Molniya

Molniya-series
satellites


This page contains philatelic information on the Molniya-series satellites. Catalog numbers, years of issue, and notes on the satellites featured are given when available. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page.

The Molniya name was later used for a series of Russian launch vehicles and to describe highly eliptical (Molniya) orbits. Postal items featuring Molniya launch vehicles or mentioning Molniya orbits are not covered in this checklist.

Launch information
(found elsewhere)
Launch covers
(including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers)
(farther below)
Other postal items
(stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.)
(immediately below)
Molniya
(Russia/USSR)
Molniya (Russia/USSR) Molniya (Russia/USSR)
Molniya (on other than Molniya launch covers)


Below is a list of Molniya-series satellite postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.).

CountryCatalog NumberType of ItemYear of IssueNotes on Content*
Molniya (Russia/USSR)
AustriaNoneCancel and cachet on postal card1965"Molniya" (in cachet text)
AustriaNoneCachet on cover1974Molniya-1
Belarus100 (Mi89)1995Molniya-2/3 type
Bulgaria1632 (Mi1760)1967"Molniya-1" (also launch date for Molniya-1-1 on stamp)
Bulgaria1632-1634 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Bulgaria2108 (BL42)
2108a (BL43)
In (upper) margin of SS1
In (upper) margin of imperforate SS1, changed colors
1973Molniya-1
Bulgaria2583 (Mi2774)1979Molniya-1
Bulgaria2584 (BL88A)
i2584 (BL88B)
In (upper-right) margin of SS1
In (upper-right) margin of imperforate SS1
Bulgaria2631 var (BL95)In (upper-right) margin of imperforate SS1, 2631 margin overprinted in gold1979"Molniya-1"
Buriatia RepublicLocalMongolia 1689 overprinted on 2x Russia 57253 (Mi5896), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template1994Molniya-1
Buriatia RepublicLocalMongolia 1689 overprinted on 2x Russia 57333 (Mi5904), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template
Buriatia RepublicLocalMongolia 1689 overprinted on 2x Russia 5987 (Mi6180), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template
Buriatia RepublicLocalIn (upper-right) corner of Russia 5987 (Mi6180) overprinted1 with various satellites1995Molniya-1
CamerounC100 (Mi534)1968Molniya-1 (without solar panels)
CamerounC101 (Mi535)Molniya-1 (mis-spelled "Molnia" in text) obtained or transmitted2 image of Earth
Central African Republic1173b (Mi1876A)
i1173b (Mi1876B)
One of MS4 (1173 (a-d)) (Mi1875A-1878A)
One of imperforate MS4 (i1173 (a-d)) (Mi1875B-1878B)
1997"Molniya"-2/3 type
Chad705d (Mi1490A)
i705d (Mi1490B)
One stamp and in selvedge of MS6 (705 (a-f)) (Mi1487A-1492A)
One stamp and in selvedge of imperforate MS6 (i705 (a-f)) (Mi1487B-1492B)
1997"Molniya-1" (in selvedge text)
ChadUnknown a (Mi?)One of MS9 (a-i)2001Molniya-1
Comoro IslandsMi427A
Mi427B

Imperforate
1978Molniya-1
Comoro Islands479 (Mi578)Mi427A overprinted1979Molniya-1
Cuba1282-1283+1287-1288 fdc (Mi1351-1352+1356-1357 fdc)Cancel on FDC1967Molniya-1
Cuba1284-1286+1289 fdc (Mi1353-1355+1358 fdc)Cancel (same) on FDC
Cuba1289a fdc (BL30 fdc)Cancel (same) on FDC
Cuba1793 (Mi1868)1973"Molniya-1"
Cuba1941 (Mi2016)1974Molniya-1
Cuba1942 (Mi2017)
CubaC283 (Mi2300)1978Molniya-1
CubaC304 (Mi2344)1978Molniya-1
Cuba2323 (Mi2472)1980Molniya-1
Czechoslovakia1936 (Mi2200)1974Molniya-1
CzechoslovakiaNonePrinted stamp (like 1936) on stamped envelope1974Molniya-1
Czechoslovakia1967 (Mi2227)1974Molniya-1
Czechoslovakia2094 (Mi2355)1976Molniya-1
Czechoslovakia2305 (Mi2560)1980Molniya-1
Czechoslovakia2303+2305-2306 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Czechoslovakia2414 (BL49)In (upper-left) margin of MS2 (2x 2414a)1982large image of Molniya (without solar panels), in addition to small image of Molniya symbolically scanning the Earth
CzechoslovakiaNonePrinted stamp on stamped envelope1983Molniya-1
Czechoslovakia2671 (Mi2926)1987Molniya-1
DjiboutiC234a (BL142)
iC234a
In (lower-right) margin of SS1 (C234)
In (lower-right) margin of imperforate SS1 (iC234)
1987"Molniya-3"
DjiboutiC234a fdcSS1 on FDC
DjiboutiUnknown e (Mi?)
Unknown ie
One of MS9 (a-i)
One of imperforate MS9 (a-i)
2010Molniya-1 (mis-spelled "Molnya" in text)
DjiboutiUnknown e proof
Unknown ie proof
One of MS9 proof (a-i)
One of imperforate MS9 proof (a-i)
DjiboutiUnknown ms proof fdc
Unknown ims proof fdc
MS9 proof on FDC
Imperforate MS9 proof on FDC
Dominica2238f (Mi2901)One of MS6 (2238 (a-f)) (Mi2896-2901)2000Molniya-1
Equatorial GuineaBL139On stamp of SS11974Molniya-1
EritreaUnknown o/p (Mi?)Overprint1991Molniya-1
GabonUnknown ms (Mi?)
Unknown ims
In (lower-left) margin of MS2 (a-b)
In (lower-left) margin of imperforate MS2 (a-b)
2007Molniya-2/3 type
Germany (East)Local1970s?Molniya-1
Germany (East)1267 (Mi1641)One of MS8 (1269a (1262-1269)) (Mi1636-1643)1971Molniya-1
Germany (East)Local1975?Molniya-1
Germany (East)2823 (Mi3335)1990Molniya-1
Germany (East)2824 (BL101)In (upper-right) margin of SS1
Guinea Republic952 (BL168A)
i952 (BL168B)
On stamp of SS1
On stamp of imperforate SS1
1985Molniya-2/3 type
Guinea-Bissau368E (Mi402)1976Molniya-1
Guinea-Bissau368-368A-E fdcOne of six stamps on FDC
Guinea-Bissau368Ef (BL35)
Guinea-Bissau465 (Mi666)1983Molniya-1
HungaryC255 (Mi2196A)
iC255 (Mi2196B)

Imperforate
1965"Molniya-1"
HungaryB300 (Mi2813)1972Molniya-1
Hungary2410 (Mi3105)From MS4 (2410a (4x 2410))1976Molniya-1
Hungary2806 (Mi3636)1983Molniya-1
Hungary2812 (BL167A)
i2812 (BL167B)
On stamp of SS1
On stamp of imperforate SS1
Kabardino-BalkariaLocalIn (upper-right) corner of Russia 5987 (Mi6180) overprinted11992Molniya-1
KazakhstanLocalIn (upper-right) corner of Russia 5987 (Mi6180) overprinted11992Molniya-1
KolymaLocalRussia 3288 overprinted on 4x Russia 57263 (Mi5897), also overprint template1994Molniya-1
KolymaLocalRussia 3288 overprinted on 4x Russia 6064 (Mi261), also overprint template
KolymaLocalRussia 3288 overprinted on 4x Russia 6066 (Mi232), also overprint template
Korea (North)1710 (BL49)In (lower-right) margin of SS11978Molniya-1
Korea (North)1768a (Mi1780)One of MS4 (1767a (1765-1767 + 1768a))1978Molniya-1
Korea (North)1768 (BL52)On stamp and in (upper-right) margin of SS1
Korea (North)1801a (Mi1797-1801)
i1801a
In (upper-right) margin of MS6 (1801 (a-f)), also detail
In (upper-right) margin of imperforate MS6 (i1801 (a-f))
1979Molniya-1
Korea (North)2025a (Mi_2098-C2098)In (upper) margin of MS4 (2023-2026)1981Molniya-1
Korea (North)2032 (BL?)In (upper-right) margin of SS1
Korea (North)2063 (BL_A49)In (lower-right) margin of SS1, 1710 overprinted1981Molniya-1
Korea (North)2085 (BL98)In (upper-left) margin of SS11981Molniya-1
Korea (North)2216 (Mi_A2094-A2097)
i2216
In (upper) margin of MS4 (2216 (a-d)), 2025a overprinted in blue
In (upper) margin of imperforate MS4 (i2216 (a-d)), i2025a overprinted in blue
1982Molniya-1
Korea (North)2275 (BL_A98)In (upper-left) margin of SS1, 1710 overprinted1983Molniya-1
Korea (North)2332a (Mi2403)One of MS3 (2332 (a-c)) (BL153)1983Molniya-1
Korea (North)2432+cancel (BL190+cancel)Cancel on SS11984Molniya-1
Korea (North)2507 (BL203)In (lower-left) margin of SS11985Molniya-1
Korea (North)2658b (Mi2843-2844)In (upper-left) margin of MS10 (5x 2658a (2657-2658))1987Molniya-1
Korea (North)3136a (Mi3334-3338)In (upper-left) margin of MS4 (3133-3136 + label)1992Molniya-1
Korea (North)3265b (BL?)MS3 (3265+3267-3268)1993Molniya-1
Korea (North)3268 (Mi3486)
Korea (North)3710 (Mi4014)1998Molniya-1
Korea (North)3711a (Mi4014-4016)MS6 (2x (3710-3712))
Korea (North)3711 pane (Mi4014-4015 pane)Booklet pane of 10 (5x (3710-3711))
Korea (North)3805 (Mi4106)
i3805

Imperforate
1999Molniya-1
Korea (North)3906 (Mi4209)
i3906

Imperforate
1999Molniya-1
Liberia665 (Mi909)
i665

Imperforate
1974Molniya-1
Liberia665 dsDeluxe sheet (665)
Libya1306f (Mi1664)One of MS6 (1306 (a-f)) (Mi1659-1664)1986Molniya-2/3 type
MaliC97 (Mi234)
iC97

Imperforate
1970Molniya-1
MaliC108 (Mi245)C97 overprinted1970Molniya-1
MaliUnknown ms (Mi?)In (upper-left) margin of MS3 (a-c)2013"Molniya-1"
MaliUnknown ms (Mi?)In (upper-left) margin of MS3 (a-c)2013"Molniya-3"
MaliUnknown ms (Mi?)In (upper-left) margin of MS3 (a-c)2013"Molniya-3"
MaliUnknown fdcMS3 on FDC
Mongolia442 (Mi455)1966"Molniya-1" (also launch date in text)
MongoliaC16 (Mi694)1972Molniya-1
MongoliaC91 (BL49)On stamp of SS11977Molniya-1
Mongolia977 (Mi1098)1977Molniya-1
MongoliaC109 (BL53)1978Molniya-1
Mongolia1377 (BL100)
i1377
In (upper) margin of SS1
In (upper) margin of imperforate SS1
1984Molniya-1
Mongolia1658 (BL125)In (upper-left) margin of SS11987Molniya-1
Mongolia1689 (Mi1978)1988Molniya-1
Mongolia1704 (BL130)In (upper-right) margin of SS11988"Molniya-3"
Oman StateUnlisted h (Mi unlisted)
Unlisted ih
One of MS8 (a-h)
One of imperforate MS8 (a-h)
1974"Molniya"-1
Oman StateUnlisted fdcMS8 on FDC
Oman StateUnlisted h o/p1 (Mi unlisted)One of MS8 overprinted in silver (a-h)1998"Molniya"-1
Oman StateUnlisted h o/p1 inv (Mi unlisted)One of MS8 overprinted in silver inverted (a-h)
Oman StateUnlisted h o/p2 (Mi unlisted)One of MS8 overprinted in gold (a-h)
OsetiaLocal (350 value)Cuba 2323 overprinted on 4x Russia 45173 (Mi4494), from strip of 5, also overprint template1994Molniya-1
OsetiaLocal (850 value)
OsetiaLocal (350 value)Cuba 2323 overprinted on 4x Russia 45193 (Mi4496), from strip of 5, also overprint template
OsetiaLocal (850 value)
OsetiaLocal (350 value)Cuba 2323 overprinted on 4x Russia 45213 (Mi4498), from strip of 5, also overprint template
OsetiaLocal (850 value)
OsetiaLocal (350 value)Cuba 2323 overprinted on 4x Russia 57243 (Mi5895), from strip of 5, also overprint template
OsetiaLocal (850 value)
OsetiaLocal (350 value)Cuba 2323 overprinted on 4x Russia 57323 (Mi5903), from strip of 5, also overprint template
OsetiaLocal (850 value)
OsetiaLocal (350 value)Cuba 2323 overprinted on 4x Russia 57333 (Mi5904), from strip of 5, also overprint template
OsetiaLocal (850 value)
Ossetia [two s's]Local o/pOverprint of local post stamp1998Molniya-1
Ossetia [two s's]Local fdcOverprinted local post stamp and cancel on FDC
PolandNonePostal card1984Molniya-1
Romania1804 (Mi2467)1965Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)3195 (Mi3207)1966Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)3245 (Mi3270)1966Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)3273 (Mi3295)1966Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)3288 (Mi3312)1966Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)3288-3289 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1966Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope (different)1966Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)3358 (Mi3378)1967Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)3543 (BL53)MS3 (3543 (a-c + 3 labels))1968Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1968Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope (different)1968Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NonePostcard backlate 1960sMolniya-1
Russia (USSR)3841 (Mi3868)1971Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)3844 (BL69)In (lower-left) margin of MS4 (3844 (a-d))
Russia (USSR)3844 fdcMS4 on FDC
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on (un-stamped) envelope (with cancel)1971"Molniya-1"
Russia (USSR)4014 (Mi4049)1972Edge-on view of Molniya
Russia (USSR)NoneExtra (4014) stamp and (similarly-designed) cachet on stamped envelope1972Edge-on view of Molniya
Russia (USSR)None(Similarly-designed) cachet on stamped envelope (same)1972Edge-on view of Molniya
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1974Molniya-2/3 type
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope (different)1974Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)None(New Year) greeting card, also cachet from (greeting card) envelope1974Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1975Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4428 (Mi4461)1976Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4528 (Mi4505)Like 46073 (Mi4640w)1976Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4595 (BL122)In (upper-right) margin of SS1 (Mi4654)1977Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4595 fdc1SS1 and (printed) cachet on FDC
Russia (USSR)4595_stamp fdc(Fleetwood) cachet on FDC (of stamp from SS1), also back
Russia (USSR)4607 (Mi4640w)Like 45283 (Mi4505)1977Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4609 (Mi4661)1977Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1977Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope (different)1977Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope (different), also back1977Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4667 (Mi4732)1978Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4667 fdc1Stamp and cachet on FDC
Russia (USSR)4667 fdc2Stamp and cachet (different) on FDC
Russia (USSR)4693 (Mi4766)1978Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4727 (BL134)In (upper) margin of SS1 (Mi4814)1978Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1978Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4635 sheetIn (upper-right) margin of exhibition sheet with 46351978Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4784 (Mi4791)1979Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope, also detail1979Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope (different)1979Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NonePostal card back1979Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1980Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4916 (Mi5047)1981Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4916 fdcStamp on FDC
Russia (USSR)4962 (Mi5095)1981
Russia (USSR)4966 (Mi5096)
Russia (USSR)4978 (Mi5108)1981Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)4978 fdcStamp and cancel and cachet on FDC
Russia (USSR)5000 (Mi5131)1981Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1981Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope (different)1981Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope (different)1981Molniya-2/3 type
Russia (USSR)5043 (Mi5174)1982Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)5058 fdc (Mi5189 fdc)Cachet on FDC, also detail1982Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on postal card1982Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1982Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope (different)1982Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope (different)1982Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope (different)1982Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)5127 (BL162)In (upper-left) margin of SS1 (Mi5257)1983Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1983Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope, also detail1983Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)5245 (Mi5375)In (lower-right) corner1984Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)5299 (BL176)In (left) margin of SS1 (Mi5441)1984Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)5299 fdcSS1 on FDC
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1984Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)5342 (Mi5483)1985Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1985Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope (different)1985Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)5442a (Mi5591)In (lower-right) margin of MS7 (7x 5442 + label)1986Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)5443a (Mi5592)In (lower-left) margin of MS7 (7x 5443 + label)
Russia (USSR)5444a (Mi5593)In (lower-right) margin of MS7 (7x 5444 + label)
Russia (USSR)NoneExtra (4693) stamp and cancel on stamped envelope1986Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)NoneCancel on stamped envelope1986Molniya-2/3 type
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1987Molniya-2/3 type
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet and cancel on stamped envelope1987Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)5720 (Mi5892)46073 (Mi4640w) overprinted in red1988Molniya-1
Russia (USSR)None(Red rubber-stamp) cachet on cover1989
Russia5979 (Mi6184)1991Molniya-1
Russia5987 (Mi6180)In (upper-right) corner1991Molniya-1
RussiaNoneCachet on cover, also detail1991Molniya-1
Russia6138 (Mi301)1993"Molniya-3"
Russia6138-6142 fdcOne of five stamps and cancel on FDCMolniya-2/3 type
Russia6143 fdcCancel (same) on FDCMolniya-2/3 type
Russia (USSR)NoneCachet on stamped envelope1997Molniya-1
Russia6505 (BL25)In (left) margin of SS1 (Mi?)1999Molniya-1
Russia6608e (Mi867)One of MS12 (6608 (a-l))2000Molniya-1
RussiaNoneCancel and cachet on cover, also cachet detail2002Molniya-2/3 type
RussiaNoneCancel (same) on cover (different)2002Molniya-2/3 type
Rwanda589 (Mi636)1974Molniya-1
St. Thomas and Prince Islands905 (Mi1150)1989Molniya-1
Sacha53-62?
Locals 1
Locals 2
Locals 3
In (upper-right) corner of Russia 5987 (Mi6180) overprinted1 in various ways199?Molniya-1
SmolenskLocalIn (upper-right) corner of Russia 5987 (Mi6180) overprinted1199?Molniya-1
TanzaniaUnlisted (Mi unlisted)1999Molniya-1
UkraineLocalIn (upper-right) corner of Russia 5987 (Mi6180) overprinted11992Molniya-1
Vietnam958 (Mi993)
i958

Imperforate
1978Molniya-1
Vietnam1335 (BL23)On stamp of SS11983Molniya-1
Yugoslavia871 (Mi1219)1967Molniya-1

*The Molniya number designations represent the Molniya series: 1, 2, or 3, which include many individual spacecraft. The Molniya-2 and 3 series have extensions on the six otherwise radial-only solar panels of the Molniya-1 series. The Molniya-1 series also have two fairly-large dish antennas, symmetrically placed on each side of the spacecraft body. On a few other items the Molniya series cannot be determined for various reasons.

1The definitive stamp, Russia 5987 (Mi6180), was overprinted by several republics after the breakup of the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1991.
2Early (1960s) Molniya communications satellites had imaging capabilities, but images from Molniya satellites are rare.
3See here for a list of engraved/lithographed Russian definitive pairs known to exist with satellite overprints.


Below is a list of Molniya-series satellite launch covers (including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers).

CountryCancel DateCancel LocationType of ItemNotes on Content
Molniya (Russia/USSR)
1965-04-23: Molniya-1-01
Latvia1965-04-23Liepaja(Red printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on coverMolniya-1-01 launch
Russia1965-04-23Archangelsk(Green and black) cachets on coverMolniya-1-01 launch
Russia1965-04-23Kaluga(Red rubber-stamp) cachet on stamped envelopeMolniya-1-01 launch
Russia1965-04-23Baikonur Karaganda Oblast(Multi-color printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on (known fake3) coverMolniya-1-01 launch
Molniya-1-01 (anniversaries)
Russia1965-10-23Ivano-Frankovsk(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) stamped envelope6 month anniv. Molniya-1-01 launch
Russia1965-11-23Perm(Red and green rubber-stamp) cachets on cover7 month anniv. Molniya-1-01 launch
Russia1965-11-23Perm(Green and red rubber-stamp) cachets on cover7 month anniv. Molniya-1-01 launch
1965-10-14: Molniya-1-02
Latvia1965-10-14Liepaja(Red printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on coverMolniya-1-02 launch
Russia (USSR)1965-04-14Tartu(Green printed and black rubber-stamp) cachets on cover (AA no.60)1Molniya-1-02 launch
Russia (USSR)1965-10-14 (from cachet)Tartu club(Green printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on (un-stamped) cover (AA no.60, overprinted 862)1Molniya-1-02 launch
Russia (USSR)1965-10-14Tartu(Green printed and black rubber-stamp) cachets on cover (AA no.60, overprinted 982)1Molniya-1-02 launch
1972-04-04: Molniya-1-20 (and SRET-1)
Russia (USSR)1972-04-04Moscow International PO(Swanson) cachet on coverMolniya-1-20 launch
1972-10-14: Molniya-1-21
Russia (USSR)1972-10-14Moscow International PO(Anklam) cachet on coverMolniya-1-21 launch
1975-06-05: Molniya-1-30 (and SRET-2)
Russia (USSR)1975-06-05Moscow International PO(CNES philatelic) cachet on coverMolniya-1-30 launch
2003-04-02: Molniya-1-92
Russia2003-04-02Kosmodrome Plesetsk(Printed) cachet on coverMolniya-1-92 launch (Molniya-3 depicted)
1996-08-14: Molniya-1T-89
Russia1996-08-14Plesetsk(Printed) cachet on coverMolniya-1T-89 launch
Molniya (on other than Molniya launch covers)
Russia (USSR)1974-06-29Moscow International PO(Printed) cachet on Kosmos-664/665 launch cover"Molniya" (in text only)
United States1985-03-12Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(Magenta and black printed) cachet on Geosat-1 launch coverMolniya-1

1AA no. = Tartuski Klub Kollektsionerov (TKK) [Tartu Collector Club] "Astronautika Annaalid" number. See Jim Reichman's Philatelic Study Report on Tartu Space Club Covers, 1962-1978, 2011. (e-mail: jgreichman (at) datawest.net).
2The Tartu Club assigned AA #60 to their cover for very first Molniya launch (Molniya-1-01) and other subsequent numbers to other satellite launches. A duplicate 60 was assigned to this supposedly-related follow-on event cover for the same Molniya, only to be changed later when it was discovered to be a different Molniya (Molniya-1-02) launch on that date. By that time all numbers through 97 had been used. The club therefore used the number "98" as an overprint on covers with the original "60", but the cover shown has "86", which is likely an error in which the "98" was added upside-down. Furthermore, the cover shown has no stamp or cancel, so it may have been simply set aside, unfinished, after the error was discovered. Instead, the cover that was stamped and canceled has the "60" overprint with "98".
3Known fake cover, with a made-up Baikonur postmark, suspected to have been created by Boris Khoroshev from Moscow, and sold by a stamp dealer in Western Europe. There were no Baikonur Cosmodrome official postmarks until 1975 for the Apollo-Soyuz events. Reference the article written by Russian collector Oleg Vaisberg published as an Appendix called "Russian (Soviet) Space Covers" to Bruce Cranford's book Space Covers: Dictionary and Identifier. See also, an analysis of the situation in a book published in 2008 called Commemorative Space Covers from Collector Clubs of the Soviet Union, 1957 to 1980. Another indicator on these fakes is the use of a "first day" cachet that appears on most, but not all, of these fakes.


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