ice globe

Natural Climate Change
and Variability

hot globe

Below is a checklist of postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.) related to Natural climate change and variability. Catalog numbers, years of issue, and notes on the items featured are given when available. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page.

Philatelic items for people who contributed to climatology are found in the Climatologists and contributors to climatology page, where brief classifications of their principal climatological contributions are found. In that page the natural climate change theme is listed in green, so the user can easily find all the climatologists who contributed to the theme of natural climate change.

Launch covers
(including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers)
(farther below)
Other postal items
(stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.)
(immediately below)
Ice ages
The seasons
Effect of large comets/asteroids striking the Earth
Solar effects Solar effects
Effect of continental drift Effect of continental drift
Volcanic effects
Ocean effects and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Ocean effects and Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
Forests and vegetation and climate
Climate records from proxies:
Ice coring and glaciology
Marine sediments and coring
Tree rings (dendrochronology)


Below is a list of Natural climate change and variability on postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.).

CountryCatalog NumberType of ItemYear of IssueNotes on Content
Ice ages
Ice ages are major climatic events that have occurred many times in the past. In the 1920s the Serbian mathematician Milutin Milanković hypothesized that there are relationships between long-term cycles in the Earth's climate and changes in its orbital eccentricity, axial tilt and precession, and derived formulas that describe the cycles and show how they can interact so that at some times there is more sunlight striking the Earth, and at others there is less. When there is less, snow and ice can accumulate and glaciers can advance, forming an ice age. When there is more, there is warming and the ice retreats. The theory of Milanković cycles remained controversial, but a paper published in the journal Science in 1976 ("Variations in the Earth's orbit: pacemaker of the Ice Ages" by Hayes, Imbrie and Shackleton) confirmed the basic ideas. In it, measurements from deep ocean sediment cores along with new understanding of celestial mechanics were used to show that variations in solar insolation were the main cause of the advance and retreat of ice sheets in the Quaternary period.

One secondary effect of ice ages is that as the temperature decreases and the ice sheets advance, the sea level drops as some of the water is taken into the glaciers, and vice-versa.

Jersey (Great Britain)285 (Mi?)From MS20 (285a (20x 285))198216,000 BC: ice begins to retreat from the point of greatest glaciation of last ice age; sea level is at its lowest
Jersey (Great Britain)286 (Mi?)From MS20 (286a (20x 286))10,000 BC: ice continues to retreat and sea level is rising
Jersey (Great Britain)287 (Mi?)From MS20 (287a (20x 287))7,000 BC: with continued warming, ice has retreated more and sea level has continued to rise
Jersey (Great Britain)288 (Mi?)From MS20 (288a (20x 288))4,000 BC: Temperatures and sea level have risen to almost modern values
Jersey (Great Britain)285-288 fdc1Four stamps on FDC(As above)
Jersey (Great Britain)285-288 fdc2Four stamps on FDC (different)(As above)
The seasons
This table presents a selection of philatelic items that depict or refer to individual seasons or the four seasons of the middle latitudes, or show Earth orbiting the Sun in the context of the seasons, with different seasons in different parts of the orbit. The latter items are highlighted in yellow. (In this page, no attempt is made to be complete.)
Belgium2655 (Mi?)Four of five stamps on MS5 (2655 (a-e))2013Four seasons depiction (in four of the five stamps, in which heat-sensitive ink is used, so that when their temperature rises to 25°C or higher, the contents change to more clearly represent the four seasons, and also seasonal weather icons appear)
Belgium2655 changedMS5 (2655 (a-e)) with changed colors (when above 25°C in strip of 4 (2655f) and also in lower-left margin); see also hot-and-cold animation
Belgium2655a-e fdcFour of five stamps and cachet on FDC
Canada535 (Mi?)1971The four seasons
Canada535 fdcStamp(s) and cachet on FDC
Canada536 (Mi?)
Canada536 fdcStamp(s) and cachet on FDC
Canada537 (Mi?)
Canada537 fdcStamp(s) and cachet on FDC
Canada538 (Mi?)
Canada538 fdcStamp(s) and cachet on FDC
Canada535-538 folderFolder (535-538), also inside p1, inside p2, and envelope
Canada1283 (Mi?)1990Forests and the four seasons
Canada1283aPane of 4 (1283)
Canada1283a packPack (1283)
Canada1284 (Mi?)
Canada1284aPane of 4 (1284)
Canada1284a packPack (1284)
Canada1285 (Mi?)
Canada1285aPane of 4 (1285)
Canada1285a packPack (1285)
Canada1286 (Mi?)
Canada1286aPane of 4 (1286)
Canada1286a packPack (1286)
Canada1286bBlock of 4 (1283-1286)
Canada1286b fdcBlock of 4 on FDC, also back
Canada1286cSheet of 20 (5x (1283-1286))
Cyprus1201 (Mi?)2014winter
Cyprus1202 (Mi?)spring
Cyprus1203 (Mi?)summer
Cyprus1204 (Mi?)fall
Cyprus1201-1204 fdcFour stamps and cancel and cachet on FDC(As above)
Cyprus1212 (Mi?)1201 overprinted (surcharged)2014winter
Cyprus1213 (Mi?)1202 overprinted (surcharged)spring
Cyprus1214 o/p (Mi?)1204 overprinted (surcharged)fall
Cyprus1212-1214 fdcThree stamps and cancel and cachet on FDC(As above)
Finland1052a (Mi?)Booklet pane of 4 (1052a (1049-1052)), with booklet cover and inside1997The four seasons
Finland1052a fdcBooklet pane of 4 on FDC, also back
Finland1379 (Mi?)Strip of 2 (1379 (a-b))2011The four seasons
Finland1379 fdcStrip of 2 and cachet on FDC
FinlandUnknown strip (Mi?)Strip of 4 (a-d)2017The four seasons
Great Britain1421 (Mi?)1992"Wintertime"
Great Britain1422 (Mi?)
Great Britain1423 (Mi?)
Great Britain1424 (Mi?)
Great Britain1425 (Mi?)
Great Britain1421-1425 packPresentation pack
Great Britain1425aBooklet pane of 4 (142?-142?) from Prestige Booklet BK156
Great Britain1510 (Mi?)1993"Autumn"
Great Britain1511 (Mi?)
Great Britain1512 (Mi?)
Great Britain1513 (Mi?)
Great Britain1514 (Mi?)
Great Britain1510-1514 packPresentation pack
Great Britain1572 (Mi?)1993"Summertime"
Great Britain1573 (Mi?)
Great Britain1574 (Mi?)
Great Britain1575 (Mi?)
Great Britain1576 (Mi?)
Great Britain1572-1576 packPresentation pack
Great Britain1591 (Mi?)1993"Springtime"
Great Britain1592 (Mi?)
Great Britain1593 (Mi?)
Great Britain1594 (Mi?)
Great Britain1595 (Mi?)
Great Britain1591-1595 packPresentation pack
Great Britain1966a fdc (Mi1924-1927 fdc)Cachet on FDC2001
Hungary1668 (BL46A)
i1668 (BL46B)
SS1 (Mi2110)
Imperforate SS1
1965
Hungary1668 fdc
i1668 fdc
SS1 on FDC
Imperforate SS1 on FDC
IcelandUnknown1 (Mi?)2016spring
IcelandUnknown2 (Mi?)summer
IcelandUnknown3 (Mi?)winter
IcelandUnknown4 (Mi?)fall
IcelandUnknown1 (Mi?)Self-adhesive2016spring
IcelandUnknown2 (Mi?)Self-adhesivesummer
IcelandUnknown3 (Mi?)Self-adhesivewinter
IcelandUnknown4 (Mi?)Self-adhesivefall
IsraelUnknown ms (Mi?)MS4 (a-d)2016"Seasons in Israel"
JordanUnknown ms (Mi?)MS4 (a-d)2016"The Four Seasons"
MonacoUnknown (Mi?)2016"Les saisons"
United States5071 fdc (Mi5245 fdc)(Bullfrog) cachet on FDC2016"Earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23.4º away from the perpendicular of its orbital plane, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface with a period of one tropical year (365.24 solar days)".
United States5319 fdc (Mi5539BE fdc)Cancel and (ROMP) cachet on FDC2018"winter"
United States5320 fdc (Mi5540BD fdc)Cancel (different) and (ROMP) cachet (different) on FDC
Effect of large comets/asteroids striking the Earth
GermanyNone(Pictorial) cancel1995"Comet collision with Earth?" (65 million years ago)
Guinea-BissauMi4557-4561_ms5MS5 (Mi4557-4561 + label)2010(probable) asteroid (or comet) impact with Earth 65 million years ago
Guinea-BissauBL741SS1 (Mi4562)
Guinea-BissauBL741 fdcSS1 and cachet on FDC
Solar effects
The Sun provides the energy (solar radiant energy of approximately 1361 W/m2, known as the solar constant) that drives Earth's weather and climate. The solar constant is in fact not perfectly constant: there are small variations, some periodic and some aperiodic. The main periodic variation is referred to as the solar cycle, perhaps more commonly known as the 11 year sunspot cycle. It was discovered in 1843 by the German astronomer Samuel Heinrich Schwabe. Various attempts have been made to link solar variability as seen in the sunspot cycle, or longer term solar variability, with variability in Earth's climate. None have been conclusive.

This table contains philatelic items that include references to the Sun or show solar images, including sunspots and other solar effects, in the general context of the Sun as the source of the Earth's energy and the driver of the Earth's climate. (No attempt is made to be complete.)

ArgentinaNone(Purple) cachet on cover, or in more detail in this black version1993Vicecomodoro Marambaio Solar Radiation [measurement] Station (in Spanish text)
AustraliaNonestamped envelope1983Solar World Congress
AustraliaNone fdc1stamped envelope FDC (Parramatta NSW cancel)
AustraliaNone fdc2stamped envelope FDC (Solar World Congress cancel)
AustraliaNone fdc3stamped envelope FDC (Katoomba NSW cancel)
AustraliaNone fdc4stamped envelope FDC (Southport QLD cancel)
AustraliaNone fdc5stamped envelope FDC (Fremantle WA cancel)
AustraliaNone fdc6stamped envelope FDC (Modbury SA cancel)
AustraliaNone fdc7stamped envelope FDC (Brisbane QLD cancel)
Austria2083 (Mi?)2007"Fire [the Sun] and Earth"
Austria2083 blackBlackprint
Belgium2016 (Mi3279)
i2016
From MS10 (2016a (10x 2016))
Imperforate
2004"Sun-Earth relationships"
Belgium2016 fdcStamp and cachet on FDC (Liege cancel)
Belgium2016 fdc2Stamp and cancel (same) and cachet (different) on FDC (Liege cancel)
Belgium2016 maxiMaxicard (Liege cancel)
Belgium2018 (Mi3281)
i2018
From MS10 (2018a (10x 2018))
Imperforate
Sun, sunspots and schematic variations of solar energy output with time
Belgium2018 fdc1Stamp and cachet on FDC (Liege cancel)
Belgium2018 maxiMaxicard (Liege cancel)
Belgium2015-2018 fdcTwo of four stamps on FDC (Liege cancel)(As above)
Belgium2015-2018 fd-sheetTwo of four stamps on FD sheet (Brussels cancel)
Belgium2434d (Mi?)One of strip of 5 (2434 (a-e)), or two of MS10 (2434f (2x (2434 (a-e)))2010Symbolic Sun heating the Earth
Great Britain3113 (Mi3366)From presentation pack2012Sun seen by SOHO satellite
Great Britain3113-3118 fdc1One of six stamps on FDC
Great Britain3113-3118 fdc2One of six stamps on FDC (different cancel)
Guinea RepublicBL1584A
BL1584B
In (upper) margin of SS1
In (upper) margin of imperforate SS1
2008Shuttle mission STS-122 brought to the ISS "a solar observatory and a European platform with eight instruments for the study of the space environment" (in French text); the solar observatory continuously monitored the solar flux: the energy flowing from the Sun. Those observations contribute to a better understanding of solar physics and also of how the Sun may be contributing to global warming and climate change.
Hong Kong1714 (Mi1968)One of strip of 6 (1715a (1710-1715)) (Mi1964-1969)2015sunspots
Hong Kong1714 maxiMaxicard
Hong Kong1713-1714_ms3On one of MS3 (d-f)
Hong Kong1713-1715_ms3 fdc1MS3 on FDC
Hong Kong1713-1715_ms3 fdc2MS3 on FDC (different cachet)
Hungary1217 (Mi1576)1959sunspots
India2288 (Mi2320)2008sunspots
Russia (USSR)2986 (Mi3006)1964Galileo and sunspots
Sri Lanka1954 (Mi?)One of MS10 (1963a (1957-1863)), or one of MS10 (1963b (1954-1963)) inscribed2014
United StatesNone(Coverscape) cachet on cover2011The anomalous "Year without a Summer" of 1816 is believed to have been caused by a combination of "a historic low in solar activity" and "a succession of major volcanic eruptions capped off by the Mount Tambora eruption of 1815"
United StatesNone(Zazzle.com) personalized postage2016For an unknown reason, sunspots virtually disappeared between 1645 and 1715 in what is now known as the "Maunder minimum", named after E.W. Maunder (1851-1928), an English astronomer who studied that period of minimum solar activity
Effect of continental drift
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's land masses relative to each other over geological time periods. The geophysicist and meteorologist Alfred Wegener developed the theory starting in around 1912 and coined the term die Verschiebung der Kontinente (continental drift). The South African geologist Alexander du Toit, working more or less independently, proposed similar ideas. The climatologist Wladimir Köppen worked with Wegener to build the theory. They were convinced that the movement of continents over time could account for the geological and paleoclimatic evidence that ancient climates had been vastly different from modern ones. Ernest Shackleton's Antarctic expedition of 1908-9 had found fossilized plants and coal seams in the Beardmore Glacier area that indicated a previous warmer and wetter climate. Robert Scott's ill-fated 1912 South Pole expedition discovered fossilized leaves of glossopteris1, an extinct tree of the gymnosperm family. Similar fossils had previously been found in Africa, India, Australia and southern South America. This fact led the Austrian geologist Eduard Suess (1831-1914) to hypothesize in the late 19th century that those areas must formed a single land mass in the distant past (a supercontinent that he named Gondwanaland). Suess did not believe in the motion of continents, however; he thought that the separation into distinct landmasses had been caused by rising waters. (Suess is featured in Austria Scott 1454; see also a FDC and a maxicard). Scott's find gave more support to the idea of Gondwanaland and to the idea that Antarctica must have had a very different climate in the past. Other fossilized warm climate plants such as ferns1 have since been found in the polar regions. In addition, fossilized leaves of some other plants1 including the nothophagus1 tree have recently been found in Antarctica. Members of this species, known commonly as the southern beech, still grow in New Zealand, New Caledonia, southern Australia and southern South America. All these finds provide consistent support for the idea of continental drift and the resulting changes in climates of the moving landmasses.

Wegener and Köppen were unable to suggest a plausible physical process that could drive continental drift, so most scientists rejected their revolutionary theory. It was only in the 1960s that geophysical understanding advanced to the point where an updated theory, known as plate tectonics, became widely accepted. It is now known that new oceanic crust is created at "spreading centres" at oceanic rifts where material from the deeper mantle flows upward and forms underwater mountain ridges. The seafloor spreads away from the ridges, which in turn forces the motion of continents.

In the table below, philatelic items highlighted in pale yellow make explicit reference to climate change related to continental drift. The reference to climate change in all other items is implicit.

1Stamps depicting various finds of fossilized plants in the polar regions are included in the table below.

Ascension268 (Mi?)1980Continental drift and mid-Atlantic ridge
Austria1169 fdc1 (Mi1660 fdc1)Cancel on FDC1980Continental drift
Austria1169 fdc2 (Mi1660 fdc2)Cancel (same) on FDC (different)
Austria1169 fdc3 (Mi1660 fdc3)Cancel (same) on FDC (different)
Austria1169 sc (Mi1660 sc)Souvenir card
British Antarctic Territory86 (Mi88)1982"Continental drift and climatic change"
British Antarctic Territory87 (Mi89)
British Antarctic Territory88 (Mi90)
British Antarctic Territory89 (Mi91)
British Antarctic Territory90 (Mi92)
British Antarctic Territory91 (Mi93)
British Antarctic Territory86-91 fdcSix stamps and cachet on FDC, also insert and insert back
British Antarctic Territory86+89 fdcTwo stamps and cachet (different) on FDC
British Antarctic Territory157 (Mi160)1990Fossil leaf of gymnosperm family from Antarctica
British Antarctic Territory158 (Mi161)Fossil fern from Antarctica
British Antarctic Territory172 (Mi173)1991Nothofagus tree from late Cretaceous forest
British Antarctic Territory280 (Mi293)1999Crustal microplates of west Antarctica
British Antarctic Territory401 (Mi?)2008Fossil ferns from Snow and Alexander Islands in Antarctica
British Antarctic Territory402 (Mi?)
British Antarctic Territory403 (Mi?)
British Antarctic Territory404 (Mi?)
British Antarctic Territory401-404 fdcFour stamps and cachet on FDC
CroatiaNoneCachet on cover1998
Faroe Islands513 (Mi?)MS6 (513 (a-f))2009Faroe Islands geology - illustration of mid-Atlantic ridge and seafloor spreading
French Southern and Antarctic Territories311 (Mi496-497)MS2 (311 (a-b + label))2002"Programme CartoKer" - Cartographie des Îles Kerguelen (Kerguelen Islands mapping in the context of the local plate tectonics - "tectonique des plaques")
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC97 (Mi?)1987Continental drift
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC97 fdcStamp on FDC (PJ cachet)
Germany (Berlin)9N451 (Mi616)1980Wegener and continental drift
Germany (Berlin)9N451 fdcStamp and cancel on FDC
Germany (Berlin)9N451 fdc2Stamp and cancel (same) and cachet (different) on FDC
Germany (Berlin)9N451 fdc3Stamp and cancel (same) and cachet (different) on FDC
Germany (Berlin)9N451 fdc4Stamp and cancel (same) on FDC
Germany (Berlin)9N451 maxiMaxicard
Germany (Berlin)9N451 scSouvenir card
Germany (Berlin)9N451 cover1Stamp cover1980Wegener and continental drift
Germany (Berlin)9N451 cover2Stamp cover (different)1980Wegener and continental drift
Germany (Berlin)9N451 cover3Stamp on cover (different)1980Wegener and continental drift
Germany (Berlin)9N451 cover4Stamp on cover (different)1980Wegener and continental drift
Germany (East)2091 (Mi?)1980Wegener and continental drift
Germany (East)2088+2091+2093 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Germany (East)2091 cover (Mi? cover)Stamp on cover1980Wegener and continental drift
Germany (East)2146 (Mi2560)One of block of 4 (2146a (2143-2146)) (Mi 2557-2560)1980Cross-section showing Earth's crust, upper and lower mantle and core. The tectonic plates, part of the crust, drift with currents in the fluid viscoplastic upper mantle.
Germany (West)1404 sc (Mi1187 sc)Souvenir card back, also front1983"Place techtonics" and "continental drift" (in German text)
Greenland533 (Mi?)2009Schizoneura carcinoides fossil conifer needles from Greenland
India1623 (Mi?)1997Glossopteris fossil leaf from India
India1622-1625 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
Korea (North)3585 (Mi3881-3885)
i3585
In stamps 'd' and 'e' of MS5 (3585 (a-e))
In stamps 'd' and 'e' of imperforate MS5 (i3585 (a-e))
1996Earth eras with continental drift illustrated from Mesozoic to Cenozoic (last two stamps)
Korea (North)3585 fdcMS5 on FDC
Mongolia1145 (Mi?)SS11980"Continental drift"
Mongolia1145 fdcSS1 on FDC
St. Vincent2764f (Mi?)One of MS18 (2764 (a-r + label))1999Wegener and continental drift
Sierra LeoneUnknown a (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)2016Major tectonic plates around the Americas
Somalia582 (Mi?)1987Somali plate and continental drift in area of East Africa, Arabian Peninsula and India, from 160 million years ago to present
Somalia583 (Mi?)
Somalia584 (Mi?)
Somalia585 (Mi?)
Somalia585a (Mi?)MS2 (584-585)
South AfricaNone(Red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1981Continental drift
South AfricaNone(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1983Continental drift
South Africa813 (Mi828)1991du Toit and "continental drift/plate tectonics" (in maxicard text)
South Africa813 maxiStamp and cancel and cachet on maxicard
South Africa810-813 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
South AfricaKM3502.5 cents (silver coin)2007
Tristan da Cunha283 (Mi?)1980Mid-Atlantic ridge
Zambia98 (Mi101)1973Glossopteris fossil leaf from Zambia
Volcanic effects
Major volcanic eruptions have a temporary cooling effect because the material ejected into the upper atmosphere circulates some years and reflects or absorbs solar radiation, which reduces the amount of energy reaching the ground. In extreme cases, the effect can be termed a "volcanic winter". Gases and material ejected into the lower atmosphere can also have significant effects.

The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) is a measure of the intensity of volcanic eruptions. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volcanic_Explosivity_Index. Large eruptions can affect the climate temporarily (for a few years). The eruptions described below, with VEIs of 5 or greater, had measurable effects on the climate. Philatelic items that feature those volcanoes are included in the table below. This graphic shows the probable effects on global mean near-surface temperatures (the black line) of several 20th century volcanoes, including Agung and Pinatubo, which are included below.

Laki (VEI 6)

The eruption of Laki (in Iceland, the event is known as the Skaftáreldar, or the Skaftá fires) lasted from June 1783 to February 1784. In the second half of 1783, a persistent haze referred to as a "dry fog" (in modern terms characterized as a "stratospheric sulphate aerosol veil") covered Europe, and was observed to be the densest such fog since the eruption of another volcano, Eldgjá, in 934 AD. The following winter (1783-1784) was very cold both in Europe and in eastern North America. Benjamin Franklin, who was living in Paris at the time (he was the first American ambassador to France) saw the effects for himself and concluded that the eruption could be the cause of the dry fog and the subsequent cold weather. Several years of climate extremes followed in Europe, with the eruption as one probable cause.

Tambora (VEI 7)

Tambora (Indonesia) erupted in April 1815. It was the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history. As a result, European and North American weather was so cold that it came to be known as the "Year without Summer", during which there were crop failures, losses of livestock and an eventual food shortage and famine. Average global temperatures decreased (possibly by up to 0.7°C) after the eruption, and research has shown that 1816 was the coldest northern hemisphere year since around 1400, with the exception of 1601 (which itself followed a major volcanic eruption, that of Huaynaputina in Peru). As in Europe in 1783 after the eruption of Laki, a persistent "dry fog" occurred after the eruption of Tambora, this time over the northeastern US. China also experienced a major cold temperature period after the Tambora eruption. The volcanic ash in the atmosphere from the Tambora eruption caused some spectacular sunsets. The British artist J. M. W. Turner, who was always fascinated by the Sun and its light, was inspired by those sunsets in some of his work.

Krakatoa (VEI 6)

Krakatoa (Indonesia) began to erupt in May 1883 and was destroyed in the final massive eruption on 27 August 1883. The material ejected into the upper atmosphere resulted in spectacular sunsets around the world, and fast-moving plumes of dust tracked by weather watchers in the low latitudes became known as the "equatorial smoke stream" and were the first hints of strong narrow currents of upper winds that came to be known as jet streams. In the year following the eruption, global temperatures are estimated to have fallen by up to 1°C, and it was called another "year without summer" in some parts of the world. The temperatures did not return to normal until several years later.

Pinatubo (VEI 6)

Pinatubo (Philippines) erupted massively in June 1991, with worldwide effects. Measurements show a global mean near-surface temperature decrease just after the eruption of approximately 0.2° C. Stratospheric temperatures, on the other hand, were measured to rise after the eruption. This was due to absorption of sunlight by the dust and aerosols, which persisted for three years. Another likely effect of the eruption was an increase in stratospheric ozone destruction, caused by volcanic aerosols eventually spreading to polar latitudes and catalyzing ozone-destroying catalyzing reactions. The largest ever Antarctic ozone hole was measured at the end of 1993 by the TOMS instrument aboard Nimbus-7. It is possible that the aerosols from the Pinatubo eruption contributed to the size of that hole.

Mount Agung (VEI 5)

This volcano, in Bali, erupted on 17 March 1963 and again on 16 May of that year. Measurements show a global mean near-surface temperature decrease just after the eruption of approximately 0.3° C.

Central African RepublicUnknown a (Mi?)One of (MS4 (a-d))2013Krakatoa
France3363 personalized(La Poste) personalized postage2012Krakatoa
Guinea-BissauMi3902A
Mi3902B
One of MS4 (Mi3899A-3902A)
One of imperforate MS4 (Mi3899B-3902B)
2008Krakatoa
Guinea-BissauMi3899A-3902A_ms4 fdcMS4 on FDC
Guinea-BissauUnknown b (Mi?)One of (MS4 (a-d))2013Krakatoa
Guinea-BissuaUnknown fdcMS4 on FDC
Iceland557 (Mi?)1983"Skaftáreldar 1783"; 200th anniv. eruption of Laki
Iceland557 fdcStamp on FDC
IndonesiaB154 (Mi?)1963Agung
IndonesiaB155 (Mi?)
IndonesiaB154-B155 fdcTwo stamps and cancel and cachet on FDC
Indonesia1204 (Mi1110)1983100th anniv. eruption of Krakatoa
Indonesia1205 (Mi1111)
Indonesia1204-1205 fdcTwo stamps and cachet on FDC
Indonesia2028 (Mi?)Two of MS10 (2032a (2x 2028-2032))2003(120th anniv. eruption of Krakatoa)
Indonesia2030 (Mi?)Tambora
Indonesia2028-2029+2031 fdcOne of three stamps on FDCKrakatoa
Indonesia2030+2032 fdcOne of two stamps on FDCTambora
IndonesiaUnknown ss (BL?)SS12015200th anniv. Tambora eruption
Mali1032e (Mi2429)One of MS9 (1032 (a-i))1999Krakatoa
Micronesia651c (Mi?)One of MS4 (651 (a-d))2005Krakatoa
NigerUnknown d (Mi?)One of (MS4 (a-d))2014Krakatoa
NigerUnknown fdcMS4 on FDC
PhilippinesRA1 (Mi?)1992Mt Pinatubo fund; lahar mudflow
PhilippinesRA2 (Mi?)From block of 4 (RA5a (RA2-RA5))Mt Pinatubo fund; Pinatubo erupting
PhilippinesRA3 (Mi?)Mt Pinatubo fund; cattle searching for food
PhilippinesRA3+2144 coverOne of two stamps and address on cover"Mt Pinatubo surcharge paid"
PhilippinesRA4 (Mi?)From block of 4 (RA5a (RA2-RA5))Mt Pinatubo fund; evacuation camp
PhilippinesRA5 (Mi?)Mt Pinatubo fund; clearing ash
RomaniaNonePrinted stamp and cachet on postal card2011Laki
Sierra LeoneUnknown ss (BL?)On stamp of SS12016"Krakatoa"
TogoUnknown a (Mi?)From MS4 (a-d)2011Krakatoa
United Nations
UN (Geneva)
UN (Vienna)
636a fdc1
243a fdc1
159a fdc1
One of 3 strips of 4 on FDC (636a+243a+159a)1993Volcanic eruption (in a climate change context)
United Nations
UN (Geneva)
UN (Vienna)
636a fdc2
243a fdc2
159a fdc2
One of 3 strips of 4 and cachet on FDC (636a+243a+159a)
United Nations
UN (Geneva)
UN (Vienna)
636a folder
243a folder
159a folder
One of 3 strips of 4 on FDC folder, also folder cover
United Nations (Geneva)243a fdc (Mi239-242 fdc)Cachet on FDC1993Volcanic eruption (in a climate change context)
United Nations (Vienna)159a (Mi156-159)Strip of 4 (156-159), from MS24 (159b (6x (156-159))1993Volcanic eruption (in a climate change context)
United Nations (Vienna)159a fdc1Strip of 4 and cachet on FDC
United Nations (Vienna)159a fdc2Strip of 4 on FDC
United Nations (Vienna)159a maxi1Maxicard
United Nations (Vienna)159a maxi2Maxicard (different cancels)
United StatesNone(Coverscape) cachet on cover2010"Mount Tambora in Indonesia erupted in April 1815 with a rating of 7 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, making it the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history ... The eruption created global climate change. 1816 became known as the 'Year Without a Summer' because of the effect on weather in New England" (and elsewhere, such as Europe)
United StatesNone(Coverscape) cachet on cover201120th anniv. eruption; Pinatubo "injected large amounts of aerosol into the stratosphere ... over the following months ... global temperatures dropped by about 0.9°F (0.5°C)"
United StatesNone(Coverscape) cachet on cover2011After "a succession of major volcanic eruptions capped off by the Mount Tambora eruption of 1815", 1816 was the "Year without a Summer", during which "severe climate abnormalities caused average global temperatures to decrease by about 0.4 - 0.7°C (0.7 - 1.3°F)"
United StatesNone(Coverscape) cachet on cover2013130th anniv. eruption of Krakatoa
United StatesNone(Coverscape) cachet on cover2018135th anniv. eruption of Krakatoa
Ocean effects and Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
Australia571 (Mi582)1975"Oceanography employs satellites which track free-drifting buoys, tracking the ocean currents and transmitting data on physical and chemical properties of the water masses"; (those data include the SST - sea surface temperature)
Australia563+566+569+571 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC
Australia563+566+569+571 fdc2One of four stamps on FDC (different cancel)
Australian Antarctic TerritoryUnknown folder (Mi? folder)Folder back, also front and inside2018"the impact of ocean acidification"
FranceNoneCachet on cover1979"Campagne ... SINODE4"
Franklin Mint (USA)None(Bronze) medallion reverse, also obverse1970s"GOES-1 transmits images and information about ocean currents"
France3362 personalzied booklet (Mi?)(La Poste) personalized postage booklet of 10 "Save the Oceans" stamps sponsored by the Maud Fontenoy Foundation, with booklet cover2010"ocean currents move heat from the tropics to cooler regions of the globe" (in French text in one of the boxes in left margin)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1983"Campagne SINODE4"
French Southern and Antarctic Territories172 (Mi293)1992"Programme WOCE" (World Ocean Circulation Experiment)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories172 fdcStamp and cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic Territories172 maxiMaxicard
French Southern and Antarctic Territories468a (Mi782)One of strip of 5 (468 (a-e + 5 labels)) (Mi782-786), or one of MS25 (468f (5x 468 (a-e + 5 labels))2012The Antarctic circumpolar current3 (in red)
GermanyNoneCachet on cover1994"MEridionale TRAnsporte im NordAtlantik - METRANA" (North Atlantic Meridional Transport (of heat), part of the "WOCE" (World Ocean Circulation Experiment))
Great Britain1966a fdc (Mi1924-1927 fdc)(Benham) back of FDC, also front and insert2001"the warming effect of the Gulf Stream Drift adds a further influence" (to the weather and climate of Great Britain)
Marshall Islands678 (BL24)SS11998"drought brought on by El Niño"
Micronesia297 (BL39)SS11998El Niño
Micronesia298 (BL40)SS1
New CaledoniaC268 (Mi1022)
iC268

Imperforate
1994 Typical El Niño pattern of abnormally warm water in red and yellow tones stretching across the Pacific (rotate 130 degrees left to see the usual orientation with north upward) inferred from TOPEX-Poseidon observations of sea-surface topography
New CaledoniaC268 fdcStamp and cachet (design like stamp) on FDC
New CaledoniaC268 dsDeluxe sheet (C268)
New Zealand2172 (Mi?)From block of 6 (2172-2177)2008The Gisborne drought depicted in the stamp was the result of the strong 1997-1998 El Niño that brought drought conditions to many parts of the western south Pacific
New Zealand2172-2177 fdc1One of six stamps on FDC, also back
New Zealand2172-2177 fdc2One of six stamps on FDC (different, available only in a special limited-edition album, below)
New Zealand2172-2177_albumLimited-edition album, with page containing MS5 (2177a (2172-2177))
Norway892 fdc (Mi? fdc)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front1986Norway is "warmed by Gulf Stream breezes"
Norway893 fdc (Mi? fdc)(Fleetwood) back of FDC, also front"The gentle Gulf Stream current keeps the fjord areas temperate despite their location above the Arctic Circle"
Peru1423 (Mi1938)2004Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomaly chart illustrating El Niño conditions; "impacts of the climatic anomalies associated [with] El Niño ... such as intense precipitation and floods, drought, fires and freezes, infectious illnesses, [all] can have a much bigger duration" (in folder text)
Peru1423 folderFDC folder, also inside, and back
United StatesNone(WSE2000) postcard, also back2000"Using radar altimetry, Jason-1 will continue to measure sea surface height with unprecedented accuracy"
United StatesNoneJason-1 postcard200?Series of graphics over the Pacific, probably of sea surface height anomalies, showing the development of a strong El Niño (possibly the El Niño of 1997-1998)
United States4893 (Mi5079)From MS10 (4893a (10x 4893))2014Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) (in colors on the stamp and in the cachet of fdc4); "Sea surface temperatures - satellite measurements provide vital data for weather forecasts and climate study" (in the ArtCraft cachets); "This image also combines the depiction of sea-surface temperatures with visible vegetation on the landmasses" (in the souvenir page text)
United States4893 fdc1Stamp and (ArtCraft) cachet on FDC (DCP cancel)
United States4893 fdc2Stamp and (ArtCraft) cachet (same) on FDC (normal cancel)
United States4893 fdc3Stamp on FDC (DCP cancel, no cachet)
United States4893 fdc4Stamp and (?) cachet on FDC (DCP cancel)
United States4893 fdc5Stamp and (Hobby Link) cachet on FDC (DCP cancel), also back
United States4893 fdc6Stamp on FDC (DCP cancel, on top card for pack of 100 panes)
United StatesSP1936(USPS) souvenir page (4893)
United StatesNone(Zazzle.com) personalized postage2016SSTs and Pacific ocean thermocline in "El Niño & La Niña" conditions
United StatesNone(Zazzle.com) personalized postage2016"Typical January - March weather anomalies and atmospheric circulation during moderate to strong El Niño & La Niña"
United StatesNone(Zazzle.com) personalized postage2016"Pacific Ocean - world's largest air conditioner" (refers to its effect of moderating temperatures on parts of the western coasts of North and South America)
Wallis and Futuna IslandsUnknown4 (Mi?)One of strip of 4 (1-4)2017"Ocean acidification" (in French text)
Wallis and Futuna IslandsUnknown4 fdcStamp on FDC
Forests and vegetation and climate
Antigua and Barbuda3284 (BL?)SS12015In photosynthesis, plants absorb CO2 and give off O2
Germany (East)1103 (Mi1464)1969Forests as regulators of climate
Moldova713-714 fdc (Mi? fdc)Cachet on FDC2011Trees as the symbolic lungs of the atmosphere
Tuvalu1198 (Mi?)2012"Plant a tree to help reduce greenhouse gases"
Climate records from proxies:
No postal items available yet
Ice coring and glaciology
Argentina1064 (Mi1253)1975Ice coring and glaciology
Australia1182 (Mi?)1990Ice coring and glaciological studies, joint Australia-Russia
Australia1182-1183 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
Australia1183aOn one of MS2 (1182-1183)
Australia1183a fdcMS2 on FDC
Australia
Russia
1182-1183 fdc
5902-5903 fdc
Dual-country FDC1990Ice coring and glaciological studies, joint Australia-Russia
Australia
Russia
1182-1183+1183a
5902-5903 folder
Dual-country folder
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL141 (Mi174)One of strip of 2 (L141a (L140-L141)), or two of MS4 (L143b (2x (L140-L141)))2008"Glaciology" (and ice coring)
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL141 maxiMaxicard, also back
Australian Antarctic TerritoryL140-L143 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC, also backAlso text on back: "Glaciology - Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ice drilling)"
Australian Antarctic TerritoryUnknown a (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)2018Researcher with "section of ice core from short-core drilling at Aurora Basin North field camp, 2013" (quoted text is from the folder back)
Australian Antarctic TerritoryUnknown a-d fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
Australian Antarctic TerritoryUnknown folderFolder inside (with 4 stamps and MS4), also front and back
BelgiumB800 (Mi?)In (lower-left) margin of SS1, also detail1966
BelgiumB797-B800+B800 stamp folderSS1 in FDC folder
British Antarctic Territory236 (Mi246)1996
British Antarctic Territory235-238 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC
British Antarctic Territory235-238 fdc2One of four stamps on FDC (different)
British Antarctic Territory281 (Mi294)1999
British Antarctic Territory343 (Mi381-382)Pair (343 (a-b))2004Long term temperature record from EPICA2 Dome C ice cores
British Antarctic Territory343cMS20 (10x (343 (a-b)))
British Antarctic Territory342-344 fdcOne of three pairs of stamps on FDC
British Antarctic Territory478 (Mi?)2014"Surface radar" (In the iStar-NERC (Natural Environment Research Council) project, ground-based radar and seismic equipment were used to examine the characteristics of the bedrock beneath the Pine Island glacier in Antarctica, in order to measure variations in ice-flow from the ice shelf to the upper tributaries of the glacier)
Canada2205a fdc1 (Mi2391-2392 fdc1)(Canada Post) cachet on FDC2007
Canada2205a fdc2 (Mi2391-2392 fdc2)(Canada Post) cachet (same) FDC (different)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories105 (Mi182)1984"Glaciologie - forage" (ice coring and glaciology)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories106 (Mi183)
French Southern and Antarctic Territories106 cover (Mi183 cover)Stamp on cover1985"Glaciologie - forage" (ice coring and glaciology)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Circular black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1985"Expéditions polaires françaises - Antarctic Glaciol.[ogy] Project"
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesNone(Rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1988"Programme de glaciologie"
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC145 (Mi379)1998EPICA2 Dome C ice coring program (the ice cores provided a long term temperature record)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC145 fdcStamp and cancel and cachet on FDC
GermanyNoneOne of two (blue rubber-stamp) cachets on cover2001EPICA2 project, year 6
Greenland526 (BL42)MS3 (526 (a-c))2008Ice coring in Greenland
Greenland526 fdcMS3 and cachet on FDC
New Zealand793 (Mi891)1984
New Zealand791-794 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
New Zealand794a (Mi889-892)MS4 (791-794)
New Zealand794a cover1MS4 on cover1985
New Zealand794a cover2MS4 on cover (different)
Norway1500 (BL34)In (lower) margin of MS2 (1500 (a-b))2007Researcher holding ice core
Norway1500 fdcMS2 on FDC
Norway1500 folderMS2 in FDC folder
PolandNoneCancel on cover1977Glaciotectonics Symposium
PolandNoneCancel on cover1980Glaciotectonics Symposium
Russia (USSR)5902 (Mi6095)1990Ice coring and glaciological studies, joint Australia-Russia
Russia (USSR)5902-5903 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
Russia (USSR)5903a (BL213)MS2 (5902-5903)
Russia (USSR)5903a fdcMS2 on FDC
Russia5902 cover (Mi6095 cover)Cachet on cover, also detail1991Ice coring and glaciological studies, joint Australia-Russia
Russia
Australia
5902-5903 fdc
1182-1183 fdc
Dual-country FDC1990Ice coring and glaciological studies, joint Australia-Russia
Russia
Australia
5902-5903
1182-1183+1183a folder
Dual-country folder
Russia6741 (Mi?)On one stamp and in (upper-left) margin of MS2 (a-b)2003Estimation of historical temperatures from ice cores
SpainNone(Printed) cachet on cover1979"Molodjoshnaja Glaziologie"
Sweden1749 (Mi1553)One of booklet pane of 6 (1754a (1749-1754)), with booklet cover and booklet interior1989"Climate changes studied in ice cores from East Greenland"
United StatesNone(Dark blue rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1967"USARP6" "CRREL7 Deep Core Drilling in Ice"
United StatesNone(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1968"USARP6" "CRREL7 Deep Core Drilling in Ice"
United StatesNoneCachet on cover1983IAGP8; "Forage/sondage climatopique Pôle Sud" (South Pole ice coring for climate research)
Marine sediments and coring
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC97 (Mi?)1987Ocean floor coring (for studies of climate and climate continental drift)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC97 fdcStamp and (PJ) cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC116 (Mi278A)
iC116 (Mi278B)
One of strip of 2 (C116a (C115-C116 + label)), or five of MS10 (C116b (5x 166a (115-116)))
One of imperforate strip of 2 (iC116a (iC115-iC116 + label))
1991"Paléoclimatologie sédimentaire"; "Évolution des climats" (in cachet text)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC116a fdc1One of strip of 2 and cachet on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC116a fdc2One of strip of 2 and cachet (different) on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC116a fdc3One of strip of 2 and cachet (different) on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC116a fdc4One of strip of 2 on FDC
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC116a scSouvenir card
French Southern and Antarctic Territories196 (Mi?)1994"Carottage en mer" (ocean floor coring)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesUnknown strip (Mi?)Strip of 3 stamps2019Project PALAS5 sediment coring in Lake Armor and other lakes in the Kerguelen Islands (described briefly in French in different text in each of the three stamps)
Micronesia296 (BL41)In (right) margin of SS11998Ocean floor coring; "sea bottom sediment contains the history of the Earth's environment"
New ZealandNonePersonalized stamp2007ANDRILL1 program; (ocean floor sediment coring for past climate changes)
New ZealandNone coverThree personalized stamps and (black rubber-stamp) cachet on cover
New ZealandNonePersonalized stamp (different)
United StatesNone(Yourstamps) personalized postage2007ARISE (ANDRILL1 Research Immersion for Science Educators) program
United StatesNone(Yourstamps) personalized postage (different value)
United StatesNone(Yourstamps) personalized postageANDRILL1 program; "Coring for past climate changes"
United StatesNone(Yourstamps) personalized postage (different value)
United StatesNone(Yourstamps) personalized postageANDRILL1 program; (ocean floor sediment coring for past climate changes)
United StatesNone(Yourstamps) personalized postage (different value)
United StatesNone(Yourstamps) personalized postage
United StatesNone(Yourstamps) personalized postage (different value)
United StatesNone(Zazzle.com) personalized postage2007ANDRILL1 program; (ocean floor sediment coring for past climate changes)
United StatesNone(Zazzle.com) personalized postage (different)
United StatesNoneCachet on postcard2007ANDRILL1 program; (ocean floor sediment coring for past climate changes); "The ANDRILL1 Program drills deep into Antarctic sediments to reveal this continent's past glacial history and to predict Earth's future climate."
Tree rings (dendrochronology)
No postal items available yet

1ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) is a multinational project whose goal is to obtain ocean floor sediment cores from various areas around Antarctica that will help define how fast, how large, and how frequent were past glacial and interglacial climate changes in the Antarctic region.
2EPICA: European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica
3The Antarctic circumpolar current is a strong large-scale ocean current that flows completely around the Southern Ocean. It acts as an oceanic boundary, keeping very cold water to its south, and so contributes to maintaining the frigid climate of the Antarctic.
4The SINODE (Surface Indian Ocean Dynamic Experiment) studied the dynamic response of the Indian Ocean to the monsoon
5The PALAS (PAleoclimate from LAke Sediments) project is a co-operative project among EDYTEM (Environnements, DYnamiques et TErritoires de la Montagne, a joint research group of the Université Savoie Mont Blanc and the CNRS), IPEV (the Institut polaire français Paul-Émile Victor) and the University of Bergen. The objective of PALAS is to obtain lake sediment cores from several lakes in the Kerguelen Islands that will provide information on 10,000 years of local climate history. Such information is sorely lacking in the Kerguelen region of the Indian Ocean.
6USARC: United States Antarctic Research Program
7CRREL: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
8IAGP: International Antarctic Glaciological Project


Below is a list of Natural climate change and variability on launch covers (including anniversary-of-launch covers).

CountryCancel DateCancel LocationType of ItemNotes on Content
Solar effects
United States1967-12-13Patrick AFB, FL (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-8 and TETR-1 launch cover, also insert"Interplanetary Weatherman - to monitor solar events as the Sun reaches the climax of its 11-year cycle in 1969"
United States1967-12-13Patrick AFB, FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-8 and TETR-1 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-12-13Cape Canaveral FL (lhand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-8 and TETR-1 launch cover, also insert
United States1967-12-13Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on Pioneer-8 and TETR-1 launch cover, also insert
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from Explorer-37 (SolRad-9) launch cover, also front"The Sun is now in the ascending part of its activity cycle with maximum solar activity expected in late 1969"
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) insert from Explorer-37 (SolRad-9) launch cover, also front
United States1968-08-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin?) cachet on Explorer-39 and Explorer-40 launch cover"to make detailed scientific study of density and radiation in Earth's upper atmosphere at the time of high solar activity"
United States2010-02-11Cape Canaveral FL(Mission 57) back of SDO launch cover, also frontAmong other measurements, the satellite observes "solar extreme-ultraviolet irradiance ... to understand its influence on Earth's climate and near-Earth space"
United States2011-03-04Cape Canaveral FL(Mission-57) cachet on Glory and E1P and KySat-1 and Hermes launch cover back, also front"measure solar irradiance and its effects on Earth's long-term climate - knowing how the [Sun's] electromagnetic spectrum fluctuates, scientists will understand how the Sun affects the Earth's temperature"
Effect of continental drift
United States1976-05-04Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on LAGEOS-1 launch cover"Continental drift" and maps of "Earth 225 million years ago" and "8 million years hence"
Ocean effects and Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
United States1970-12-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on NOAA-1 launch cover"To prepare global maps of sea surface temperatures"
United States1971-10-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on ITOS-B [failed] launch cover"Global maps of sea surface temperatures"
United States1971-10-21Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Solar Covers no.25) insert from ITOS-B [failed] launch on cover, also front"The scanning radiometer also was to measure surface temperatures in cloud-free areas. NOAA's Satellite Service has developed a technique for preparing global maps of sea-surface temperatures from satellite infrared measurements".
United States1972-10-15Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on NOAA-2 and OSCAR-6 launch cover"Measure temperature levels of oceans"
United States1972-12-09Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on Nimbus-5 launch cover"Monitor disappearing [ocean] current off western S. America"
United States1972-12-10Vandenberg AFB, CA(Centennial) cachet on Nimbus-5 launch cover"Atmosphere, ocean and surface monitoring satellite" (ocean monitoring refers to measurement of SSTs as well as observation of cloud systems over the oceans)
United States1974-05-17Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on SMS-1 launch cover"transmit data for ... sea conditions"
United States1975-02-06Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on SMS-2 launch cover"transmit data for ... sea conditions"
United States1975-04-09Vandenberg AFB, CA(Vandy? green rubber-stamp) cachet on GEOS-3 launch cover"An oceanographic-geodetic satellite designed to measure topography of ocean surface and sea state - wave height, period and direction"
United States1975-06-12Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on Nimbus-6 launch cover"Study sea ice in polar regions"
United States1975-10-16Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on GOES-1 launch cover"observation of ocean currents"
United States1975-10-16Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on GOES-1 launch cover
United States1977-06-16Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on GOES-2 launch cover"measure topography of ocean surface and sea state wave height"
United States1977-11-22Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on Meteosat-1 launch cover"measure topography of ocean surface and sea state wave height"
United States1978-06-16Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on GOES-3 launch cover"measure topography of ocean surface and sea state wave height"
United States1978-06-26GSFC, MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on SeaSat launch cover"objectives are global monitoring of the ocean geoid, wave topography, wave directional spectrum, surface wind speed and direction, ocean surface temperature and ice field extent and dynamics"
United States1978-06-26Vandenberg AFB, CA(Centennial) cachet on SeaSat launch cover"to study the world's oceans"
United States1978-06-27Vandenberg AFB, CA(Space Voyage) cachet on SeaSat launch cover"for global monitoring of ocean, wave topography, surface wind speed & direction, ocean surface temperature and ice field extent and dynamics"
United States1979-06-27Vandenberg AFB, CA(Zaso silk/IASP no.18) cachet on NOAA-6 launch cover"The Gulf Stream and the Gulf of Mexico's loop current appear orange in a color-coded infrared image from a National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite ... launched June 27th, 1979"
China (People's Republic)1990-09-03?(China Taiyun Satellite Launch Center) back of FY-1B launch cover, also frontcapable of measuring the "temperatures of the ocean surface".
France1992-08-10Toulouse(JPL Stamp Club) cachet on TOPEX-Poseidon launch cover"Understanding ocean circulation"
French Guiana1992-08-10Kourou(JPL Stamp Club) cachet on TOPEX-Poseidon launch cover
United States1992-08-10Pasadena CA(JPL Stamp Club) cachet on TOPEX-Poseidon launch cover
United States1995-08-10Pasadena CA(JPL Stamp Club) cachet on TOPEX-Poseidon event cover"Understanding our ocean and climate"
United States1997-08-01Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Printed) cachet on SeaWiFS/OrbView-2 launch coverStudy of the role of the Earth's oceans in the carbon cycle and of the impact of phytoplankton on global climate.
United States2003-01-12Vandenberg AFB, Lompoc CA(Printed) cachet on Explorer-82 and ICESat launch cover"Sea Level"
United States2008-01-20Vandenberg AFB, CA(Mission-57) cachet on Jason-2 launch cover, also backSea Surface Temperature (SST) anomaly chart over Pacific, probably illustrating La Niña conditions
United States2008-06-20Vandenberg AFB, CA(Printed) cachet on Jason-2 launch cover"to measure the distance between the orbiting spacecraft and the ocean surface"
United States2016-01-17Hawthorne CA(Printed) cachet on Jason-3 launch cover"sea surface height measurements"


Back to Weather and Climate Philately.



Copyright © 2010-2019, Colorado State University. All rights reserved.
This Website created and maintained by Garry Toth and Don Hillger.
Updated: 2019-08-28