Voyager

Planetary and lunar
(and asteroid)
exploration satellites


Below are checklists of planetary and lunar (and asteroid) exploration satellites, including launch dates and images of the satellites. Many solar-observing and planetary-exploration satellites are elsewhere on this Website. This is a work in progress, and completeness is our goal. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page.


Satellite series covered:


(Later) US Pioneer-series (planetary) satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
(Earlier) Pioneer-series (non-planetary) satellites
(Pioneer-0 — Pioneer-E)
referencePioneer (non-planetary)Pioneer (non-planetary)
Pioneer-10 (Pioneer-F) (Pioneer-Jupiter-1)1972-03-03Pioneer-10
Pioneer-10
Pioneer-10
Pioneer-10/11 (patch)
Pioneer (planetary)Pioneer (planetary)
Pioneer-11 (Pioneer-G) (Pioneer-Jupiter-2)1973-04-06Pioneer-11
Pioneer-10/11 (patch)
Pioneer-12 (Pioneer-Venus-1 / Orbiter)1978-05-20Pioneer-12
Pioneer-12
Pioneer-13 (Pioneer-Venus-2 / Multi-probe)1978-08-08Pioneer-13
Pioneer-13

US Mariner-series satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Mariner-1 [failed]1962-07-22Mariner-2MarinerMariner
Mariner-2 (Venus flyby)1962-08-27
Mariner-3 (Mars probe)1964-11-05Mariner-4
Mariner-4
Mariner-4 (patch, Mariner-1/2 type depicted)
Mariner-4 (Mars probe)1964-11-28
Mariner-5 (Venus flyby)1967-06-14Mariner-5
Mariner-6 (Mariner-F) (Mars flyby)1969-02-24Mariner-6/7 type
Mariner-6/7 type
Mariner-7 (Mariner-G) (Mars flyby)1969-03-27
Mariner-8 (Mariner-H) [failed]1971-05-09Mariner-9
Mariner-9
Mariner-9 (Mariner-I) (Mars orbiter)1971-05-30
Mariner-10 (Mariner-J) (Venus and Mercury flybys)1973-11-03Mariner-10

US Ranger-series (lunar) satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Ranger-1 [incomplete mission]1961-08-23Ranger-1RangerRanger
Ranger-2 [incomplete mission]1961-11-18
Ranger-31962-01-26Ranger-3/4/5 type
Ranger-41962-04-23
Ranger-51962-10-18
Ranger-61964-01-30Ranger-6/7/8/9 type
Ranger-6/7/8/9 type
Ranger-7
Ranger-71964-07-28
Ranger-81965-02-17
Ranger-91965-03-21

US Lunar Orbiter-series satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Lunar Orbiter-1 (Lunar Orbiter-A)1966-08-10Lunar Orbiter
Lunar Orbiter
Lunar Orbiter
Lunar OrbiterLunar Orbiter
Lunar Orbiter-2 (Lunar Orbiter-B)1966-11-06
Lunar Orbiter-3 (Lunar Orbiter-C)1967-02-05
Lunar Orbiter-4 (Lunar Orbiter-D)1967-05-04
Lunar Orbiter-5 (Lunar Orbiter-E)1967-08-01

US Surveyor-series (lunar) satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Surveyor-Pre-Model1963-11-27SurveyorSurveyor
Surveyor-Model1964-12-11Surveyor model
Surveyor-SD1 [failed]1965-03-02Surveyor-SD1
Surveyor-SD21965-08-11
Surveyor-SD31966-04-08
Surveyor-1 (Surveyor-A)1966-05-30Surveyor
Surveyor-2 (Surveyor-B) [mission not completed]1966-09-20
Surveyor-SD41966-10-26
Surveyor-3 (Surveyor-C)1967-04-17Surveyor-3
Surveyor-4 (Surveyor-D) [mission not completed]1967-07-14
Surveyor-5 (Surveyor-E)1967-09-08
Surveyor-6 (Surveyor-F)1967-11-07
Surveyor-7 (Surveyor-G)1968-01-07

Russian Luna (Lunik) series satellites (and Lunokhod rovers):

Satellite (Spacecraft Bus*)Launch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Luna-(1a) (Ye-1 #1) [failed]1958-09-23Luna-1
Luna-1
LunaLuna
Luna-(1b) (Ye-1 #2) [failed]1958-10-11
Luna-(1c) (Ye-1 #3) [failed]1958-12-04
Luna-1 (Ye-1 #4) / Mechta1959-01-02
Luna-(2a) (Ye-1A #1) [failed]1959-06-18Luna-2
Luna-2 (Ye-1A #2)1959-09-12
Luna-3 (Ye-2A #1)1959-10-04Luna-3
Luna-3
Luna-(4a) (Ye-3 #1) [failed]1960-04-15
Luna-(4b) (Ye-3 #2) [failed]1960-04-16
Luna-(4c) (Ye-6 #1) / Sputnik-25 [failed]1963-01-04Kosmos-60 / Luna-(5c) (cruise)
Kosmos-60 / Luna-(5c) (surface)
Luna-(4d) (Ye-6 #2) [failed]1963-02-03
Luna-4 (Ye-6 #3)1963-04-02
Luna-(5a) (Ye-6 #4) [failed]1964-03-21
Luna-(5b) (Ye-6 #5) [failed]1964-04-20
Luna-(5c) (Ye-6 #6) / Kosmos-60 [failed]1965-03-12
Luna-(5d) (Ye-6 #7) [failed]1965-04-10
Luna-5 (Ye-6 #8)1965-05-09
Luna-6 (Ye-6 #9)1965-06-08
Luna-7 (Ye-6 #10)1965-10-04
Luna-8 (Ye-6 #11)1965-12-03
Luna-9 (Ye-6 #12)1966-01-31
Luna-(10a) (Ye-6S #1) / Kosmos-111 [failed]1966-03-01Luna-10 (cruise)
Luna-10 (orbit)
Luna-10 (Ye-6S #2)1966-03-31
Luna-11 (Ye-6LF #1)1966-08-24Luna-12
Luna-12 (Ye-6LF #2)1966-10-22
Luna-13 (Ye-6M #1)1966-12-21Luna-13 (cruise)
Luna-13 (surface)
Kosmos-159 / Luna? (E-6LS #1)1965-03-12
Luna-(14) (Ye-6LS #2) [failed]1968-02-07
Luna-14 (Ye-6LS #3)1968-04-07
Luna-(15b) (Ye-8-5 No.402) [failed]1969-04-14Luna-16
Luna-15 (Ye-8-5 No.401)1969-07-13
Luna-(16a) (Ye-8-5 No.403) / Kosmos-300 [failed]1969-09-23
Luna-(16b) (Ye-8-5 No.404) / Kosmos-305 [failed]1969-10-22
Luna-(16c) (Ye-8-5 No.405) [failed]1970-02-06
Luna-16 (Ye-8-5 No.406)1970-09-12
Luna-18 (Ye-8-5 No.407)1971-09-02
Luna-20 (Ye-8-5 No.408)1972-02-14
Luna-(17) / Lunokhod-(1) (Ye-8 No.201) [failed]1969-02-19Luna-17
Lunokhod-2
Luna-17 / Lunokhod-1 (Ye-8 No.203)1970-11-10
Luna-21 / Lunokhod-2 (Ye-8 No.204)1973-01-08
Luna-19 (Ye-8LS No.202)1971-09-28
Luna-22 (Ye-8LS No.206)1974-05-29
Luna-23 (Ye-8-5M No.410)1974-10-28
Luna-(24a) (Ye-8-5M No.412) [failed]1975-10-16
Luna-24 (Ye-8-5M No.413)1976-08-09
Luna-25 / Luna-Glob2018-?Luna-Glob

*Spacecraft Bus designations and reference images were obtained from Gunter's Space Page.

Russian Zond-series satellites:

Satellite (Spacecraft Bus*)Launch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Zond-(1a) (3MV-1A #1) (Venus) [failed]1964-02-19Zond-1
Zond
ZondZond
Zond-1 (3MV-1 #2) (Venus)1964-04-02
Zond-2 (3MV-4 #1) (Mars)1964-11-30Zond-3
Zond-3 (3MV-4 #2) (Moon)1965-07-18
Zond-(4a) (L1 #4) [failed]1967-09-27Zond-L1
Zond-(4b) (L1 #5) [failed]1967-11-22
Zond-4 (L1 #6)1968-03-02
Zond-(5a) (L1 #7) [failed]1968-04-22
Zond-5 (L1 #9) (Moon)1968-09-14
Zond-6 (L1 #12) (Moon)1968-11-10
Zond-(7a) (L1 #13) [failed]1969-01-20
Zond-7 (L1 #7) (Moon)1969-08-07
Zond-8 (L1 #14) (Moon)1970-10-20

*Spacecraft Bus designations and reference images were obtained from Gunter's Space Page.

Russian Mars-series satellites:

Satellite (Spacecraft Bus*)Launch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Mars-(1a) (1M #1) [failed]1960-10-10Mars-1mMarsMars
Mars-(1b) (1M #2) [failed]1960-10-14
Mars-(1c) (2MV-4 #1) / Sputnik-22 [failed]1962-10-24Mars-1
Mars-1 (2MV-4 #2) / Sputnik-23 (Mars flyby)1962-11-01
Mars-(2a) (2MV-3 #1) / Sputnik-24 [failed]1962-11-04
Mars-(2b) (M-69 #1) [failed]1969-03-27Mars-69
Mars-(2c) (M-69 #2) [failed]1969-04-02
Mars-(2d) (Mars-71 #1) / Kosmos-419 [failed]1971-05-10Mars-3
Mars-3 (lander)
Mars-2 (Mars-71 #2)1971-05-19
Mars-3 (Mars-71 #3)1971-05-28
Mars-4 (Mars-73 Orbiter #1)1973-07-21Mars-4
Mars-5 (Mars-73 Orbiter #2)1973-07-25
Mars-6 (Mars-73 Lander #1)1973-08-05Mars-3
Mars-3 (lander)
Mars-7 (Mars-73 Lander #2)1973-08-09
Mars-8 (Mars-96)1996-11-16Mars-8 (orbiter)
Mars-8 (lander)

*Spacecraft Bus designations and reference images were obtained from Gunter's Space Page.

Russian Venera (Venus / Venusik) series satellites:

Satellite (Spacecraft Bus*)Launch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Venera-(1a) (1VA #1) / Sputnik-7 [failed]1961-02-04Venera-1VeneraVenera
Venera-1 (1VA #2) / Sputnik-81961-02-12
Venera-(2a) (2MV-1 #1) / Sputnik-19 [failed]1962-08-25Venera-2mv-1
Venera-(2b) (2MV-1 #2) / Sputnik-20 [failed]1962-09-01
Venera-(2c) (2MV-2 #1) / Sputnik-21 [failed]1962-09-12
Venera-(2d) (3MV1 #1) / Kosmos-27 [failed]1964-03-27Zond-1
Kosmos-27 (3mv-1)
Venera-2 (3MV-4 #3)1965-11-12Zond-3
Kosmos-96 (3mv-4)
Venera-(4a) (3MV-4 #4) / Kosmos-96 [failed]1965-11-23
Venera-3 (3MV-3 #1)1965-11-16Venera-3
Venera-4 (V-67 #1)1967-06-12
Venera-(5a) (V-67 #2) / Kosmos-167 [failed]1967-06-17
Venera-5 (V-69 #1)1969-01-05Venera-6
Venera-7 (capsule)
Venera-6 (V-69 #2)1969-01-10
Venera-7 (V-70 #1)1970-08-17Venera-7
Venera-7 (capsule)
Venera-(8a) (v-70 #1) / Kosmos-359 [failed]1970-08-22
Venera-8 (V-72 #1)1972-03-27Venera-8
Venera-7 (capsule)
Venera-(9a) (V-72 #2) / Kosmos-482 [failed]1972-03-31
Venera-9 (4V1 #1)1975-06-08Venera-10
Venera-9 (lander)
Venera-10 (4V1 #2)1975-06-14
Venera-11 (4V1 #3)1978-09-09
Venera-12 (4V1 #1)1978-09-14
Venera-13 (4V1M #1)1981-10-30Venera-10
Venera-13 (lander)
Venera-14 (4V1M #2)1981-11-04
Venera-15 (4V2 #1)1983-06-02Venera-16
Venera-16 (4V2 #2)1983-06-07

*Spacecraft Bus designations and reference images were obtained from Gunter's Space Page.

Russian Phobos (Fobos) series (Martian moon) satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Phobos-1 (orbiter)1988-07-07Phobos-1PhobosPhobos
Phobos-21988-07-12Phobos-2
Phobos-Grunt [incomplete mission]2011-11-09Phobos-Grunt
Phobos-Grunt

(Later) Japanese Planet-series (planetary) satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
(Earlier) Planet-series (cometary) satellites
(Planet-A1 — Planet-A2)
(Earlier) Planet (cometary)(Earlier) Planet (cometary)
Planet-B / Nozomi (Mars)1998-07-03Planet-B(Later) Planet (planetary)(Later) Planet (planetary)
Planet-C / VCO / Akatsuki (Venus)2010-05-20Planet-C

Japanese Muses-series satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Muses-A / Hiten
Muses-A lunar orbiter / Hagoromo
1990-01-24Muses-A + lunar orbiter
Muses-A lunar orbiter
MusesMuses
Muses-B / Haruka / HALCA1997-02-12Muses-B
Muses-C / Hayabusa, MINVERVA2003-05-09Muses-C
MINERVA
Muses-C follow-on / Hayabusa-2, MASCOT, MINERVA-22014-12-03Hayabusa-2
Hayabusa-2+MASCOT
MINERVA-2

USA Viking-series satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Viking-DS [failed]1974-02-11Viking-DSVikingViking
Viking-1 (Viking-A, Mars orbiter and lander)1975-08-20Viking orbiter
Viking lander
Viking (patch)
Viking (patch)
Viking-2 (Viking-B, Mars orbiter and lander)1975-09-09
Viking-3 (Mars rover)CanceledViking-3 rover

US Voyager-series satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Voyager-2 (Voyager-B) (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune flybys)1977-08-20Voyager
Voyager (patch)
Voyager (patch)
VoyagerVoyager
Voyager-1 (Voyager-A) (Jupiter and Saturn flybys)1977-09-05

Chinese (PRC) Chang'e-series satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Chang'e-1 (lunar orbiter)2007-10-24Chang'e-1Chang'eChang'e
Chang'e-2 (lunar orbiter and asteroid flyby)2010-10-01Chang'e-2
Chang'e-3 (lunar lander) / Yutu (lunar rover)2013-12-01Chang'e-3 (lander)
Chang'e-3 (Yutu rover)
Chang'e-5-T1 (lunar orbiter and re-entry capsule)2014-10-23Chang'e-5-T1 (orbiter)
Chang'e-5-T1 (capsule)

US Mars rover missions:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Mars Pathfinder / Sojourner (rover) / Discovery-11996-12-04Mars Pathfinder
Mars Pathfinder/Sojourner
Mars Pathfinder/Sojourner
Mars Pathfinder/Sojourner (patch)
Mars Pathfinder/Sojourner (patch)
Mars Pathfinder/SojournerMars Pathfinder/Sojourner
MER-2 (Mars Exploration Rover-A) / Spirit (rover)2003-06-10MER-A
MER-A lander/rover
MER/Spirit (patch)
MER/Opportunity (patch)
MER-A/SpiritMER/Spirit and Opportunity
MER-1 (Mars Exploration Rover-B) / Opportunity (rover)2003-07-08MER-B/Opportunity
MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) / Curiosity (rover)2011-11-26MSL
MSL/Curiosity
MSL/Curiosity
MSL/Curiosity (patch)
MSL/Curiosity (patch)
MSL/Curiosity (patch)
MSL/CuriosityMSL/Curiosity

Other (selected) US planetary and lunar exploration satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Magellan (Venus orbiter) [STS-30R/Atlantis-deployed]1989-05-04Magellan
Magellan
Magellan (patch)
Magellan (patch)
MagellanMagellan
Galileo (Jupiter orbiter) [STS-34/Atlantis-deployed]1989-10-18Galileo
Galileo
Galileo
Galileo (STS-34/Atlantis-deployment, booster attached)
Galileo probe
Galileo (patch)
Galileo (patch)
Galileo (patch)
GalileoGalileo
Mars Observer (orbiter)1992-09-25Mars Observer
Mars Observer
Mars Observer
Mars Observer (patch)
Mars Observer (patch)
Mars ObserverMars Observer
Clementine-1 / DSPSE-11994-01-25Clementine-1Clementine-1
Clementine-1
Clementine-1 (back)
Clementine-1 (insert)
Clementine
Clementine
Clementine-2 / DSPSE-2CanceledClementine-2
MarsnetCanceledMarset
NEAR / Shoemaker / Discovery-2 (Eros asteroid)1996-02-17NEAR
NEAR
NEAR (patch)
NEAR / ShoemakerNEAR / Shoemaker
MGS (Mars Global Surveyor)1996-11-07MGS
MGS (patch)
MGS (patch)
MGS (patch)
MGSMGS
Cassini-Huygens (Saturn)1997-10-15Cassini-Huygens
Cassini-Huygens (patch)
Cassini (patch)
Cassini-CIRS (patch)
Huygens (patch)
Cassini-HuygensCassini-Huygens
Lunar Prospector / Discovery-3 (lunar orbiter)1998-01-07Lunar Prospector
Lunar Prospector (patch)
Lunar ProspectorLunar Prospector
MCO (Mars Climate Orbiter) [lost]21998-12-11MCOMCOMCO
MPL (Mars Polar Lander) / Deep Space-21 / NMP [lost]1999-01-03MPL
DS-2
MPL+DS-2MPL+DS-2
Mars Surveyor LanderCanceledMars Surveyor (patch)Mars Surveyor Lander
Mars Surveyor Orbiter (renamed as Mars Odyssey, spacecraft body became PML)CanceledMars Surveyor (patch)Mars Surveyor Orbiter
Mars Odyssey (renamed from Mars Surveyor Orbiter)2001-04-07Mars Odyssey
Mars Odyssey (patch)
Mars OdysseyMars Odyssey
Multi-Scout Mars LanderCanceled"Multi-Scout Mars Lander"
"Multi-Scout Mars Lander"
"Multi-Scout Mars Lander"
"Multi-Scout Mars Lander"
"Multi-Scout Mars Lander"
"Multi-Scout Mars Lander"
"Multi-Scout Mars Lander"
MESSENGER / Discovery-8 (Mercury orbiter)2004-08-03MESSENGER
MESSENGER (patch)
MESSENGERMESSENGER
MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter)2005-08-12MRO
MRO (patch)
MRO (patch)
MRO (patch)
MRO (patch)
MROMRO
New Horizons / New Frontiers-1 (formerly Kuiper Express, Pluto flyby)2006-01-19New Horizons
New Horizons (patch)
New HorizonsNew Horizons
PML (Phoenix Mars Lander) / Mars Scout-12007-08-04PML
PML (patch)
PMLPML
Dawn / Discovery-9 (Vesta and Ceres asteroids)2007-09-27Dawn
Dawn (old configuration)
DawnDawn
LRO (lunar orbiter)2009-06-18LRO
LRO+LCROSS (patch)
LRO+LCROSSLRO
LCROSS (lunar impact)2009-06-18LCROSS
LRO+LCROSS (patch)
LCROSS
JUNO / New Frontiers-2 (Jupiter orbiter)2011-08-05JUNO
JUNO (patch)
JUNO (patch)
JUNO (patch)
JUNOJUNO
GRAIL-A/B / Ebb/Flow / Discovery-11 (lunar orbiter)2011-09-10GRAILGRAILGRAIL
LADEE (lunar orbiter)2013-09-06LADEE
LADEE (patch)
LADEELADEE
MAVEN / Mars Scout-2 (Mars orbiter)2013-11-18MAVEN
MAVEN (patch)
MAVEN (patch)
MAVENMAVEN
OSIRIS-REx / New Frontiers-3 (asteroid sample-return)2016-09-08OSIRIS-RExOSIRIS-REx
OSIRIS-REx
"OSIRIS-REx"
InSight / Discovery-12 (Mars surface)2018-05-05InSight (cruise)
InSight (lander)
InSight (launch scrubbed)
Lucy / Discovery-13 (asteroid visits)2021-?
Psyche / Discovery-14 (asteroid visit)2022-?

1Deep Space-2 consists of a set of two probes launched with the Mars Polar Lander (MPL). However, all contact with both MPL and DS-2 was lost after landing.
2The Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) was lost as it was occulted by Mars (went behind Mars as viewed from Earth). The root cause of the loss was found to be the use of English units for thruster performance data generated by a ground based computer program. This data was used in the construction of trajectory models for the spacecraft, and the modellers assumed the data was in metric units as per the specifications.

Other (selected) non-US planetary and lunar exploration satellites:

SatelliteCountryLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Mars Express (orbiter) [success] / Beagle-2 (lander) [failed]Europe (ESA)2003-06-02Mars Express
Mars Express
Beagle-2
Mars Express (patch)
Mars Express (patch)
Mars Express (patch)
Mars ExpressMars Express
SMART (lunar orbiter)Sweden (ESA)2003-09-27SMART-1
SMART-1 (patch)
SMARTSMART
Venus Express (orbiter)Europe (ESA)2005-11-09Venus Express
Venus Express (patch)
Venus ExpressVenus Express
Kaguya / SELENE (lunar orbiter)Japan (JAXA)2007-09-14SELENESELENESELENE
NetLander (Mars orbiter and 4 landers)Europe (CNES and ESA)Canceled"Net Lander (2007)"
"Net Lander (2007)"
Chandrayaan-1 (lunar orbiter)India (ISRO)2008-10-22Chandrayaan-1
Chandrayaan-MIP (probe)
ChandrayaanChandrayaan
Lunar-A (lunar orbiter)Japan (JAXA)CanceledLunar-A"Lunar-A"
Marco Polo (asteroid)Europe (ESA) / Japan (JAXA)CanceledMarco PoloMarco Polo
MOM / Mangalyaan (Mars orbiter)India (ISRO)2013-11-05MOM
MOM (patch)
MangalyaanMangalyaan
PROCYON (asteroid)Japan (JAXA)2014-12-03PROCYONPROCYON (with Hayabusa-2 and OSCAR-81)
BepiColombo (Mercury orbiter)Europe (ESA) / Japan (JAXA)2018-?BepiColombo
BepiColombo-MMO
BepiColombo-MPO
"BepiColombo"
"BepiColombo"
"Beppi-Colombo"
Beppi-Colombo
ExoMars 2016 (TGO and EDM/Schiaparelli)Europe (ESA)2016-03-14TGO
EDM
ExoMarsExoMars
ExoMars 2018 (rover)Europe (ESA)2020-?ExoMars
ExoMars (rover)
ExoMars (orbiter and rover)
EMM / Al-Amal / HopeUAE2020-?Al-Amal/Hope
Al-Amal/Hope
Al-Amal/Hope
Al-Amal/Hope
Al-Amal/Hope


Links to planetary and lunar exploration satellite information:

(The links below lead to information sources that are maintained by others. They are not part of this Website.)


Back to Un-Manned Satellite Philately.



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Updated: 2018-05-22