Rank velvet, green printing) cachet on coverStratoscope-II balloon launch (the first successful mission after a failed test in December, 1962). The goal was to obtain information on water vapour and CO2 in the Martian atmosphere through IR spectroscopic measurements made from the balloon at an altitude of 80,000 feet (~24 km).
Mariner-3 launch
United States1963-03-01
1964-11-28
Palestine TX
Satellite Beach FL
(Rank velvet) cachet on coverStratoscope-II balloon launch (the first successful mission after a failed test in December, 1962). The goal was to obtain information on water vapour and CO2 in the Martian atmosphere through IR spectroscopic measurements made from the balloon at an altitude of 80,000 feet (~24 km).
Mariner-4 launch
United States1963-03-01
1964-11-28
Palestine TX
Satellite Beach FL
(Rank velvet) cachet (different) on coverStratoscope-II balloon launch (the first successful mission after a failed test in December, 1962). The goal was to obtain information on water vapour and CO2 in the Martian atmosphere through IR spectroscopic measurements made from the balloon at an altitude of 80,000 feet (~24 km).
Mariner-4 launch
United States1963-08-13Palestine TX(Red rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverstratospheric balloon launch
United States1967-07-15Palestine TX(Red rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover, common design3 (no.1)stratospheric balloon launch
United States1967-08-29Palestine TX(Blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.1)Stratospheric balloon "flight to measure gamma radiation"
Australia1969-04-24Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet on (airmail) coverstratospheric balloon launches, 17-24 April 1969
Australia1969-10-23Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch
United States1970-03-26Palestine TX(Riser/Andromeda Cover no.7) cachet on cover, also insertStratoscope-II balloon launch
United States1970-10-20Palestine TX(Riser magenta and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)stratospheric balloon launch
United States1971-01-19Palestine TX(Riser cyan and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)stratospheric balloon launch: "To test an Omega radio dropsonde wind measurement system"
United States1971-05-13Palestine TX(Riser cyan and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)stratospheric balloon launch
United States1971-05-25Palestine TX(Riser cyan and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)Stratospheric balloon mission to measure neutrons produced during solar flares
United States1971-08-07Palestine TX(Riser cyan and black and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)stratospheric balloon launch
United States1971-09-10Huntsville AL(Space Voyage) cachet on cover, also insertStratoscope-II balloon launch (1971 was the last year of use of this balloon)
United States1971-09-10Huntsville AL(Printed) cachet on coverStratoscope-II balloon launch (1971 was the last year of use of this balloon)
Australia1971-09-17Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch
Australia1971-09-25Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch
Australia1971-10-13Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch for air and dust sampling
United States1972-04-15Palestine TX(Riser purple and cyan rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)Stratospheric balloon mission to test the LCPS (Laser Cloud Particle Size Spectrometer), an instrument that was flown by the Pioneer-Venus missions in 1978
United States1972-05-03Palestine TX(Riser cyan-grey and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)Stratospheric balloon with BUSS (Balloon-Borne UV Stellar Spectrometer)
Australia1972-09-28Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch for astronomical study
United States1972-10-02Palestine TX(Riser purple and cyan rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)Stratospheric balloon with MIT spectrometer to measure isotropic background radiation at 44 km altitude
Australia1972-10-19Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch for air and dust sampling
Australia1972-12-04Longreach QLD(Printed) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch
Australia1973-01-16Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet on coverCSIRO5 stratospheric balloon launch for cloud physics and upper atmosphere water vapour research
United States1973-05-13Palestine TX(Riser blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)stratospheric balloon launch (astronomical mission)
United States1973-05-14Palestine TX(Riser red and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)stratospheric balloon launch (astronomical mission)
Australia1973-08-10Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch with acoustic sounder for temperature inversion observations
United States1973-09-09Palestine TX(Riser yellow and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)Stratospheric balloon for "atmospheric composition studies: NCAR system collects eight 4-liter air samples"
United States1973-09-28Palestine TX(Blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.2)Stratospheric balloon with Max Planck Institute galactic gamma-ray experiment
United States1973-10-13Sioux City IA(ESTEC Philatelic Club) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch
Australia1973-11-06Longreach QLD(Printed) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch for stratospheric CO2, water vapor, and dust sampling
Australia1973-11-06Longreach QLD(Printed) cachet (different) on coverstratospheric balloon launch for stratospheric CO2, water vapor, and dust sampling
French Guiana1973-11-28Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverProgram Essor stratospheric balloon launch
Australia1974-02-05Mildura VIC(Printed) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch for stratospheric CO2, water vapour and dust sampling
United States1974-02-25Palestine TX(Blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) cover, common design3 (no.2)stratospheric balloon launch
United States1974-09-04Palestine TX(Multi-color rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.4)Stratospheric balloon "test flight of Carrier Balloon System4, six dropsondes will be released"
United States1974-09-23Palestine TX(Multi-color rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.4)Stratospheric balloon "to measure thermal emissions of the atmosphere using a Michelson interferometer"
United States1974-10-09Palestine TX(Multi-color rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.4)Stratospheric balloon with Univ. of Liege high-resolution spectrometer to measure solar IR radiation
United States1974-10-11Palestine TX(Multi-color rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.4)Stratospheric balloon with a "UV spectrograph to photograph interstellar and stellar sources"
United States1974-11-25Palestine TX(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.2)Stratospheric balloon "to measure stratospheric species"
United States1974-12-17Palestine TX(Red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.2)Stratospheric balloon test flight of "gamma-ray telescope for HEAO-A (not "HEAD-A", as in text) satellite"
United States1975-03-25Palestine TX(Black and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.2)Stratospheric balloon with telescope to measure galactic IR radiation
United States1975-05-17Palestine TX(Riser blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)Stratospheric balloon mission with "spectrograph for solar observations"
United States1975-06-06Palestine TX(Riser blue and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)Stratospheric ballon mission to collect data to be used in a "sunlight intensity reference standard"
United States1975-06-11Palestine TX(Multi-color rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.4)Stratospheric balloon with "far-infrared experiment for galactic and extra-galactic sources"
United States1975-06-13Palestine TX(Riser pink and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)stratospheric balloon launch
United States1975-06-27Palestine TX(Riser purple and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)Stratospheric balloon mission to collect data to be used in a "sunlight intensity reference standard"
Australia1975-11-11Alice Springs NT(Printed) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch with gamma ray telescope
Australia1975-11-24Alice Springs NT(Printed) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch with gamma ray spectrometer
United States1976-05-02Palestine TX(Blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.2)Stratospheric balloon launch with Max Planck Institute experiment to observe extra-solar X-ray sources
United States1976-09-24Palestine TX(Riser green and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)Stratospheric balloon with a "spectroradiometer to measure Sun spectral distribution"
United States1976-09-28WSMR, NM(Blue rubber-stamp and typed) cachet on coverStratCom6 VII stratospheric balloon to "study composition and thermodynamics of [the] upper atmosphere"
United States1976-09-28WSMR, NM(Swanson blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet (design based on Spacecraft Type-C general-purpose cachet) on (airmail) cover
United States1976-10-02Palestine TX(Riser green and orange rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)Stratospheric balloon "to measure the impact [on the atmosphere] of [man-made] gases such as effluents, S.S. [Space Shuttle] exhaust & propellants"
United States1976-10-13Palestine TX(Red and black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.2)Stratospheric balloon to "investigation of solar corona in the near infrared"
United States1977-09-28WSMR, NM(Blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverStratCom6 VIII-B stratospheric balloon for "study of [the] photochemistry of [the] stratosphere" (this was the last launch in the StratCom series)
United States1978-04-26Palestine TX(ESPA) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch
Australia1979-05-16Mildura VIC(Black rubber-stamp and hand-written) cachet on coverStratospheric balloon mission to study the trace gas and particulate composition of the southern hemisphere stratosphere. Data were used to validate theoretical models of stratospheric composition and chemistry and as ground truth for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) aboard the AEM-B (Explorer-60) satellite.
United States1979-09-03Palestine TX(ESPA/AEPS) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch
United States1980-10-23Palestine TX(ESPA/AEPS) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch
South Africa1981-07-31Pretoria(CNES) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch
South Africa1981-09-15Pretoria(Lollini) cachet on coverstratospheric balloon launch; also Argos
United States1981-09-21Palestine TX(AEPS) cachet on coverStratospheric balloon mission with cryogenic air sampler for measurement of trace gases
United States1997-08-01Wallops Island VA(DuBeau black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverStratospheric balloon for "ozone and atmospheric measurements"
United States1999-07-04Wallops Island VA(T. Chamberlain) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverstratospheric balloon
Australia2017-04-04Alice Springs NT(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverStratospheric balloon atmospheric physics and chemistry mission
Australia2017-04-04Alice Springs NT(Multi-color printed and blue rubber-stamp) cachets (and signature) on cover
United States2017-08-21Glendo WY(Multi-color printed) cachet on coverStratospheric balloon mission to "observe [the solar] eclipse and test bacterial growth under Mars-like conditions"
United States2017-08-21Russellville KS(Multi-color printed) cachet (same) on cover
United States2017-08-21Mitchell NE(Multi-color printed) cachet (same) on cover
United States2017-08-21Dawson Springs KY(Multi-color printed) cachet (same) on cover
Dropsondes
United States1971-01-19Palestine TX(Riser cyan and red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover, common design3 (no.3)"To test an Omega radio dropsonde wind measurement system"
United States1972-03-20Wallops Island VA(Sarzin) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"Radiosonde type ejected at apogee and descend by parachutes" (i.e. rocket-released dropsondes)
United States1974-05-17Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on SMS-1 launch cover"On radio command from the ground via ... satellite, balloon drops sonde to measure local weather, relaying data via balloon and satellite"
United States1974-09-04Palestine TX(Multi-color rubber-stamp) cachet on stratospheric balloon launch cover, common design3 (no.4)Stratospheric balloon "test flight of Carrier Balloon System4, six dropsondes will be released"
United States1975-02-06Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on SMS-2 launch cover"On radio command from the ground via ... satellite, balloon drops sonde to measure local weather, relaying data via balloon and satellite"
French Guiana1975-10-03Kourou(Lollini) cachet on coverProgram of 13 CBS4 missions, from 7 July 1974 to 6 November 1975 (including one launch on 3 October 1975, the date of these covers); each Carrier Balloon had 64 dropsondes that could be released by a radio command
French Guiana1975-10-03Kourou(CPK) cachet on cover
United States1975-10-16Kourou(Lollini silk) cachet on GOES-1 launch coverDropsonde released from the isentropic balloon and descending by parachute
Japan1987-09-09Uchinoura(Space Voyage) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"All rockets dropped parachutes that measured temperatures and wind velocity and direction"

1The Eole program used a large number of instrumented long flight-time southern hemispheric Earth-circling constant-density (isentropic) balloons, launched from different locations in Argentina and tracked by the French Eole satellites. The balloons floated with the wind in the stratosphere at approximately 200 hPa and so provided estimates of the horizontal wind at that level, as well as other meteorological data. A total of 480 balloons were available, and the first launches took place in August, 1971. By November 1971, 280 Eole program balloons were operating simultaneously in a random distribution over the southern hemisphere outside of the tropics. They had a design lifetime of one year (but the actual mean balloon lifetime turned out to be 103 days), so the program continued through 1972, though with fewer and fewer balloons as they were lost due to balloon icing and the failure of the electronic package.
2Isentropic balloons are designed to float for long periods of time at constant-density levels which are also approximate constant-altitude levels. Some research programs using them were conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. The balloons were generally designed to float with the winds in the stratosphere, but could be used in the troposphere as well. One example of a stratospheric isentropic balloons program is the Eole program, described in footnote 1 above. In these programs, meteorological data and the balloons' positions were transmitted to a ground station via a satellite such as the French Eole satellite.
3Palestine TX (National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF)) stratospheric balloon launch covers are of four common designs (no.1; no.2; Riser, no.3; and no.4) that represent most, if not all, covers produced.
4The Carrier Balloon System (CBS) was a particular type of stratospheric balloon with instruments that provided vertical profiles of wind, temperature and humidity in the tropical upper atmosphere. In addition, some missions observed solar radiation and the radiation budget. Each balloon carried 64 Omega dropsondes, which were released from approximately 24 km and made measurements as they fell. Thirteen such balloons were launched from Kourou, French Guiana in 1974 and 1975. They floated in the tropical stratosphere for relatively long periods of time (from 18 to 84 days, with a mean time of 37 days). The dropsondes were released upon command from the control centre.
5CSIRO is the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia's national science agency)
6StratCom (Stratospheric Composition) was a long-term, multi-purpose program for integrated, correlated measurements of parameters related to the composition, thermodynamics, and radiative balance of the stratosphere. It was a joint undertaking of several laboratories whose combined scientific, engineering, and field capabilities made possible an extensive program of multiple related measurements in the complex and variable stratosphere. The program was started in 1968 by the US Army's Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory (ASL), under the direction of Harold N. Ballard. Starting from the third mission in 1972, the program progressively incorporated other research institutions. The StratCom program ended in 1977.
7The ATS-3 Omega Position and Location Equipment (OPLE) experiment was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of using the Navy's Omega navigation system in conjunction with a synchronous satellite to establish an operational global location and data collection system. Planned primarily for navigation and meteorological purposes, the OPLE collected and retransmitted meteorological and geophysical data from remote unmanned data collection stations. The experiment was also designed to locate and track the movement of platforms such as balloons, aircraft, and ships to within 2 km (daytime) and 4 km (nighttime). The OPLE served as a forerunner of the more sophisticated platform data collection experiments flown on Nimbus-3 and 4. That later system, known as the IRLS (Interrogation, Recording and Location System" is explicitly referred to in this Nimbus-3 launch cover and this Nimbus-4 launch cover. The IRLS in turn was a precursor of the Argos Data Collection System.
8Boomerang-1 was an isentropic research balloon that circled the world twice in 36 days at an altitude of 24.4 km (80,000 feet). It was launched from and recovered in Australia. It carried a 41 kg payload of cosmic ray detectors, biological specimens (to study the effects of cosmic rays on corn seedlings and other plants) and micrometeorite detectors. The project was conducted by NCAR (the National Center for Atmospheric Research) of Boulder CO, USA. A second Boomerang mission was also undertaken at about the same time.
8In the 1970s, four special balloon flights, Da Vinci-1 to -4, were organized by the aeronaut and artist Vera Simons. She designed them to combine science and art. Simons worked with Dr. Rudolf J. Englemann, a NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) scientist and former Air Force meteorologist who was a specialist on the transport of low-level atmospheric pollutants. Simons planned to use the unique perspective from a balloon to gather landscape and cloud images that would be used in producing works of art. Englemann assembled a package of scientific experiments from 25 universities. Funding for the Da Vinci project came from the National Geographic Society, the Atomic Energy Commission, some private companies and NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The first flight took place in 1974 in New Mexico and collected data on atmospheric temperature and winds. In the summer of 1976 the second flight, from St. Louis, MO, to Griffin, IN, gathered data on the atmospheric mixing and diffusion and transport of urban air pollutants. The third flight, with similar goals, was also launched from St. Louis. The fourth flight, known as Da Vinci Transamerica, was launched from Oregon in 1979 and emphasized the artistic elements of the program along with the new goal of reaching Norfolk, VA in a trans-continental flight. It carried Simons, Engelmann, flight surgeon Fred Hyde and NBC cameraman Randy Birch (who did recordings for the Today Show) eastward. Though a storm forced it to land in northwestern Ohio, it nevertheless established a new ballooning overland distance record of 3223 km.


Back to Weather and Climate Philately.



Copyright © 2004-2018, Colorado State University. All rights reserved.
This Website created and maintained by Don Hillger and Garry Toth.
Updated: 2018-10-12