thermometer

Thermometers, Temperatures,
and Temperature Units


Below are checklists of Thermometers, temperatures, and temperature units on postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.). Catalog numbers, years of issue, and notes on the items featured are given when available. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page.

See also the following topics on the Weather Maps page:

See also the following Contributors to Meteorology whose names were used for temperature scales and units:

Launch covers
(including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers)
(farther below)
Other postal items
(stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.)
(immediately below)
Thermometers
(and thermographs)
Thermometers
(and thermographs)
Temperature values and/or units
(no thermometers depicted)
Temperature values and/or units
(no thermometers depicted)


Below is a list of Thermometers, temperatures, and temperature units on postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.).

CountryCatalog NumberType of ItemYear of IssueNotes on Content
Thermometers (and thermographs)
Afghanistan1360 (Mi1644)1989Thermometers (inferred) in open instrument shelter
AngolaUnknown+selvedge (Mi?+selvedge)Selvedge from MS10 (10x unknown)2019Graduated thermometer (°C, °F)
AngolaUnknown ss (BL?)Stamp from SS1Graduated thermometer (°C)
Argentina2520 (BL105)MS2 (2520 (a-b))2009Graduated thermometer (°C)
Argentina2520 fdcMS2 on FDC
BelgiumNoneCachet on commercial cover1934"thermometers"
BelgiumB598 (Mi?)1956Fever thermometer in nurse's hand
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serb Admin.)488 fdc (Mi613 fdc)FDC back, also front2014Galileo's inventions included "a thermometer"
British Antarctic Territory319 (Mi345)2002Four thermometers (minimum, maximum, dry, wet-bulb) and thermograph in open instrument shelter
Bulgaria4597a (BL?)In (lower) margin of simulated-perforation SS12012Graduated thermometer
CanadaNoneCachet (address and return address) on cover1938"American Thermometer Company"
Canada479 fdc1 (Mi420 fdc1)(H&E) cachet on FDC1968Two thermometers in open instrument shelter
Canada479 fdc2 (Mi420 fdc2)(Cole Cover) cachet on FDC, also detailThermometer in Wale's hand
Canada479 fdc3 (Mi420 fdc3)(Jackson Covers/C. Chickering) cachet on FDCTwo thermometers (on left and right edges of cachet)
Canada479 fdc4 (Mi420 fdc4)(Jackson Covers/C. Chickering) cachet on FDC (purple rubber-stamp cachet)Two thermometers (on left and right edges of cachet)
Canada479 fdc5 (Mi420 fdc5)(Schering) cachet on FDC, also back"thermometer"
Canada1287 fdc1 (Mi1196 fdc1)(?) cachet on FDC1990Two thermometers on wall
Canada1287 fdc2 (Mi1196 fdc2)(?) cachet (same, and signatures) on FDC, also English insert and French insert
Canada2205a (Mi2391-2392)In (right) margin of MS2 (2204-2205), also detail2007Graduated thermometer (°C)
Canada2205bIn gutter of MS16 (8x 2204-2205), also detail
China (People's Republic)1387 (Mi1396)1978Grass minimum thermometer
China (People's Republic)1384-1388 fdcOne of five stamps on FDC
China (People's Republic)1516 (Mi1525)1979Thermometer in girl's hand
China (People's Republic)NonePostal card2002Thermometer
China (People's Republic)NonePostal card2005Graduated thermometer (with 100°C for all markings!)4
China (People's Republic)NonePostal card (different)2005Digital thermometers
China (People's Republic)Unknown (Mi?)Revenue tax stamp2005Thermometer (°C)
China (People's Republic)NonePostal card2006Temperature sensor in small aspirated shelter as part of autostation
China (People's Republic)4276 (Mi4678)2015(quarter circle of) Graduated thermometer (°C)
China (Taiwan)3574k_2 label6 (Mi2986-2995 label6)Label from MS10 (3574k_2 (a-j + 7 labels))2004Temperature sensor in small aspirated shelter mounted on horizontal arm of small tower, at Yu-Shan weather observatory (Taiwan)
Colombia680 (Mi827)1958Thermometer in boiling water
ColombiaC309 (Mi828)
ColombiaC310 (Mi829)
Colombia680+C309 fdcTwo stamps and cachet on FDC
Colombia680+C309-C310 fdcThree stamps and cachet (same) on FDC
Cook IslandsKM1664$5. (silver coin) reverse, also obverse and also case2014Graduated thermometer (°C), with both current and original (inverted) scales
Cyprus960 fdc (Mi959 fdc)Cachet on FDC2000Temperature sensor as part of autostation
DenmarkNoneCinderella193?Graduated thermometer (°C)
DenmarkNoneCinderella?Single and dual-scale graduated thermometers (°C/°F)
Denmark489 fdc1 (Mi521 fdc1)(Frimaerke Nyt nr.169) cachet on FDC1972Two thermometers (dry and wet-bulb)
Denmark489 fdc2 (Mi521 fdc2)Cachet (different) on FDC1972Graduated thermometer (°C)
DjiboutiUnknown ss (BL?)In (lower-right) margin of SS12017Analog thermometer (°C/°F); graduated thermometer (°C) (in SS1 cachet)
DjiboutiUnknown ss fdcSS1 and cachet on FDC
DjiboutiUnknown ms fdcCachet on MS4 FDC
Finland767 fdc (Mi? fdc)Cancel on FDC1988Graduated thermometer
FranceNoneMeter1960"thermomètre à mercure"
FranceNoneMeter1962thermometer
FranceNoneMeter1964"thermomètres"
FranceNoneMeter1965"thermomètres"
FranceNoneMeter1967"thermomètres"
FranceNoneMeter1978"thermomètres"
FranceNoneCachet on commercial postal card, also back19??"thermomètres"
FranceNoneCachet on commercial cover1995"thermomètre"
FranceNoneCachet on stamped envelope2007thermometer
FranceNoneCachet on stamped envelope (different)2007thermometer
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC19 fdc (Mi? fdc)Cancel on FDC1970Graduated thermometer
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNoneCachet on cover1994Thermometer
GermanyNoneCachet on commercial cover1923"thermometer"
GermanyNoneCachet on cover1928Graduated thermometer (°C)
GermanyNoneCachet on cover1933Carl Rose thermometer advertisement
GermanyNoneCachet on cover1933Hugo Voigt thermometer advertisement
GermanyNoneCachet on cover1935Paul Remdt thermometer advertisement
GermanyNoneMeter1935Thermometer advertisement
GermanyNoneMeter on cover1941Thermometer advertisement
Germany (West)NoneMeter on commercial cover1949"thermometer"
Germany (West)NoneMeter1954Thermometer advertisement
Germany (West)NoneMeter1966"thermometer" (in text and drawing)
Germany (West)NoneMeter1972"thermometer"
Germany (West)NoneCachet on commercial cover1975"thermometer"
Germany (West)NoneMeter1980Thermometer advertisement
GermanyNoneCinderella?Graduated fever thermometer (°C)
GermanyNoneCinderella?Graduated thermometer (unknown units)
Germany2143a fdc (Mi? fdc)Cancel on FDC2001Two small aspirated shelters for temperature sensors on right side of tower section
Germany2143 fdc (BL57 fdc)Cancel (same) on FDC
GermanyNone(Pictorial) cancel2008200th anniv. thermometer advertisement
GermanyKM332(Silver) coin2014300th anniv. (degree) Fahrenheit scale: graduated thermometer; eight (8) temperature scales/units (degree Newton (°N), degree Rømer (°Rø), degree Fahrenheit (°F), degree Réaumur (°Ré), degree Delisle (°D), degree Celsius (°C), kelvin (K), degree Rankine (°Ra))
Ghana573 (Mi633)1976Three temperatures (0°C, 37°C, 100°C), fever thermometer (37°C indicated), correctly given as degrees "Celsius"3 (in text)
Gilbert and Ellice Islands218 (Mi213)1973Four thermometers (minimum, maximum, dry, wet-bulb) and thermograph in open instrument shelter
Gilbert and Ellice Islands219 (Mi214)
Gilbert and Ellice Islands218-221 fdcTwo of four stamps on FDC
Great Britain1130 (Mi1056)1986Portion of dual-scale fever thermometer (37°C/98.6°F in red)
Great Britain1130 fdcStamp on FDC
Great Britain1966a fdc (Mi1924-1927 fdc)Cachet on FDC, also detail2001Dual-scale graduated thermometer (°C/°F)
GreenlandUnknown (Mi?)2016Temperature sensors as part of (two) autostations
GreenlandUnknown (Mi?)Self-adhesive
India708 (Mi662)1975Temperature sensor in small aspirated shelter (cylinder with conical top) as part of autostation
India708 fdcStamp and cachet on FDC
India708 folder1FDC folder (Calcutta cancel)
India708 folder2FDC folder (New Delhi cancel)
India708 folder3FDC folder (Trivandrum cancel)
Iraq959 (Mi1039)
i959

Imperforate
1980Graduated thermometer (-60°C to +60°C)
Iraq959+962 dualDual deluxe sheet (959+962)
Iraq960 (Mi1040)
i960

Imperforate
Iraq960+963 dualDual deluxe sheet (960+963)
Iraq961 (Mi1041)
i961

Imperforate
Iraq961+964 dualDual deluxe sheet (961+964)
Israel1613+tab (Mi?+tab)Stamp and tab from MS15 (1613a (15x 1613))2006Digital fever thermometer (37.8°C)
Jersey (Great Britain)1300 (Mi1331)2008Dual-scale analog/dial thermometer (°C/°F)
Jersey (Great Britain)1297-1301 fdcOne of five stamps on FDC, also back
Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania226 (Mi213)1971Two thermometers (0°C to 100°C, 32°F to 212°F)
Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania225-228 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC (East African Posts and Telecommunications cachet, Nairobi Stamp Bureau cancel)
Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania225-228 fdc2One of four stamps on FDC (East African Posts and Telecommunications cachet, Nairobi cancel)
Korea (South)2285d (Mi2655)One of block of 4 (2285 (a-d)) (Mi2654-2657), or four of (2285e (4x (a-d)))2008Five graduated thermometers (°C)
Korea (South)NoneCachet on postal card2016Graduated thermometer
Korea (South)Unknown (Mi?)From MS16 (16x unknown)2019Thermometer (at lower-left)
Korea (South)Unknown fdcStamp(s) and cancel on FDC
Korea (South)Unknown folderFolder
MacedoniaUnknown (Mi?)From MS9 (9x unknown)2019Graduated thermometer (°C/°F)
MacedoniaUnknown fdcStamp and (North Macedonia Post) cachet on FDC
Maldive Islands885 (Mi907)1980Fever thermometer
Maldive Islands886 (BL71)On stamp and in (surrounding) margin of SS1 (Mi908)
Malagasy Republic1062 (Mi1389)1992Two (symbolic) thermometers, two temperatures (25°C, 35°C)
Malaysia764c (Mi848)One of block of 10 (764 (a-j)), or two of MS20 (764k (764 (a-j)))2000Fever thermometer
Montserrat997 (Mi1108)1999Graduated thermometer
Mozambique1105 (Mi1187)1989Two or more thermometers in open instrument shelter
MozambiqueUnknown a (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)2018Graduated thermometer
Namibia692 (Mi700)1991Four thermometers (minimum, maximum, dry, wet-bulb) in open instrument shelter; also "thermohygrograph" (in insert text)
Namibia690-693 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC, also insert
Namibia690-693 fdc2One of four stamps on FDC (different)
NetherlandsNone(Pictorial) cancel1936Portion of dual-scale thermometer, two temperatures (0°C, 32°F)
NetherlandsNoneCachet on cover1945Thermometer, "De Juiste Temperatuur"
NetherlandsB650 (Mi1379)From book of 4 (B652a (B650-B651 + 2x B652)) (MH41 (1379C+1380D+1381D-E)), with interior1990Graduated thermometer (°C) scales
NetherlandsB651 (Mi1380)
NetherlandsB651 maxiMaxicard
NetherlandsB650-B652 fdcTwo of three stamps on FDC
Netherlands Antilles241 fdc (Mi65 fdc)Cachet on FDC1957Graduated thermometer (on left side of globe)
Nevis1185k (Mi1458)One stamp and in (left) margin of MS17 (1185 (a-q + label))2000"thermometer" (in text only)
New Zealand594 (Mi677)1976(symbolic) thermometer
New Zealand794 (Mi892)1984Thermometers (inferred) in open instrument shelter
New Zealand791-794 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
New Zealand794 fdcStamp on FDC (Benham cachet)
New Zealand794a (Mi889-892)MS4 (791-794)
New Zealand794a cover1MS4 on cover1985Thermometers (inferred) in open instrument shelter
New Zealand794a cover2MS4 on cover (different)
Nigeria204 (Mi195)1966Graduated thermometer
Nigeria205 (Mi196)
Nigeria206 (Mi197)
Norway355-357 fdc (Mi411-412 fdc)Cachet on FDC1957Graduated thermometer (on left side of globe)
Papua New Guinea184 (Mi58)1964Fever thermometer in doctor's hand
PolandNone(Pictorial) cancel1939Graduated thermometer
RomaniaNoneCachet on postcard2007Diagram of Fort Rae (Northwest Territory, Canada) observing station (part of the 1st IPY) including the locations of the "anemometer" and the "thermometers"
RomaniaNoneCachet on stamped envelope2012Analog/dial thermometer (°C)
Russia (USSR)None(Top rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1990Thermometer with negative temperatures in °C increasing downward from -100°C at the top
Russia6130d (Mi292)One of strip of 5 (6130 (a-e))1993Thermometer
Russia7139 (Mi1548)From MS8 (7140a (4x (7139-7140)))2009Temperature sensor in small aspirated shelter
Russia7139-7140 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
Russia7140a fdcMS8 on FDC
Sierra LeoneUnknown b (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)2016Graduated thermometer (°C/°F)
Sierra LeoneUnknown ss (BL?)SS1
SloveniaUnknown (Mi?)2019Thermometer (at bottom)
SloveniaUnknown fdcStamp on FDC
South Africa610-613 fdc1 (Mi626-629 fdc1)Cancel on FDC1983Four thermometers (minimum, maximum, dry, wet-bulb) in open instrument shelter
South Africa610-613 fdc2 (Mi626-629 fdc2)Cancel (same) on FDC (different)
South Africa613 maxi1 (Mi629 maxi1)Cancel (same) on maxicard
South Africa613 maxi2 (Mi629 maxi2)Cancel (same) on maxicard (different)
Spain1487 (Mi1708)1967(symbolic) thermometer
Spain1487 fdcStamp on FDC
Spain2136 (Mi2401)1979(symbolic) thermometer
Spain2136 maxiMaxicard
Spain3544 (Mi4290)2008Graduated thermometer (°C/°F) (on stamp); medical/fever thermometer (in cancel)
Spain3543-3544 fdcOne of two stamps and cancel on FDC
Spain3544 fdcStamp and cancel (same) on FDC
Spain3543-3544 folderOne of two stamps in folder
SpainNone(Multi-color printed) cachet on (un-canceled) (Spanish Post) stamped envelope (from 2011)2013?Graduated thermometer (°C), with both current and original (inverted) scales
SpainNone(Multi-color printed) cachet (different) on (un-canceled) (Spanish Post) stamped envelope (from 2011)Graduated fever thermometer
SpainNone(Multi-color printed) cachet (different) on (un-canceled) (Spanish Post) stamped envelope (from 2011)(tiny) Graduated thermometer
SpainNone(Multi-color printed) cachet (different) on (un-canceled) (Spanish Post) stamped envelope (from 2011)Graduated thermometer (unknown scales)
SwedenNoneCinderella~1920Graduated thermometer (°C)
Sweden1402 (Mi1188)One of booklet pane of 6 (1402a (6x 1402)) with booklet cover, also inside cover1982Graduated thermometer (0°C indicated)
Sweden1401-1402 fdc1Stamp on FDC
Sweden1401-1402 fdc2Stamp on FDC (different)
Tanganyika46 (Mi?)Also booklet pane of 41961Fever thermometer in nurse's hand
TanganyikaO22 (Mi?)46 overprinted "official"
Thailand2362-2365 cp (Mi? cp)In (lower-center) margin of commemorative panel of 4 (2362-2365)2008Thermometer in "mouth" of face on Earth
TogoUnknown b (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)2019Graduated thermometer (°C)
Tunisia1435 (Mi1687)2008Temperature sensor in small aspirated shelter as part of autostation
Tunisia1435 dsDeluxe sheet (1435)
Tunisia1435 fdcStamp on FDC
Tunisia1435 folderFDC folder, also inside, also back
TurkeyUnknown (Mi?)2019Graduated thermometer (°C) (at lower-right); temperature sensor in small aspirated shelter on mast (at lower middle)
TurkeyUnknown fdcStamp on FDC
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus337 (Mi344)1992Dual-scale thermometer (-20°C to 50°C, 0°F to 120°F)
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus336-338 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Tuvalu1030d (Mi?)From MS6 (1030 (a-f)) (BL5)2007Graduated thermometer
Tuvalu1030f (Mi?)
Tuvalu1198 (Mi?)2012Graduated thermometer
Tuvalu1199 (Mi?)
Tuvalu1200 (Mi?)
Tuvalu1201 (Mi?)
Tuvalu1202 (Mi?)
Uganda1194 (Mi1326)1994Temperature sensor as part of autostation (small, in middle of stamp; it is featured by itself in Uganda 1198)
Uganda1197 (Mi1329)Thermometers (inferred) in open instrument shelter
Uganda1198 (Mi1330)Temperature sensor as part of autostation
Uganda1200 (BL207)In (lower-right and lower-left) margins of SS1Minimum/maximum thermometer and thermograph
United StatesNoneCachet on cover1904Thermometer dial (on oven door) advertisement
United StatesNoneCachet (return address) on cover1904"Waterton Thermometer Co."
United StatesNoneCachet on cover1906Fever thermometer advertisement
United StatesNoneTwo cachets on cover1912"Where the thermometers come from"; "Taylor thermometers tell the truth"
United StatesNoneTwo cachets on cover1914"Where Tycos thermometers come from"; "Taylor thermometers tell the truth"
United StatesNoneCachet (return address) on cover1916"Where the good thermometers come from"
United StatesUX27 adPostal card (UX27) back, also front1917"E. Kessling Thermometer Co."
United StatesNoneCachet (return address) on cover1917"Where Tycos thermometers come from"
United StatesNoneCachet (return address) on cover1917"Where the good thermometers come from"
United StatesNoneCachet (return address) on cover1921"Hudson Thermometer Co."
United StatesNoneCachet (return address) on cover1922"thermometer" manufacturer
United StatesNonePostcard back, also front1933Graduated thermometer (°F); "Havoline thermometer" (at Chicago Century of Progress International Exposition); "World's tallest thermometer"
United StatesNoneMeter, also detail1935Graduated thermometer (Abraham and Strauss, New York store ad)
United StatesNoneMeter1940"Thermometers for every purpose - accuracy guaranteed"
United StatesNoneAdvertising card back1950Thermometer
United StatesNoneMeter1973"The Thermometer Co."
United States3318 (Mi3141)One of strip of 4 (3320a (3317-3320)), or five of sheet of 20 (3320b (5x (3317-3320)))1999Dual-scale aquarium thermometer (°C/°F)
United States3318 fdcStamp and (PCS golden-replica) cachet on FDC
United StatesSP1314(USPS) souvenir page (3317-3320)
United StatesCP577(USPS) commemorative panel (3320a)
United States4524o (Mi4695)One of MS16 (4524 (a-p)) (Mi4681-4696), also back; also cross gutter block of 162011(combined) thermostat and thermometer (°F)
United States4524o fdcStamp and (Fleetwood) cachet on FDC, also back
United States4524o-p fdcOne of two stamps and (PCS) cachet on FDC
United StatesSP1793(USPS) souvenir page (4524), also back(As above for stamp)
United StatesCP868 page1(USPS) commemorative panel (4524), also page2
United States4507 fdc (Mi? fdc)(DWc) cachet on FDC2011thermometer in doctor's vest pocket
United StatesNone(Coverscape) cachet on cover2011Wall thermometer, in degrees Fahrenheit; during the "Year without a Summer", "severe climate abnormalities caused average global temperatures to decrease by about 0.4 - 0.7°C (0.7 - 1.3°F)"
United StatesNone(Coverscape) cachet on cover2013Dual-scale thermometer (°C/°F); "On July 10, 1913, the thermometer [in Death Valley] rose to 134° [Fahrenheit]"
Upper Volta95 (Mi99)1962Thermometer on side of instrument shelter, also (possible) thermograph inside instrument shelter
Upper Volta95 dsDeluxe sheet (95)
Upper Volta95 fdc1Stamp on FDC (Éditions u.des.co cachet)
Upper Volta95 fdc2Stamp on FDC (Éditions J.F. cachet)
Wallis and Futuna IslandsUnknown1 fdcCancel on FDC2017Graduated thermometer
Wallis and Futuna IslandsUnknown2 fdcCancel (same) on FDC
Wallis and Futuna IslandsUnknown3 fdcCancel (same) on FDC
Wallis and Futuna IslandsUnknown4 fdcCancel (same) on FDC
Temperature values and/or units (no thermometers depicted)
To be included here, items will usually contain: (1) a temperature value, the degrees symbol ° or the word "degrees", and a scale type ("K", "°C", and "°F") (though the scale type may be implied rather than specified, or may be written in full); or (2) an equation including the temperature "T". Also, items with temperature values in weather maps are found in the Weather Maps page.
AntarcticaP6$100. (banknote), also back1996"K" (on the ordinate in the graphic at the upper right)
AntarcticaP13$100. (banknote), also back2001"K" (on the ordinate in the graphic at the upper right)
AntarcticaP13s$100. (banknote) overprinted "specimen", also back2009
Aruba347a (Mi?)One of MS4 (347 (a-d)), also detail2009Plot/graph: temperature (°C); two curves on graph (in detail image): smoothed increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 (in black), and rising observed mean temperatures (in red)
Aruba347 fdcMS4 and cancel on FDC
Australia542 (Mi514)1973Two fever temperatures ("38°C", "100°F")
Australia541-544 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC
Australia541-544 fdc2One of four stamps on FDC (different)
Australia2890-2893 bk ifcPrestige booklet of 20 front cover inside2008Chart (°C, incorrectly labeled as "degree centigrade")3
Australia2890-2893 bk p2Prestige booklet of 20 page 2"rising temperatures"
Australia2890-2893 bk p4Prestige booklet of 20 page 4"temperature is estimated to increase between 1 and 6.4 degrees (Celsius) over the next century"
Australia2890-2893 bk ibcPrestige booklet of 20 back cover inside"Temperatures, 1856-1999"; "warm temperatures"
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL205 fdc (Mi? fdc)FDC back, also front2016"-40°C"
Austria950 fdc (Mi1423 fdc)Cachet on FDC1973Surface weather map: temperatures (°C)
Belgium2655 (Mi?)MS5 (2655 (a-e))2013"25°C" (in the MS5 text, as the temperature above which the contents of four of the stamps, which are heat sensitive, change to more clearly represent the four seasons)
Belgium2655 changedMS5 (2655 (a-e)) with changed colors (when above 25°C in strip of 4 (2655f) and also in lower-left margin); see also hot-and-cold animation
Belgium2655a-e fdcFour of five stamps on FDC
BelgiumUnknown1 (Mi?)From strip of 2 (a-b)2017-2° to 2° (Celsius implied); also 1.5°C (in booklet text)
BelgiumUnknown2 (Mi?)
BelgiumUnknown bkBooklet with pane of 10 (5x unknown1-2), also booklet front and back(As above for stamps)
British Antarctic Territory342 (Mi381-382)On one of pair (342 (a-b))2004Map/chart: warming/cooling (°C per decade)
British Antarctic Territory342cTen of MS20 (10x (342 (a-b)))
British Antarctic Territory343 (Mi383-384)On one of pair (343 (a-b))Plot/graph: warm-to-cold
British Antarctic Territory343cTen of MS20 (10x (343 (a-b)))
British Antarctic Territory344 (Mi385-386)On one of pair (344 (a-b))Plot/graph: temperature (°C)
British Antarctic Territory344cTen of MS20 (10x (344 (a-b)))
British Antarctic Territory342-344 fdcThree pairs of stamps on FDC(As above)
British Antarctic Territory417 (BL17)In (left) margin of MS4 (417 (a-d))2009"increasing air temperatures"
British Antarctic Territory417 fdcMS4 on FDC
China (People's Republic)NonePostal card2001Hot weather warning: (35°C)
China (People's Republic)NonePostal card (different)2001Cold weather warning: (°C)
China (People's Republic)NonePostal card2002Cold temperature warning: (°C)
China (People's Republic)NonePostal card (different)2002Hot and cold temperature warnings: (°C)
China (People's Republic)Unknown (Mi?)Revenue tax stamp2005Temperature (26°C)
China (People's Republic)NonePostal card2006Surface weather map: temperatures (°C)
China (Taiwan)3574k_1 label6 (Mi2986-2995 label6)Label from MS10 (3574k_1 (a-j + 10 labels))2004Temperature scale (°C) at upper left of image with sea surface temperature values around Taiwan as measured by the NOAA-16 satellite
Costa RicaNoneQSL card; also back1938San Jose average temperature (22°C, 72°F)
CroatiaNoneCachet on WMD cover2002Plot/graph: temperature (°C)
CroatiaNoneCachet on WMD cover2003Plot/graph: temperature (°C)
Denmark936 (Mi1000)1991Satellite thermal image: water temperatures (°C)
Denmark937 (Mi1001)Satellite thermal image: land temperatures (°C)
France1435 (Mi1921)1975Temperature unit symbol: kelvin (K); also "thermométrie" (in souvenir card text)
France1435 fdc1Stamp on FDC
France1435 fdc2Stamp on FDC (different)
France1435 scSouvenir card
France4595 (Mi?)From booklet pane of 12 (4601a (4590-4601))2014"Living with the ambient temperature" (in French text)
France4601a fdcFDC canceled booklet of 12 (4590-4601)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories116 sc (Mi203 sc)Text on souvenir card (116)1985"températures atteignant moins 34°C au niveau de la mer [et] moins 60°C à 300 kilomètres à l'intérieur du continent" (temperatures reaching -34°C on the coast and -60°C 300 km inland)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNoneCachet on cover1994Record and previous record temperatures (25.8°C, 23.1°C)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Printed) cachet on cover2015vertical profile of "internal temperature" in degrees "C"
Germany (West)1102 (Mi760)1973Surface weather map: temperatures (°C)
Germany (West)1102 fdc1Stamp on FDC
Germany (West)1102 fdc2Stamp on FDC (different)
Germany (West)1102 fdc3Stamp on FDC (different)
Germany (West)1102 fdc4Two stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
Germany (West)1102 fdc5Stamp and cachet (different) on FDC
Germany (West)1102 fdc6Stamp and cachet (different) on FDC
Germany (West)1102 fdc7Stamp and cachet (different) on FDC
Germany (West)1102 fdc7Stamp and cachet (different) on FDC
Germany (West)1102 fdc8Stamp and cachet (different) on FDC
Germany (West)1102 fdc9Stamp on FDC (different)
Germany (West)1102 fdc10Stamp on FDC (different)
Germany (West)1102 fdc11Stamp on FDC (different)
Germany (West)1102 scSouvenir card
Germany1884 fdc(ETABO) cachet on FDC1995Mean temperatures (on ordinate, °C implied)
Germany2090 (Mi2127)2000Surface weather map: temperatures (°C)
Germany2090 fdcStamp on FDC
Germany2090 scSouvenir card
GermanyNoneMeter2011"30-3000 °C"
Germany2808 (Mi3109)From MS10 (2808a (10x 2808))2014300th anniv. (degree) Fahrenheit scale: temperature units (°F)
Germany2808 fdc1Stamp and cancel on FDC
Germany2808 fdc2Stamp and cancel (same) and cachet on FDC
Germany2808 fdc3Stamp and cancel (different) on FDC
Germany2808 fdc4Stamp and cancel (same) and cachet on FDC
GermanyUnknown (Mi3420)On selvedge of stamp2018"284-285 °C"
Great Britain1963-1966 fdc1 (Mi1924-1927 fdc1)(Cotswold and Stuart) cachet on FDC (? cancel)2001Temperatures (°C)
Great Britain1963-1966 fdc2 (Mi1924-1927 fdc2)(Cotswold and Stuart / BPCPA) cachet on FDC (Bracknell, Berkshire cancel)
Great Britain1963-1966 fdc3 (Mi1924-1927 fdc3)(Cotswold and Stuart) cachet on FDC (Greenwich cancel)
Great Britain1963-1966 fdc4 (Mi1924-1927 fdc4)(Cotswold and Stuart) cachet on FDC (Bracknell cancel)
Great Britain1963-1966 fdc5 (Mi1924-1927 fdc5)(Cotswold and Stuart) cachet on FDC (London cancel)
Great Britain1963-1966 fdc6 (Mi1924-1927 fdc6)(Cotswold and Stuart / BPCPA) cachet on FDC (London cancel)
Great Britain1966a fdc1 (Mi1924-1927 fdc1)Cachet on FDC (different)
Great Britain1966a fdc2 (Mi1924-1927 fdc2)Cachet (different color) on FDC (same)
GreeceNonePostcard back, also front2007"degree Celsius" (in Greek in scale at bottom)
Guinea RepublicUnknown ss (BL?)SS12014"0.8 °C" (mean global Earth surface temperature increase in the 20th century)
Guinea RepublicUnknown ss fdcSS1 on FDC
Guinea-BissauMi4232One of MS6 (Mi4230-4235)2009Arrhenius equation with temperature as a variable
Guinea-BissauMi4230-4235_ms6 fdcMS6 on FDC
Guyana437b (Mi727)One of MS6 (437 (a-f)) (BL11)1982Temperature unit symbol: °C
Guyana557b (Mi871)One of MS6 (557 (a-f)), 437 overprinted (BL12)1982Temperature unit symbol: °C
India2390c (Mi2451-2452)In (lower) margin of MS20 (10x (2390b (2389-2390)))2009Temperature change per decade (°C)
Japan2698d (Mi3008)One of MS10 (2698 (a-j)) (Mi3005-3014)2000Surface weather map: temperatures (°C)
Japan2698d-e+2698g-h fdcOne of four stamps and (?) cachet (with design like stamp) on FDC
Korea (South)2285d (Mi2655)One of block of 4 (2285 (a-d)) (Mi2654-2657), or four of (2285e (4x (a-d)))2008Four temperatures (18-20°C, 26-28°C: temperature ranges for winter heating and summer cooling, respectively
Macau1152b (Mi1351)From MS16 (4x (1152 (a-d)))2004Cosmic background temperature of universe (2.7 K)
Macau1152c (Mi1352)Cosmological equation with temperature as a variable
Malagasy Republic970a (BL136)
i970a
In (right) margin of SS1 (970)
In (right) margin of imperforate SS1 (i970)
1990graphic showing the runaway greenhouse effect of Venus, with the temperature around 0°C near the cloud tops and around 450°C at the surface
Namibia690-693 fdc (Mi698-701 fdc)Cachet on FDC, also insert1991Average annual temperatures (°C)
Netherlands508-509 fdc (Mi1015-1016 fdc)Cachet on FDC1973Temperatures (°C)
NetherlandsB652 (Mi1381)One of book of 4 (B652a (B650-B651 + 2x B652)) (MH41 (1379C+1380D+1381D-E)), with interior, also detail1990Synoptic code message from DeBilt, Netherlands: temperature (12.9°C) and dew point temperature (8.9°C)
NetherlandsB652 fdcStamp on FDC
NetherlandsB650-B652 fdcTwo of three stamps on FDC
Netherlands841 (Mi1484)1993van der Waal's equation with temperature as a variable
Netherlands1166b (Mi2193-2194)On 5 tabs of MS10 (5x (1165-1166) + 10 tabs)2004Five climatological temperatures (°C)
Pakistan771 (Mi847)1992Satellite thermal image: temperatures (°C)
Pakistan771-772_fdcOne of two stamps on FDC, also back
Portugal1114 (Mi1147)1971Surface weather map: temperatures (°C)
Portugal1113-1115 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Redonda (Antigua)Unknown fdc (Mi? fdc)FDC back, also front1987"minus 273 degrees centigrade"3; "-273º Celsius"
Romania1874 (Mi2534)1966Temperature unit symbol: kelvin (K), incorrectly given as "degrees" kelvin (°K)2
RomaniaNoneCachet on cover back, also front1992Temperature range (-23°C to -30°C)
RussiaNone(Red-violet rubber-stamp) cachet on cover2004Temperature trace at Neumayer Station (with "-25ºC" on vertical axis)
Slovenia152 (Mi38)1993Stefan-Boltzmann Law: temperature
SloveniaNoneCachet on cover1999Temperatures (°C)
SwedenNone(Pictorial) cancel1980Two temperatures (12°C, 21°C)
Sweden1664 (Mi?)One of booklet pane of 5 (1665a (1661-1665)) (MiC127?)1987Cosmic background temperature of universe ("3 K"); also "-270°C" and "3 grader Kelvin" (in booklet cover text)
Sweden1749 (Mi1553)One of booklet pane of 6 (1754a (1749-1754)) with booklet cover and booklet interior1989Climate: temperature anomaly plot (+/- degrees)
Switzerland1334 (Mi2097)From MS10 (1334a (10x 1334))2009"+1.5"°C (temperature rise, 1850-2008)
Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)NoneCinderella (red)1960sMonthly temperatures (°C), incorrectly given as degrees "centigrade"3 (in text)
Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)NoneCinderella (green)Monthly temperatures (°C), incorrectly given as degrees "centigrade"3 (in text)
Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)NoneCinderella (tan)Monthly temperatures (°F), (degrees) "Fahrenheit"
Thailand2362-2365 cp (Mi? sp)In (lower-left) margin of commemorative panel of 4 (2362-2365)2008Global warming and graphic of increasing positive global temperature anomalies (°C)
Tuvalu810 (BL70)In (lower) margin of MS6 (810 (a-f))1999Mean annual temperature ("30°C", "86°F")
United StatesNoneCachet on advertising cover1902Temperature differences: winter 8°F higher, summer 10°F lower (°F implied)
United StatesNonePostmark on cover1938Minimum (67°F) and maximum (74°F) temperatures (°F implied)
United StatesNoneCinderella?Extreme temperature range: 82°F (°F implied)
United States1557 fdc (Mi1170 fdc)(PCS) information card with FDC (ArtCraft cachet)1975"50,000 - 100,000°F"
United States1759 fdc (Mi1356 fdc)(Fleetwood) back of FDC (different), also front1978"As the [Viking] aeroshell plunged into the Martian atmosphere, frictional temperatures up to 1,500º Celsius (2,730º F) seared the protective shield"
United States1915 fdc (Mi1484 fdc)(PCS golden-replica) insert from FDC, also front1981Temperature: "27 million degrees Fahrenheit"
United States2568 fdc (Mi2183 fdc)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front1991"950ºF" and "-350ºF"
United States2568 maxi (Mi2183 maxi)(Unicover) maxicard back, also front"950ºF" and "-350ºF"
United States2569 fdc (Mi2184 fdc)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front"800ºF"
United States2572 fdc (Mi2187 fdc)(Artmaster) back of FDC, also front"800ºF" and "-280ºF"
United States2572 maxi(Unicover) maxicard back, also front"-20ºF"
United States2574 maxi (Mi2189 maxi)(Unicover) maxicard back, also front"-288ºF"
United States2631 fdc (Mi2235 fdc)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front1992"2,700 °F"
United States2634 fdc (Mi2238 fdc)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front"165 °F", "130 °[F]", "the 70s [°F]"
United States3207-3208 fdc (Mi? fdc)(Printed) cachet on FDC1998"76"°F, "80"°F
United States3351m (Mi3204)
3351m back
On back of one of MS20 (3351 (a-t)) (Mi3192-3211), also back1999Temperature (100°C), incorrectly given as degrees "centigrade"3 (in text)
United StatesSP1326(USPS) souvenir page (3351), also back
United StatesCP586 page1(USPS) commemorative panel (3351), also page2
United States4053 fdc1 (Mi4098 fdc1)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front2006Mt. Washington has "an average temperature of about 27 degrees Fahrenheit" and "wind chills that have been known to reach 120 degrees [Fahrenheit] below zero"
United States4053 fdc2 (Mi4098 fdc2)(Mystic Stamp Co.) back of FDC, also frontMt. Washington has "an average annual temperature of 26.5 degrees [Fahrenheit]"; "a record-setting minus 47 degrees Fahrenheit and wind chills as low as minus 120 degrees" have been observed
United States4070 (Mi4115)
4070_back
One of MS40 (4072a (4033-4072)), also back2006Hottest place in US: Death Valley CA, 134°F in July 1913
United States4070 fdc1Stamp on FDC (Mystic Stamp Co. cachet), also back
United States4070 fdc2Stamp and (PCS golden-replica) cachet on FDC, also insert
United States4070 fdc3Stamp and (PCS) cachet on FDC
United States4070 fdc4Stamp on FDC (ArtCraft cachet)
United StatesSP1611(USPS) souvenir page (4033-4072), also back
United StatesCP763 page1(USPS) commemorative panel (4033-4072), also page2
United States4524o fdc (Mi4695 fdc)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front2011"70 degrees [F]" and "55 degrees [F]"
United StatesNone(Coverscape) cachet on cover201120th anniv. eruption; Pinatubo "injected large amounts of aerosol into the stratosphere ... over the following months ... global temperatures dropped by about 0.9°F (0.5°C)"
United States5069 fdc (Mi5243 fdc)(Bullfrog) cachet on FDC2016"Mercury's surface temperature varies" ... "from 100 K (-173ºC, -280ºF) at night to 700 K (427ºC, 800ºF) during the day in some equatorial regions. The poles are constantly below 180 K (-93ºC, -135ºF)".
United States5070 fdc (Mi5244 fdc)(Bullfrog) cachet on FDCVenus has "a mean surface temperature of 735 K (462ºC, 863ºF)"
United States5075 fdc (Mi5249 fdc)(Bullfrog) cachet on FDCUranus is "the coldest planet in the Solar System, with a minimum temperature of 49 K (-224.2ºC)".
Wallis and Futuna IslandsUnknown (Mi?)201626°C (on mobile phone)
YugoslaviaNoneCachet on WMD cover1991Plot/graph: temperatures: kelvin (K), incorrectly given as "degrees" kelvin (°K)2

2The official name was changed to "kelvin" and symbol "K" by the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) in 1967.
3The official name was changed from "centigrade degree" to "Celsius degree" by the 9th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) in 1948.
4An advertisement card for China Uniform, a big telecommunication company. The thermometer has all 100°C above, and Chinese city names (likely the capital for each province) below. The cities are located from north to south (colder to hotter) when you read from left to right. The markings are actually meant to represent "100-percent-special" in each city, the service being the same in each city with no "temperature" difference. The 100°C might also imply their good and warm service. [Translation provided by Fang Wang, Colorado State University]


Below is a list of Thermometers, temperatures, and temperature units on satellite and rocket launch covers (including anniversary-of-launch covers).

CountryCancel DateCancel LocationType of ItemNotes on Content
Thermometers (and thermographs)
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL(Sarzin) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"Flying Thermometer"
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover, also insert"Flying Thermometer"
United States1964-04-14Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover, also insert
United States1964-04-15Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch (on 14 April) cover"Flying Thermometer"
Temperature values and/or units (no thermometers depicted)
Items with only "temperature" or "temperatures" in the text are not included here; in order to be included, items must be a bit more descriptive about the intent of the temperature measurments.
United States1963-06-19Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slighty different map symbols) from TIROS-7 launch cover, also frontTemperatures (°F) at various points on the weather map
United States1963-06-19Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slighty different map symbols) from TIROS-7 launch cover, also front (and signature)
United States1963-06-19Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slighty different map symbols) from TIROS-7 launch cover, also front
United States1963-06-19Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slighty different map symbols) from TIROS-7 launch cover, also front
United States1963-06-19Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert or insert variation (slighty different map symbols) from TIROS-7 launch cover, also front (and signature)
United States1964-08-28Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from Nimbus-1 launch cover, also front"A 'heat map' (infra-red pattern) shows daily temperature variations around the Earth"
United States1967-10-19Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Mariner-5 launch cover"Venus has 500° temp[erature]... CO2 atmosphere, some hydrogen, no oxygen"
United States1967-11-09Cape Canaveral FL(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch cover"temperatures exceeding 4,000 [°]F"
Japan1974-02-10Tanegashima(JapanCover no.34) cachet on (sub-orbital) rocket launch coverTemperatures (°C)
China (People's Republic)2004-10-19?(Printed) cachet on FY-2C launch coverTemperatures in various colors: red tones (warmer) through blue tones (colder)


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