Mars-1m

Mars-series
satellites

Mars-3
Mars-1mMars-3

This page contains philatelic information on the Mars-series satellites. Catalog numbers, years of issue, and notes on the satellites featured are given when available. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page.

Launch information
(found elsewhere)
Reference images
(found elsewhere)
Launch covers
(including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers)
(farther below)
Other postal items
(stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.)
(immediately below)
Mars (Russia/USSR) Mars (Russia/USSR) Mars (Russia/USSR) Mars (Russia/USSR)


Below is a list of Mars-series satellite postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.).

CountryCatalog NumberType of ItemYear of IssueNotes on Content
Mars (Russia/USSR)
Adzharia RepublicLocal1Cuba 2505 overprinted on 4x Russia 45203 (Mi4497), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template1994/5?(probably) Mars-3 lander (with heat shield attached)
Adzharia RepublicLocal2Cuba 2505 overprinted on 4x Russia 57333 (Mi5904), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template
Adzharia RepublicLocal3Cuba 2505 overprinted on 4x Russia 5984 (Mi6177), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template
Adzharia RepublicLocal4Cuba 2505 overprinted on 4x Russia 6067A (Mi252), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template
AlbaniaC72 (Mi783)1963Mars-1
AlbaniaC68-C72 fdcOne of five stamps on FDC
Altai RepublicLocal1Overprint on 4x Russia 57232 (Mi5894), from strip5, also overprint template2000"Mars-3" lander (with heat shield attached)
Altai RepublicLocal2Overprint on 4x Russia 6064 (Mi261), from strip5, also overprint template
Altai RepublicLocal3Overprint on 4x Russia 6066A (Mi262), from strip5, also overprint template
Altai RepublicLocal4Overprint on 4x Russia 6067 (Mi251), from strip5, also overprint template
Altai RepublicLocal5Overprint on 4x Russia 6069 (Mi253), from strip5, also overprint template
Altai RepublicLocal fdc1Strip of 5 overprints on FDC
Altai RepublicLocal fdc2Two strips of 5 overprints on FDC
Altai RepublicLocal fdc3Two strips of 5 overprints on FDC (different)
BashkortostanLocalUnknown design overprinted on 2x Russia 6066A (Mi262), from a strip of 5 such overprints, also overprint template1996Mars-3 lander (with heat shield attached)
BeninUnknown d (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)2012"50 ans Mars-1" (50th anniv. launch of Mars-1)
BeninUnknown d (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d) (different)2012"Mars-1" (in text, but MSL lander depicted)
BulgariaC97 (Mi1366)1963"Mars-1"
BulgariaC98 (Mi1367)"Mars-1" launch
BulgariaC97-C98 fdc1Two stamps and (two-color printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on FDC(As above)
BulgariaC97-C98 fdc2Two stamps and cancel (design like cachet in item above but black) and (two-color printed) cachet on FDC
Bulgaria3295 (BL174)In (left) margin of MS2 (3295 (a-b))1987"Mars-2"
Bulgaria3295 purpleIn (left) margin of MS2 (3295 (a-b)) with purple margins
Bulgaria3295 purple fdcMS2 with purple margins on FDC
BulgariaUnknown ss (BL?)In (upper) margin of SS12016"Mars-3" (in Cyrillic text and depicted, also launch date in text)
Cambodia1103 (Mi1181)1990"Mars-1"
Cambodia1149 (Mi1227)1103 overprinted1991"Mars-1"
Central African Republic1175d (Mi1886A)
i1175d (Mi1886B)
One of MS4 (1175 (a-d)) (Mi1883A-1886A)
One of imperforate MS4 (i1175 (a-d)) (Mi1883B-1886B)
1997"Mars-1"
Chad707f (Mi1504A)
i707f (Mi1504B)
One stamp and in selvedge of MS6 (707 (a-f)) (Mi1499A-1504A)
One stamp and in selvedge of imperforate MS6 (i707 (a-f)) (Mi1499B-1504B)
1997"Mars-1" (in selvedge text)
Congo RepublicC55 (Mi136)1967"Mars-1" (and "Mariner-4")
Congo RepublicC55 dsDeluxe sheet (C55)
Congo RepublicC55 fdcStamp and cachet on FDC
Congo RepublicC54-C55 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
Cuba873 (Mi937)One of block of 5 (872a (868-872 + label)) (Mi928-932); or four of MS20 (872b (4x (868-872))) (Mi928-932)1964
Cuba1286 (Mi1355)1967"Mars-1"
Cuba1284-1286+1289 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC
Cuba1289a (BL30)One of simulated-perforation MS8 (1282-1289)
Cuba1289a fdcMS8 on FDC
Cuba1515 (Mi1587)1970Mars-1 (or Venera-1)
Cuba1794 (Mi1869)1973"Mars-3" (in text, but Mars-1 depicted)
Cuba2505 (Mi2654)1982(probably) Mars-3 lander (with heat shield attached)
Cuba2585 (Mi2734)1983"Mars-2"
Cuba2696 (Mi2847)On stamp of SS11984"Mars-5"
Czechoslovakia1172 (Mi1399)1963Mars-1
Czechoslovakia1171-1173 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Czechoslovakia1175 (BL19)Imperforate SS1
Czechoslovakia1175 fdcImperforate SS1 on FDC
DahomeyC240 (Mi602)1979Mars-3
DahomeyC240a (BL46)On stamp of SS1 (C240)
DjiboutiUnknown f (Mi?)
Unknown if
One of MS9 (a-i)
One of imperforate MS9 (a-i)
2009"Mars-1"
DjiboutiUnknown proofSigned-proof imperforate MS9
FujeiraMi960A
Mi960B
One of MS20 (Mi957A-976A)
Imperforate
1972Mars-1
GagouziaLocalCambodia 1103 overprinted on 4x Russia 45172 (Mi4494), from strip of 5, also overprint template1996?Mars-1
GagouziaLocalCambodia 1103 overprinted on 4x Russia 45202 (Mi4497), from strip of 5, also overprint template
GagouziaLocalCambodia 1103 overprinted on 4x Russia 57262 (Mi5897), from strip of 5, also overprint template
GagouziaLocalCambodia 1103 overprinted on 4x Russia 57272 (Mi5898), from strip of 5, also overprint template
GagouziaLocalCambodia 1103 overprinted on 4x Russia 57322 (Mi5903), from strip of 5, also overprint template
GagouziaLocalCambodia 1103 overprinted on 4x Russia 57332 (Mi5904), from strip of 5, also overprint template
GagouziaLocalCambodia 1103 overprinted on 4x Russia 5984 (Mi6177), from strip of 5, also overprint template
GagouziaLocalCambodia 1103 overprinted on 4x Russia 6061 (Mi225), from strip of 5, also overprint template
GagouziaLocalCambodia 1103 overprinted on 4x Russia 6068A (Mi268), from strip of 5, also overprint template
Gambia2169 (Mi3271)1999
Grenada1999h (Mi2285)From MS9 (1999 (a-i)) (Mi2278-2286)1991"Mars-2"
Grenada1999i (Mi2286)"Mars-3" lander (with heat shield attached)
Grenadai1999h proofImperforate proofs, from imperforate MS9 proof (i1999 (a-i))"Mars-2"
Grenadai1999i proof"Mars-3" lander (with heat shield attached)
Guinea RepublicMi10445One of MS4 (Mi10442-10445)2014"Mars-3" lander
Guinea RepublicMi10442-10445_ms fdcMS4 on FDC
Guyana2874a (Mi4920)
i2874a
One of MS9 (2874 (a-i)) (Mi4920-4928)
One of imperforate MS9 (i2874 (a-i))
1994"Mars-3"
Hungary1568 (Mi1997A)
i1568 (Mi1997B)

Imperforate
1964Mars-1
Hungary1562+1565+1567-1568 fdc1One of four stamps on FDC
Hungary1562+1565+1567-1568 fdc2One of four stamps on FDC (different)
Hungary2133 (Mi2740)One of strip of 2 (2133a (2132-2133 + label)) (Mi2739-2740), or from MS8 (2133b (4x (2132-2133) + 4 labels))1992Mars-1 (lander detaching from orbiter)
Hungary2273 (Mi2931)1974Mars-3 or Mars-7 lander (probably the latter) detaching from the spacecraft
Hungary2274 (Mi2932)"Mars-2"
Hungary2277 (Mi2935)"Mars-3" lander and parachute (on Mars)
Hungary2275-2278 fdcOne of four stamps on FDC(As above)
HungaryC348 (BL104)On stamp of SS1"Mars-7" lander (with heat shield attached)
HungaryC348 fdcSS1 on FDC
Hungary2499-2500+2503 fdc (Mi3215-3216+3219 fdc)Cachet on FDC1977Mars-1 (and/or Venera-1)
HungaryC375 fdc (BL215 fdc)Cachet (same) on FDC (different)
Hungary2502 (Mi3218A)
i2502 (Mi3218B)

Imperforate
"Mars-3"
Hungary2499+2501-2502 fdcOne of three stamps on FDC
Ivory CoastUnknown d (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)2012"Mars-4"
Ivory CoastUnknown d (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)"Mars-1"
Korea (North)1985 (Mi2045)1980"Mars-3"
Korea (North)1985 proofDeluxe proof (2x 1985)
Korea (North)1985a (Mi2044-2045)On one of MS2 (1985-1986)
Korea (North)1986 stamp (Mi2045)"Mars-5" lander (with heat shield attached)
Korea (North)1986 (BL82)SS1
Korea (North)1986 proofDeluxe proof (2x 1986 stamp)
Korea (North)2299 (Mi2360)1983Mars-1 (but comsat theme)
Korea (North)2609 (Mi2783)From MS10 (2609a (10x 2509))1986(Venera-type) Mars or Venera (but comsat theme)
Korea (North)2683 (Mi2869)1987(Venera-type) Mars or Venera
Laos785 (Mi992)
i785

Imperforate
1987"Mars"-1
Malagasy Republic928 (Mi1210)1989"Mars-1"
Malagasy Republic928 ds (BL?)Imperforate deluxe sheet (928)
Malagasy Republic929 (Mi1211)"Mars-3" lander (with heat shield attached); also lander and parachute
Malagasy Republic929 ds (BL?)Imperforate deluxe sheet (929)
Malagasy Republic1537a (Mi2479)From MS6 (1537 (a-f)) (Mi2479-2484)2000"Mars-1"
Malagasy Republic1537f (Mi2484)"Mars-3" (with folded solar panels)
Mali1034 (Mi2255-2258)
i1034
In (left) margin of MS4 (1034 (a-d))
In (left) margin of imperforate MS4 (i1034 (a-d))
1999Mars-1 (or Venera-1)
Mali1039 (Mi2275-2278)
i1039
In (lower-right) margin of MS4 (1039 (a-d))
In (lower-right) margin of imperforate MS4 (i1039 (a-d))
1999Mars-2/3 type
MaliUnknown ms (Mi?)In (lower-right) margin of MS3 (a-c)2013"Mars-3"
Micronesia334g (Mi707)From MS20 (334 (a-t)) (Mi701-720)1999"Mars-1"
Micronesia334p (Mi716)"Mars-3"
Mongolia322 (Mi327)1963Mars-1 (by launch date in text, fantasy image of launch rocket)
Mongolia318-322 fdcOne of five stamps on FDC
Mongolia365 (Mi369)1964"Mars probe" (fantasy image of launch rocket)
MongoliaC33a (Mi739)One of MS12 (C33 (a-l)) (Mi736-747)1972"Mars-1"
MongoliaC123 (Mi1265)1979"Mars-3"
MongoliaC128 (BL60)In (upper) margin of SS1Mars (and Mariner)
MongoliaC145 (BL68)In (left) margin of SS11980"Mars-6"
Nagorno-KarabakhLocal1 (300 value)Malagasy 928 overprinted on 4x Russia 45201 (Mi4497), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template1994Mars-1
Nagorno-KarabakhLocal2 (700 value)
Nagorno-KarabakhLocal1 (300 value)Malagasy 928 overprinted on 4x Russia 57331 (Mi5904), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template
Nagorno-KarabakhLocal2 (700 value)
Nagorno-KarabakhLocal1 (300 value)Malagasy 928 overprinted on 4x Russia 5984 (Mi6177), from strip of 5, also partial overprint template
Nagorno-KarabakhLocal2 (700 value)
Nevis1212a (Mi1563)
i1212a
From MS6 (1212 (a-f)) (Mi1563-1568)
From imperforate MS6 (i1212 (a-f))
2000"Mars-4 probe" (lander, with heat shield attached)
Nevis1212c (Mi1565)
i1212c
"Mars-1"
Nevis1213b (Mi1570)
i1213b
One of MS6 (1213 (a-f)) (Mi1569-1574)
One of imperforate MS6 (i1213 (a-f))
"Mars-3"
Nicaragua1660 (Mi2822)1987"Mars-1"
Niger1076b (Mi1909A)
i1076b (Mi1908B)
One of MS9 (1076 (a-i)) (Mi1908-1916)
One of imperforate MS9 (i1076 (a-i))
2001"Mars-3"
Poland1187 (Mi1446)1963"Mars-1"
Poland1179+1187 fdcOne of two stamps on FDC
Poland1187a (BL31)Two of four stamps in MS4 (2x (1186-1187)) (Mi1445-1446)
Poland1187a fdcMS4 on FDC
Poland1297 (Mi1559)1964"Mars-1"
Russia (USSR)2662 (Mi2672)In overprint on 26311962Mars-1 (by launch date in text)
Russia (USSR)2666 (Mi2676)1962"Mars-1" (in text, but propaganda design, detaching from launch rocket)
Russia (USSR)2666 fdcStamp and cachet on FDC
Russia (USSR)2666 card (Mi2676 card)Stamp on card1964(As above for stamp)
Russia (USSR)2884 (Mi2896A)
i2884 (Mi2896B)

Imperforate
1964"Mars-1" (same design as Russia stamped envelope 1964)
Russia (USSR)None(Three-color printed) cachet on (airmail) stamped envelope1964"Mars-1" (same design as Russia 2884)
Russia (USSR)3040 label6 (BL39)On one of six labels in SS0 (3040 (6 labels only) (Mi3061-3066)1965Mars-1 (or Venera-1)
Russia (USSR)3397 (BL49)In (upper and left) margins of SS1 (Mi3423)1967Mars-1 (or Venera-1)
Russia (USSR)3963 (Mi3996)1972"Mars-2"; also, the drawing at the upper-left of the stamp represents these pennants1, which were among those carried by some of the Mars spacecraft, including Mars-2
Russia (USSR)3963 maxiMaxicard
Russia (USSR)3964 (Mi3998)"Mars-3" lander (with heat shield attached)
Russia (USSR)4012 (Mi4045)From MS6 (4012a (6x 4012))1972Mars-3 lander (on Mars)
Russia (USSR)4045 (BL82)Imperforate MS2 (4045 (a-b))1972"Mars-3" (and "Venera-8")
Russia (USSR)4045 fdcMS2 on FDC
Russia (USSR)None(Russia 4012) stamp and cachet on stamped envelope1972"Mars-3"
Russia (USSR)4429 (Mi4462)1976Mars (in background); Kosmos-97/145 type (in foreground)
Russia (USSR)4593 (Mi4653)1977Mars-2/6 type ("Mars-6" in text on fdc2 back); (and Venera-9/14 type and Luna-16)
Russia (USSR)4593 fdc1Stamp and cachet on FDC, also stamped envelope unused
Russia (USSR)4593 fdc2Stamp and (Fleetwood) cachet on FDC, also back
Russia (USSR)4593 fdc3Stamp and cachet (different) on FDC
Russia (USSR)4593 maxiMaxicard
Russia (USSR)None(Three-color printed) cachet on stamped envelope1977Mars-2 (and Venera-9/14 type and Luna-16)
Russia (USSR)4669 (BL129)In (right) margin of SS11978Mars-2 (and Venera-9/14 type)
Russia (USSR)4669 fdcSS1 on FDC
Russia (USSR)5296 fdc (Mi5438 fdc)Cachet on FDC1984Mars (and Venera-9/14 type and Lunokhod-1/2)
Russia (USSR)5547 (Mi5700)On stamps and in (lower-right) margin of MS8 (5547a (8x 5547))1987"Mars-1"
Russia (USSR)5547 fdcStamp and cachet on FDC
Russia (USSR)5547 maxiMaxicard
RussiaUnknown folder (Mi? folder)MS15 folder2016"Mars-3" (in text)
RwandaUnknown b (Mi?)One of MS4 (a-d)2012"Mars-1"
Sierra Leone1073f (Mi1244)From MS9 (1073 (a-i)) (Mi1239-1247)1989"Mars-2"
Sierra Leone1073i (Mi1247)"Mars-3" lander (with heat shield attached)
Sierra Leone1073f specimenFrom MS9 (1073 specimen (a-i))"Mars-2"
Sierra Leone1073i specimen"Mars-3" lander (with heat shield attached)
Sierra Leone1167h (Mi1363)From MS9 (1167 (a-i)) (Mi1356-1364)1990"Mars-2"
Sierra Leone1167i (Mi1364)"Mars-3" lander (with heat shield attached)
Sierra Leone1167 fdcMS9 on FDC(As above)
Staffa (Scotland)Local g
Local ig
One of local post MS8 (a-h)
One of imperforate local post MS8 (a-h)
1974"Mars-3"
Staffa (Scotland)Local g o/p1One of local post MS8 overprinted in silver (a-h)1998"Mars-3"
Staffa (Scotland)Local g o/p2One of local post MS8 overprinted in gold (a-h)
Tartari RepublicLocal fdcCachet on FDC1995Mars-2 (same design as Cuba 2585)
UdmurtiaLocalCambodia 1103 overprinted on 4x Russia 45202 (Mi4497), from strip of 5, also overprint template1997Mars-1
UdmurtiaLocalCambodia 1103 overprinted on 4x Russia 57332 (Mi5904), from strip of 5, also overprint template
UdmurtiaLocalCambodia 1103 overprinted on 4x Russia 5984 (Mi6177), from strip of 5, also overprint template
UdmurtiaLocal fdc1On strip of 5 on FDC
UdmurtiaLocal fdc2On two strips of 5 on FDC
Umm Al QiwainMi1075A
Mi1075B
One of MS16 (Mi1066A-1081A)
One of imperforate MS16 (Mi1066B-1081B)
1972Mars-1 (or Venera-1)
Umm Al QiwainMi1075A ds1Deluxe sheet (Mi1075A), white border
Umm Al QiwainMi1075A ds2Deluxe sheet (Mi1075A), blue border
Umm Al QiwainMi1075B ds1Imperforate deluxe sheet (Mi1075B), pink border
Umm Al QiwainMi1091A
Mi1091B
One of MS16 (Mi1082A-1097A)
One of imperforate MS16 (Mi1082B-1097B)
United StatesNone(Midwest Postage Stamp and Coin Show/ATA) cachet on cover1977Mars-1 (in reproduction of Czechoslovakia 1172)
Vietnam (North)251 (Mi258)
i251

Imperforate
1963"Fire Star-1" (Mars-1)
Vietnam (North)252 (Mi259)
i252

Imperforate
Vietnam (North)253 (Mi260)
i253

Imperforate
"Mars-1"
Vietnam (North)254 (Mi261)
i254

Imperforate

1The word "pennant" usually refers to a tapering flag on a ship or, in North America, a flag identifying a sports championship or team. The word has, however, a particular meaning in the context of early Soviet lunar and planetary spacecraft, which carried small embossed and/or engraved highly durable titanium "plaques" with artwork (done in thermoresistant polysiloxane enamels) and information related to the Soviet Union (USSR) and to the mission. Those small plaques are referred to as "pennants". A few dozen of each type were minted, some of which were installed in the spacecraft, while others were given to VIPs and top scientists. Some of the Mars spacecraft did carry such pennants. Many of the Soviet Luna and Venera spacecraft also carried them. More information on Soviet spacecraft pennants can be found here.
2See here for a list of engraved/lithographed Russian definitive pairs known to exist with satellite overprints.


Below is a list of Mars-series satellite launch covers (including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers).

CountryCancel DateCancel LocationType of ItemNotes on Content
Mars (Russia/USSR)
1962-11-01: Mars-1
Russia (USSR)1962-11-01Vilnius(Two printed) cachets on coverMars-1 launch
Russia (USSR)1962-11-01Vilnius(Two printed) cachets on coverMars-1 launch
Russia (USSR)1962-11-01 (in cachet text)no cancel(Multi-color printed) cachet on stamped envelopeMars-1 launch
Mars-1 (events)
Russia (USSR)1962-11-17Vilnius(Two printed) cachets on coverMars-1 course correction?; Mars-1 launch date (in both cachets)
Mars-1 (anniversaries)
Russia (USSR)1962-12-01Minsk(Two printed) cachets on cover1-month anniv. Mars-1 launch; Mars-1 launch date (in both cachets)
Russia (USSR)1962-12-01Archangelsk(Printed) cachet on cover1-month anniv. Mars-1 launch; Mars-1 launch date (in both cachets)
Russia (USSR)1962-12-01Tambov(Printed) cachet on cover1-month anniv. Mars-1 launch (in cancel and black cachet), also pennant1; Mars-1 launch date (in both cachets, but two transposed characters: "I-IX-62" instead of the correct "I-XI-62" in blue-and-red cachet)
Russia (USSR)1963-11-01Tartu(Black printed and black rubber-stamp) cachets on cover (AA no.4)21st anniv. Mars-1 launch
1971-05-19: Mars-2
Russia (USSR)1971-05-20Tartu(Multi-color printed and orange rubber-stamp) cachets on cover (AA no. 235)2Mars-2 launch
Russia (USSR)1971-05-20Tartu(Multi-color printed and black rubber-stamp) cachets on cover (AA no. 235)2Mars-2 launch
Mars-2 (events)
Russia (USSR)1971-11-27Moscow International PO(Swanson) cachet on coverMars-2 orbit Mars
Russia (USSR)1971-12-28Tartu(Multi-color printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on cover (AA no. 235)2Mars-2 lander descent to Mars
1971-05-28: Mars-3
Russia (USSR)1971-05-29Tartu(Multi-color printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on cover (AA no. 236)2Mars-3 launch
Russia (USSR)1971-05-29Tartu(Multi-color printed and blue rubber-stamp) cachets on cover (AA no. 236)2Mars-3 launch
Mars-3 (events)
Russia (USSR)1971-12-02Moscow International PO(Swanson) cachet on coverMars-3 successful soft landing on Mars
Russia (USSR)1971-12-03Tartu(Multi-color printed and red rubber-stamp) cachets on cover (AA no. 236)2Mars-3 successful soft landing on Mars
1973-07-21: Mars-4
Russia (USSR)1973-07-21Moscow International PO(W. Anklam) cachet on coverMars-4 launch
Mars-4 (events)
Russia (USSR)1974-02-10Moscow International PO(W. Anklam) cachet on coverMars-4 flyby of Mars
1973-07-25: Mars-5
Russia (USSR)1973-07-25Baikonur Karaganda Oblast(Red and green printed and purple rubber-stamp) cachets on (known fake3) coverMars-5 launch
Russia (USSR)1973-07-28Moscow International PO(Anklam) cachet on coverMars-5 launch (3 days earlier)
Mars-5 (events)
Russia (USSR)1974-02-12Moscow International PO(Anklam) cachet on coverMars-5 orbiting Mars
1973-08-05: Mars-6
Russia (USSR)1973-08-05Moscow International PO(Anklam) cachet on coverMars-6 launch
Mars-6 (events)
Russia (USSR)1974-03-12Moscow International PO(Anklam) cachet on coverMars-6 landing on Mars
1973-08-09: Mars-7
Russia (USSR)1973-08-09Moscow International PO(W. Anklam) cachet on coverMars-7 launch
Russia (USSR)1973-08-09Moscow International PO(W. Anklam) cachet (and signature) on coverMars-7 launch
Mars-7 (events)
Russia (USSR)1974-03-09Moscow International PO(Wolfgang Anklam) cachet on coverMars-7 flyby of Mars
1996-11-16: Mars-8
No launch cover images available yet

1The word "pennant" usually refers to a tapering flag on a ship or, in North America, a flag identifying a sports championship or team. The word has, however, a particular meaning in the context of early Soviet lunar and planetary spacecraft, which carried small embossed and/or engraved highly durable titanium "plaques" with artwork (done in thermoresistant polysiloxane enamels) and information related to the Soviet Union (USSR) and to the mission. Those small plaques are referred to as "pennants". A few dozen of each type were minted, some of which were installed in the spacecraft, while others were given to VIPs and top scientists. Some of the Mars spacecraft did carry such pennants. Many of the Soviet Luna and Venera spacecraft also carried them. More information on Soviet spacecraft pennants can be found here.
2AA no. = Tartuski Klub Kollektsionerov (TKK) [Tartu Collector Club] "Astronautika Annaalid" number. See Jim Reichman's Philatelic Study Report on Tartu Space Club Covers, 1962-1978, 2011. (e-mail: jgreichman (at) datawest.net).
3Known fake cover, with a made-up Baikonur postmark, suspected to have been created by Boris Khoroshev from Moscow, and sold by a stamp dealer in Western Europe. There were no Baikonur Cosmodrome official postmarks until 1975 for the Apollo-Soyuz events. Reference the article written by Russian collector Oleg Vaisberg published as an Appendix called "Russian (Soviet) Space Covers" to Bruce Cranford's book Space Covers: Dictionary and Identifier. See also, an analysis of the situation in a book published in 2008 called Commemorative Space Covers from Collector Clubs of the Soviet Union, 1957 to 1980. Another indicator on these fakes is the use of a "first day" cachet that appears on most, but not all, of these fakes.


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