Voyager

Planetary-exploration
satellites


Below are checklists of Planetary-exploration satellites, including launch dates and images of the satellites. This is a work in progress, and completeness is our goal. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page.


Satellite series covered:


(Later) US Pioneer-series (planetary) satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
(Earlier) Pioneer-series satellites
(non-planetary: Pioneer-0 — Pioneer-E)
reference(Earlier) Pioneer (non-planetary)(Earlier) Pioneer (non-planetary)
Pioneer-10 (Pioneer-F) (Pioneer-Jupiter-1)1972-03-03Pioneer-10
Pioneer-10
Pioneer-10
Pioneer-10
Pioneer-10/11 type (patch)
(Later) Pioneer (planetary)(Later) Pioneer (planetary)
Pioneer-11 (Pioneer-G) (Pioneer-Jupiter-2)1973-04-06Pioneer-11
Pioneer-10/11 type (patch)
Pioneer-12 (Pioneer-Venus-1 / Orbiter)1978-05-20Pioneer-12
Pioneer-12
Pioneer-13 (Pioneer-Venus-2 / Multi-probe)1978-08-08Pioneer-13
Pioneer-13

US Mariner-series satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Mariner-1 [failed]1962-07-22Mariner-2MarinerMariner
Mariner-2 (Venus flyby)1962-08-27
Mariner-3 (Mars probe) [failed]1964-11-05Mariner-4
Mariner-4
Mariner-4 (patch, Mariner-1/2 type depicted)
Mariner-4 (Mars probe)1964-11-28
Mariner-5 (Venus flyby)1967-06-14Mariner-5
Mariner-6 (Mariner-F) (Mars flyby)1969-02-24Mariner-6/7 type
Mariner-6/7 type
Mariner-7 (Mariner-G) (Mars flyby)1969-03-27
Mariner-8 (Mariner-H) [failed]1971-05-09Mariner-9
Mariner-9
Mariner-9 (Mariner-I) (Mars orbiter)1971-05-30
Mariner-10 (Mariner-J) (Venus and Mercury flybys)1973-11-03Mariner-10

Russian Mars-series satellites:

Satellite (Spacecraft Bus*)Launch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Mars-(1a) (1M #1) [failed]1960-10-10Mars-1mMarsMars
Mars-(1b) (1M #2) [failed]1960-10-14
Mars-(1c) (2MV-4 #1) / Sputnik-22 [failed]1962-10-24Mars-1
Mars-1 (2MV-4 #2) / Sputnik-23 (Mars flyby)1962-11-01
Mars-(2a) (2MV-3 #1) / Sputnik-24 [failed]1962-11-04
Mars-(2b) (M-69 #1) [failed]1969-03-27Mars-69
Mars-(2c) (M-69 #2) [failed]1969-04-02
Mars-(2d) (M-71 #1) / Kosmos-419 [failed]1971-05-10Mars-3
Mars-3 (lander)
Mars-2 (M-71 #2)1971-05-19
Mars-3 (M-71 #3)1971-05-28
Mars-4 (M-73 Orbiter #1)1973-07-21Mars-4
Mars-5 (M-73 Orbiter #2)1973-07-25
Mars-6 (M-73 Lander #1)1973-08-05Mars-3
Mars-3 (lander)
Mars-7 (M-73 Lander #2)1973-08-09
Mars-8 (Mars-96)1996-11-16Mars-8 (orbiter)
Mars-8 (lander)

*Spacecraft Bus designations and reference images were obtained from Gunter's Space Page.

Russian Venera (Venus / Venusik) series satellites:

Satellite (Spacecraft Bus*)Launch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Venera-(1a) (1VA #1) / Sputnik-7 [partial failure]1961-02-04Venera-1VeneraVenera
Venera-1 (1VA #2) / Sputnik-81961-02-12
Venera-(2a) (2MV-1 #1) / Sputnik-19 [failed]1962-08-25Venera-2mv-1
Venera-(2b) (2MV-1 #2) / Sputnik-20 [failed]1962-09-01
Venera-(2c) (2MV-2 #1) / Sputnik-21 [failed]1962-09-12
Venera-(2d) (3MV1 #1) / Kosmos-27 [failed]1964-03-27Zond-1
Kosmos-27 (3mv-1)
Venera-2 (3MV-4 #3)1965-11-12Zond-3
Kosmos-96 (3mv-4)
Venera-(4a) (3MV-4 #4) / Kosmos-96 [failed]1965-11-23
Venera-3 (3MV-3 #1)1965-11-16Venera-3
Venera-4 (V-67 #1)1967-06-12
Venera-(5a) (V-67 #2) / Kosmos-167 [failed]1967-06-17
Venera-5 (V-69 #1)1969-01-05Venera-6
Venera-7 (capsule)
Venera-6 (V-69 #2)1969-01-10
Venera-7 (V-70 #1)1970-08-17Venera-7
Venera-7 (capsule)
Venera-(8a) (v-70 #1) / Kosmos-359 [failed]1970-08-22
Venera-8 (V-72 #1)1972-03-27Venera-8
Venera-7 (capsule)
Venera-(9a) (V-72 #2) / Kosmos-482 [failed]1972-03-31
Venera-9 (4V1 #1)1975-06-08Venera-10
Venera-9 (lander)
Venera-10 (4V1 #2)1975-06-14
Venera-11 (4V1 #3)1978-09-09
Venera-12 (4V1 #1)1978-09-14
Venera-13 (4V1M #1)1981-10-30Venera-10
Venera-13 (lander)
Venera-14 (4V1M #2)1981-11-04
Venera-15 (4V2 #1)1983-06-02Venera-16
Venera-16 (4V2 #2)1983-06-07

*Spacecraft Bus designations and reference images were obtained from Gunter's Space Page.

Russian Phobos (Fobos) series (Martian moon) satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Phobos-1 (Martian moon orbiter)1988-07-07Phobos-1PhobosPhobos
Phobos-21988-07-12Phobos-2
Phobos-Grunt [incomplete mission]2011-11-09Phobos-Grunt
Phobos-Grunt

(Later) Japanese Planet-series (planetary) satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
(Earlier) Planet-series satellites
(cometary: Planet-A1 — Planet-A2)
(Earlier) Planet (cometary)(Earlier) Planet (cometary)
Planet-B / Nozomi (Mars)1998-07-03Planet-B(Later) Planet (planetary)(Later) Planet (planetary)
Planet-C / VCO / Akatsuki (Venus)2010-05-20Planet-C

USA Viking-series satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Viking-DS [failed]1974-02-11Viking-DSVikingViking
Viking-1 (Viking-A, Mars orbiter and lander)1975-08-20Viking orbiter
Viking lander
Viking (patch)
Viking (patch)
Viking-2 (Viking-B, Mars orbiter and lander)1975-09-09
Viking-3 (Mars rover)CanceledViking-3 (rover)

US Voyager-series satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Voyager-2 (Voyager-B) (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune flybys)1977-08-20Voyager
Voyager
Voyager (sketch)
Voyager (patch)
Voyager (patch)
VoyagerVoyager
Voyager-1 (Voyager-A) (Jupiter and Saturn flybys)1977-09-05

USA Mars rover missions:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Mars Pathfinder / Sojourner (rover) / Discovery-11996-12-04Mars Pathfinder
Mars Pathfinder/Sojourner
Mars Pathfinder/Sojourner
Mars Pathfinder/Sojourner (patch)
Mars Pathfinder/Sojourner (patch)
Mars Pathfinder/SojournerMars Pathfinder/Sojourner
MER-2 (Mars Exploration Rover-A) / Spirit (rover)2003-06-10MER-A (cruise)
MER-A lander/rover
MER/Spirit (patch)
MER/Opportunity (patch)
MER-A/SpiritMER/Spirit and Opportunity
MER-1 (Mars Exploration Rover-B) / Opportunity (rover)2003-07-08MER-B/Opportunity
MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) / Curiosity (rover)2011-11-26MSL (cruise)
MSL/Curiosity
MSL/Curiosity
MSL/Curiosity (patch)
MSL/Curiosity (patch)
MSL/Curiosity (patch)
MSL/CuriosityMSL/Curiosity
Mars-2020 / Perseverance (rover)2020-07-30Mars-2020/PerseveranceMars-2020/PerseveranceMars-2020/Perseverance

Other (selected) US planetary-exploration satellites:

SatelliteLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Magellan (Venus orbiter) [STS-30R/Atlantis-deployed]1989-05-04Magellan
Magellan
Magellan (patch)
Magellan (patch)
MagellanMagellan
Galileo (Jupiter orbiter) [STS-34/Atlantis-deployed]1989-10-18Galileo
Galileo
Galileo
Galileo (STS-34/Atlantis-deployment, booster attached)
Galileo probe
Galileo (patch)
Galileo (patch)
Galileo (patch)
GalileoGalileo
Mars Observer (orbiter)1992-09-25Mars Observer
Mars Observer
Mars Observer
Mars Observer (patch)
Mars ObserverMars Observer
MarsnetCanceledMarsnet
MGS (Mars Global Surveyor)1996-11-07MGS
MGS (patch)
MGS (patch)
MGS (patch)
MGSMGS
Cassini-Huygens (Saturn)1997-10-15Cassini-Huygens
Cassini-Huygens (patch)
Cassini (patch)
Cassini-CIRS (patch)
Huygens (patch)
Cassini-HuygensCassini-Huygens
MCO (Mars Climate Orbiter) [lost]21998-12-11MCOMCOMCO
MPL (Mars Polar Lander) / Deep Space-21 / NMP [lost]1999-01-03MPL
DS-2
MPL+DS-2MPL+DS-2
Mars Surveyor LanderCanceledMars Surveyor (patch)"Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander"
Mars Surveyor Orbiter (renamed as Mars Odyssey, spacecraft body became PML)CanceledMars Surveyor (patch)"Mars Surveyor 2001 Orbiter"
Mars Surveyor Orbiter
Mars Odyssey (renamed from Mars Surveyor Orbiter)2001-04-07Mars Odyssey
Mars Odyssey (patch)
Mars OdysseyMars Odyssey
Multi-Scout Mars LanderCanceledMulti-Scout Mars Lander
MESSENGER / Discovery-8 (Mercury orbiter)2004-08-03MESSENGER
MESSENGER (patch)
MESSENGERMESSENGER
MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter)2005-08-12MRO
MRO (patch)
MRO (patch)
MRO (patch)
MRO (patch)
MROMRO
New Horizons / New Frontiers-1 (formerly Kuiper Express, Pluto flyby)2006-01-19New Horizons
New Horizons (patch)
New HorizonsNew Horizons
PML (Phoenix Mars Lander) / Mars Scout-12007-08-04PML
PML (patch)
PMLPML
JUNO / New Frontiers-2 (Jupiter orbiter)2011-08-05JUNO
JUNO (patch)
JUNO (patch)
JUNO (patch)
JUNOJUNO
MAVEN / Mars Scout-2 (Mars orbiter)2013-11-18MAVEN
MAVEN (patch)
MAVEN (patch)
MAVENMAVEN
InSight / Discovery-12 (Mars surface), MarCO-A, MarCO-B2018-05-05InSight (cruise)
InSight (lander)
InSightInSight
Dragonfly / New Frontiers-4 (Titan lander and helicopter)2026-?Dragonfly (cruise)
Dragonfly (helicopter)

1Deep Space-2 consists of a set of two probes launched with the Mars Polar Lander (MPL). However, all contact with both MPL and DS-2 was lost after landing.
2The Mars Climate Orbiter (MCO) was lost as it was occulted by Mars (went behind Mars as viewed from Earth). The root cause of the loss was found to be the use of English units for thruster performance data generated by a ground based computer program. This data was used in the construction of trajectory models for the spacecraft, and the modellers assumed the data was in metric units as per the specifications.

Other (selected) non-US planetary-exploration satellites:

SatelliteCountryLaunch DateImages
referencelaunch coversother postal items
Mars Express (orbiter) [success] / Beagle-2 (lander) [failed]Europe (ESA)2003-06-02Mars Express
Mars Express
Mars Express
Mars Express
Beagle-2
Mars Express (patch)
Mars Express (patch)
Mars Express (patch)
Mars ExpressMars Express
Venus Express (orbiter)Europe (ESA)2005-11-09Venus Express
Venus Express (patch)
Venus ExpressVenus Express
NetLander (Mars orbiter and 4 landers)Europe (CNES and ESA)Canceled"Net Lander (2007)"
"Net Lander (2007)"
MOM / Mangalyaan (Mars orbiter)India (ISRO)2013-11-05MOM
MOM (patch)
Mangalyaan / MOMMangalyaan / MOM
ExoMars 2016 (TGO and EDM/Schiaparelli)Europe (ESA)2016-03-14ExoMars-TGO
ExoMars-EDM
ExoMarsExoMars
BepiColombo (Mercury orbiter)Europe (ESA) / Japan (JAXA)2018-10-20 BepiColombo
BepiColombo-MMO
BepiColombo-MPO
BepiColombo (patch)
BepiColomboBepiColombo
EMM / Al-Amal / Hope (Mars)UAE2020-07-19 Al-Amal / Hope (early design)
Al-Amal / Hope (early design)
Al-Amal / Hope
Al-Amal / Hope (patch)
Al-Amal (scrubbed)
Al-Amal (launch)
Al-Amal / Hope (early design)
Al-Amal / Hope
Al-Amal / Hope
Tianwen-1 (Mars)China/PR2020-07-23 Tianwen-1
Tianwen-1 (cruise)
Tianwen-1 (lander)
Tianwen-1 (rover)
ExoMars (rover)Europe (ESA)2022-?ExoMars
ExoMars (rover)
ExoMars (orbiter and rover)
MMX (Mars mission)Japan (ISAS/JAXA)2024-?MMX"MMX"


Links to planetary-exploration satellite information:

(The links below lead to information sources that are maintained by others. They are not part of this Website.)


Back to Un-Manned Satellite Philately.



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This Website created and maintained by Don Hillger and Garry Toth.
Updated: 2020-09-14