Injun-3

Injun, SolRad, GEOS,
and ISEE / ICE series

ISEE-3
Injun-3ISEE-3

This page contains philatelic information on the Injun, SolRad (Solar Radiation), GEOS (Geodetic Earth Orbiting Satellite (GEOS-1 and 2) or Geodynamics Experimental Ocean Satellite (GEOS-3)), and ISEE (International Sun-Earth Explorer) / ICE (International Cometary Explorer) series. Catalog numbers, years of issue, and notes on the satellites featured are given when available. If readers know of additional information or images, please contact the authors using the e-mail addresses at the bottom of this page.

These series are related to the Explorer series because some of the satellites had Explorer names and numbers as well. In particular, the following satellite names and numbers were synonymous:

InjunSolRadGEOSISEE
  • Injun-4 = Explorer-25
  • Injun-5 = Explorer-40
  • Injun-6 = Explorer-52
  • SolRad-8 = Explorer-30
  • SolRad-9 = Explorer-37
  • SolRad-10 = Explorer-44
  • GEOS-1 = Explorer-29
  • GEOS-2 = Explorer-36
  • ISEE-1 = Explorer-56
  • ISEE-3/ICE2 = Explorer-59

The SolRad (Solar Radiation) name is synonymous with GREB (Galactic Radiation Energy Background), and with GRAB (Galactic Radiation And Background), but the SolRad designation will be used here. The SolRad satellites' primary mission was to locate Russian radar sites. Their secondary mission, to conduct solar radiation studies, did provide some scientific data, but the fundamental reason for including the secondary mission was to hide the true nature of these satellites.

This list includes the USA GEOS series from 1965-1975 only, and should not be confused with the ESA-GEOS series from 1977-1978.

Launch information
(found elsewhere)
Reference images
(found elsewhere)
Launch covers
(including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers)
(farther below)
Other postal items
(stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.)
(immediately below)
Injun Injun Injun Injun
SolRad SolRad SolRad SolRad
GEOS (USA)1 GEOS (USA)1 GEOS (USA)1 GEOS (USA)1
ISEE/ICE2 ISEE/ICE2 ISEE/ICE2 ISEE/ICE2
ISEE/ICE (on other than ISEE/ICE launch covers)


Below is a list of Injun, SolRad, GEOS, and ISEE / ICE postal items (stamps, souvenir sheets, aerogrammes, postal cards, etc.).

CountryCatalog NumberType of ItemYear of IssueNotes on Content
Injun
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC53 (Mi121)1977Injun-6 / Explorer-52 (at left)
French Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesC53 fdcStamp on FDC
Korea (North)1510 (Mi1527Ax)
i1510 (Mi1527Bx)
Coated paper
Coated paper, imperforate
1976Injun-16
Korea (North)1510 un-coated (Mi1528Ay
i1510_un-coated (Mi1528By)
One of MS7 (1511a (1506-1511+1512a + label)) on un-coated paper (Mi1523Ay-1529Ay)
One of imperforate MS7 (i1511a (i1506-i1511+i1512a + label)) on un-coated paper (Mi1523By-1529By)
Korea (North)1650 (MiA1527Ay)
i1650 (MiA1527By)
One of MS7 (1651a (1646-1651+1652a + label)), 1511a on un-coated paper overprinted
One of imperforate MS7 (i1651a (i1646-i1651+i1652a + label)), i1511a on un-coated paper overprinted
1977Injun-16
Ras al KhaimaMi485A
Mi485B
Stamp-on-stamp: Rwanda 130
Imperforate stamp-on-stamp: Rwanda 130
1970Injun-16
Ras al KhaimaMi485A ds
Mi485B ds
Deluxe sheet (Mi458A)
Imperforate deluxe sheet (Mi458B)
Ras al KhaimaMi485A+Mi485A ds fdc(Two) stamps and deluxe sheet on FDC
Ras al KhaimaMi485A silver
Mi485B silver
Silver
Ras al KhaimaMi485A gold
Mi485B gold
Gold
Ras al KhaimaMi485B ds silverImperforate deluxe sheet (Mi485B), silver foil
Ras al KhaimaMi485B ds goldImperforate deluxe sheet (Mi485B), gold foil
Rwanda130 (Mi129A)
i130 (Mi129B)

Imperforate
1965Injun-16
Rwanda131 (Mi130A)
i131 (Mi130B)

Imperforate
Rwanda132 (Mi131A)
i132 (Mi131B)

Imperforate
Rwanda133 (Mi132A)
i133 (Mi132B)

Imperforate
Rwanda134 (Mi133A)
i134 (Mi133B)

Imperforate
Rwanda135 (Mi134A)
i135 (Mi134B)

Imperforate
Rwanda136 (BL5A)
i136 (BL5B)
On both stamps of MS2 (136 (a-b))
On both stamps of imperforate MS2 (i136 (a-b))
SolRad / GRAB / GREB
BelgiumNoneIn (upper-right) margin of imperforate MS2 cinderella1963?SolRad-15
Belgium842 maxi (Mi1725 maxi)Maxicard1973SolRad-1/7 type4
HungaryC254 (Mi2195A)
iC254 (Mi2195B)

Imperforate
1965SolRad-1/7 type4 (not "San Marco", as in text)
Korea (North)1510 (Mi1527Ax)
i1510 (Mi1527Bx)
Coated paper
Coated paper, imperforate
1976SolRad-36
Korea (North)1510 un-coated (Mi1528Ay
i1510_un-coated (Mi1528By)
One of MS7 (1511a (1506-1511+1512a + label)) on un-coated paper (Mi1523Ay-1529Ay)
One of imperforate MS7 (i1511a (i1506-i1511+i1512a + label)) on un-coated paper (Mi1523By-1529By)
Korea (North)1650 (MiA1527Ay)
i1650 (MiA1527By)
One of MS7 (1651a (1646-1651+1652a + label)), 1511a on un-coated paper overprinted
One of imperforate MS7 (i1651a (i1646-i1651+i1652a + label)), i1511a on un-coated paper overprinted
1977SolRad-36
Qu'aiti State in Hadhramaut (South Arabia)Mi115A-121A+selvedge
Mi120B+selvedge
On selvedge of each of set of 7 (Mi115A-121A)
On selvedge of each of imperforate set of 7 (Mi115B-121B)
1967SolRad-1/7 type4
Ras al KhaimaMi485A
Mi485B
Stamp-on-stamp: Rwanda 130
Imperforate stamp-on-stamp: Rwanda 130
1970SolRad-36
Ras al KhaimaMi485A ds
Mi485B ds
Deluxe sheet (Mi458A)
Imperforate deluxe sheet (Mi458B)
Ras al KhaimaMi485A+Mi485A ds fdc(Two) stamps and deluxe sheet on FDC
Ras al KhaimaMi485A silver
Mi485B silver
Silver
Ras al KhaimaMi485A gold
Mi485B gold
Gold
Ras al KhaimaMi485B ds silverImperforate deluxe sheet (Mi485B), silver foil
Ras al KhaimaMi485B ds goldImperforate deluxe sheet (Mi485B), gold foil
Rwanda130 (Mi129A)
i130 (Mi129B)

Imperforate
1965SolRad-36
Rwanda131 (Mi130A)
i131 (Mi130B)

Imperforate
Rwanda132 (Mi131A)
i132 (Mi131B)

Imperforate
Rwanda133 (Mi132A)
i133 (Mi132B)

Imperforate
Rwanda134 (Mi133A)
i134 (Mi133B)

Imperforate
Rwanda135 (Mi134A)
i135 (Mi134B)

Imperforate
Rwanda136 (BL5A)
i136 (BL5B)
On both stamps and in (upper-left) margin of MS2 (136 (a-b))
On both stamps and in (upper-left) margin of imperforate MS2 (i136 (a-b))
SolRad-36 (on both stamps), SolRad-15 (in upper-left margin)
Satellite Beach FL (USA)Local?SolRad-8 / "Explorer-30"
Uruguay1124 (Mi1649)1982SolRad-1/7 type4
Uruguay1124 fdcStamp on FDC
GEOS (USA)1
Chad708d (Mi1508A)
i708d (Mi1508B)
One stamp and in selvedge of MS6 (708 (a-f)) (Mi1505A-1510A)
One stamp and in selvedge of imperforate MS6 (i708 (a-f)) (Mi1505B-1510B)
1997"GEOS" (in selvedge text, but SMS/GOES depicted)
Franklin Mint (USA)None(Bronze) medallion, also reverse1970s"GEOS-3"
Korea (South)1289 fdc1 (Mi1275 fdc1)(Purple) cancel on FDC1982GEOS-1 / Explorer-29
Korea (South)1289 fdc2 (Mi1275 fdc2)(Blue-black) cancel on FDC (different)
SpainNone(Printed) cachet on cover1984"GEOS" (in text only)
ISEE / ICE2
Ascension388 (Mi397)1986ISEE-3 / "ICE" / Explorer-59
BeninUnknown c proof
Unknown ic proof
One of MS4 proof (a-d)
One of imperforate MS4 proof (a-d)
2014"ISEE"-1 / Explorer-56 (also launch date on stamp)
Bolivia690 (BL146)In (lower-right) margin of imperforate SS11985"ISEE"-3 / ICE / Explorer-59
Central African Republic843 (Mi1258A)
i843 (Mi1258B)

Imperforate
1986ISEE-3 / ICE / Explorer-59
Chad708f (Mi1510A)
i708f (Mi1510B)
One stamp and in selvedge of MS6 (708 (a-f)) (Mi1505A-1510A)
One stamp and in selvedge of imperforate MS6 (i708 (a-f)) (Mi1505B-1510B)
1997"ISEE"-1 / Explorer-56 / ISEE-1 and ISEE-23
Comoro IslandsB4f (Mi859A)
iB4f (Mi859B)
One of MS8 (B4 (a-h)) (Mi854A-861A)
One of imperforate MS8 (iB4 (a-h)) (Mi854B-861B)
1988ISEE-3 / "ICE" / Explorer-59 in text, but Giotto depicted)
Comoro IslandsB4f_ds (BL268A)
iB4f_ds (BL268B)
Deluxe sheet (B4f)
Imperforate deluxe sheet (iB4f)
Congo RepublicUnknown ss (BL?)
Unknown iss
In (right) margin of SS1
In (right) margin of imperforate SS1
2014"ISEE-3" / ICE / Explorer-59
Congo RepublicUnknown fdc
Unknown ifdc
SS1 and cachet on FDC
Imperforate SS1 and cachet on FDC
Djibouti610a (BL120A)
i610a (BL120B)
In (right) margin of SS1 (610)
In (right) margin of imperforate SS1 (i610)
1986ISEE-3 / ICE / Explorer-59
DjiboutiUnknown f (Mi?)
Unknown if
One of MS9 (a-i)
One of imperforate MS9 (a-i)
2010"ISEE"-2 (with folded antennas)
DjiboutiUnknown ms proofMS9 signed proof
DjiboutiUnknown ms fdc
Unknown ims fdc
MS9 on FDC
Imperforate MS9 on FDC
DjiboutiUnknown ms (Mi?)
Unknown ims
In (lower-right) margin of MS2 (a-b)
In (lower-right) margin of imperforate MS2 (a-b)
2013ISEE-3
DjiboutiUnknown ms fdc
Unknown ims fdc
MS2 on FDC
Imperforate MS2 on FDC
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/pImperforate SS1 (BL277) overprinted1977ISEE-2 (with folded antennas)
Equatorial GuineaBL277 o/p muestraImperforate SS1 (BL277) overprinted, overprinted "muestra"
Gambia609 (Mi615)1986ISEE-3 / ICE / Explorer-59
Gambia655 (Mi661)609 overprinted in silver1986ISEE-3 / ICE / Explorer-59
Germany (West)NoneCancel on cover1970ISEE-3 / ICE / Explorer-59
Hungary2972 (Mi3805A)
i2972 (Mi3805B)

Imperforate
1986ISEE-3 / "ICE" / Explorer-59
Hungary2972 fdcStamp on FDC
Malagasy Republic797 (Mi1063A)
i797 (Mi1063B)

Imperforate
1987ISEE-3 / ICE / Explorer-59
Malagasy Republic797a (BL48A)
i797a (BL48B)
On stamp of SS1 (797)
On stamp of imperforate SS1 (i797)
Malagasy Republic1536c (Mi2475)
i1536c
One of MS6 (1536 (a-f)) (Mi2473-2478)
One of imperforate MS6 (i1536 (a-f))
2000ISEE-3 / "ICE" / Explorer-59
Malagasy Republic1536 fdcMS6 and cachet on FDC
MaliUnknown b (Mi unlisted)
Unknown ib
One of MS2 (a-b)
One of imperforate MS2 (a-b)
2006ISEE-3 / ICE / Explorer-59
MaliUnknown ms fdc
Unknown ims fdc
MS2 and cachet on FDC
Imperforate MS2 and cachet on FDC
Mauritania619 (Mi889A)
i619 (Mi889B)

Imperforate
1986ISEE-3 / ICE / Explorer-59
Mauritania619a (BL unlisted)
i619a
On stamp of SS1 (619)
On stamp of imperforate SS1 (i619)
Mauritania622b (BL unlisted)
i622b
One of MS4 (619-622)
One of imperforate MS4 (i619-i622)
Micronesia344p (Mi736)From MS20 (344 (a-t)) (Mi721-740)1999ISEE-3 / ICE / Explorer-59 (not "SMM" repair, as in text)7
Micronesia344q (Mi737)ISEE-3 / "ICE" / Explorer-59 (in text, but SMM repair depicted)7
ParaguayC642 label (Mi3974 label)One label and in (lower-right) margin of MS9 (C642a (5x C642 + 4 labels))1986(poorly-depicted) ISEE-3 / ICE / Explorer-59
Poland2715 (Mi3015)One of pair (2715a (2714-2715))1986ISEE-3 / ICE / Explorer-59
SpainNone(Printed) cachet on cover1984"ISEE" (in text only)
SpainNone(Multi-color printed) cachet (reproduction of Djibouti MS9) on (un-canceled) (Spanish Post) stamped envelope (from 2011)2013"ISEE"-2 (on stamp 'f' in cachet)
United StatesNoneInsert back from cover, also insert front and cover front1986"International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)-3" renamed "International Cometary Explorer (ICE)"

1This checklist includes the USA GEOS series only, not the ESA-GEOS series.
2Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 was renamed ICE (International Cometary Explorer) in 1983.
3Two satellites stacked together (ISEE-1 / Explorer-56, and ISEE-2).
4SolRad-1 — SolRad-7 are all basically identical.
5Two satellites stacked together (Transit-2A and SolRad-1).
6Three satellites stacked together (Transit-4A, SolRad-3, and Injun-1) in that order. Note also that for the items with J.F. Kennedy on the telephone, it seems that Telstar was the intended satellite.
7The captions on Micronesia 344p and 344q are transposed: SMM repair, and Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 / ICE.


Below is a list of Injun, SolRad, GEOS, and ISEE / ICE launch covers (including anniversary-of-launch covers, and launch-related event covers).

CountryCancel DateCancel LocationType of ItemNotes on Content
Injun
1961-06-29: Injun-1 (and Transit-4A and SolRad-3)
United States1961-06-28Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin?) cachet on coverInjun-1 launch
United States1961-06-28Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet on coverInjun-1 launch
United States1961-06-28Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverInjun-1 launch
United States1961-06-28Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft blue and black and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverInjun-1 launch
United States1961-06-28Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet (different) on coverInjun-1 launch
United States1961-06-28Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet (different) on coverInjun-1 launch
United States1961-06-29Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on coverInjun-1 launch (Injun-1 and SolRad-3 names reversed)
United States1961-06-29Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverInjun-1 launch
United States1961-06-29Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp and black rubber-stamp) cachets on coverInjun-1 launch
1962-01-24: Injun-2 (and SolRad-4A and SurCal-1 and LOFTI-2A and SECOR-(1))
United States1962-01-24Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insertInjun-2 launch
United States1962-01-24Patrick AFB, FL(typed/small picture/rubber-stamp) cachet on coverInjun-2 launch
1962-12-13: Injun-3 (and Poppy-1A/1B and SurCal-2 and CalSphere-1)
No launch cover images available yet
1964-11-21: Injun-4 (Explorer-25) (and Explorer-24)
United States1964-11-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet (and signature) on cover, also insert and insert variation (different arrows) and insert variation2 (different arrows and slightly different line lengths)Injun-4 (Explorer-25) launch
United States1964-11-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insert and insert variation (different arrows) and insert variation2 (different arrows and slightly different line lengths)Injun-4 (Explorer-25) launch
United States1964-11-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin?) cachet on cover, also (hand-written) insertInjun-4 (Explorer-25) launch (Vela depicted)
United States1964-11-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverInjun-4 (Explorer-25) launch
United States1964-11-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverInjun-4 (Explorer-25) launch
United States1964-11-21Vandenberg AFB, CA(DuBeau? red and blue printed) cachet on coverInjun-4 (Explorer-25) launch
1964-11-21: Injun-5 (Explorer-40) (and Explorer-39)
United States1968-08-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insertInjun-5 (Explorer-40) launch (wrong depiction of Injun-5)
United States1968-08-08Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson sticker) cachet on cover, also insertInjun-5 (Explorer-40) launch (wrong depiction of Injun-5)
United States1968-08-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on coverInjun-5 (Explorer-40) launch
United States1968-08-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverInjun-5 (Explorer-40) launch
United States1968-08-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin?) cachet on coverInjun-5 (Explorer-40) launch
United States1968-08-08Vandenberg AFB, CA(Centennial) cachet on coverInjun-5 (Explorer-40) launch
1974-06-03: Injun-6 (Explorer-52)
United States1974-06-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(Centennial) cachet on coverInjun-6 (Explorer-52 / Hawkeye) launch
United States1974-06-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on coverInjun-6 (Explorer-52 / Hawkeye) launch
United States1974-06-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverInjun-6 (Explorer-52 / Hawkeye) launch
United States1974-06-03Fairbanks AK(NASA rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on coverInjun-6 (Explorer-52 / Hawkeye) launch
United States1974-06-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverInjun-6 (Explorer-52 / Hawkeye) launch
United States1974-06-03Vandenberg AFB, CA(InterSpace Cover) cachet on coverInjun-6 (Explorer-52 / Hawkeye) launch
SolRad / GRAB / GREB
1960-06-22: SolRad-1 (and Transit-2A)
United States1960-06-22Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson red rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverSolRad-1 launch
United States1960-06-22Patrick AFB, FL(Black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-1 launch
United States1960-06-22Patrick AFB, FL(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverSolRad-1 launch
United States1960-06-22Port Canaveral FL(Printed) cachet on coverSolRad-1 launch
United States1960-06-22Patrick AFB, FL(Hand-written) cachet on coverSolRad-1 launch
United States1960-06-22Port Canaveral FL(ATA Space Satellite Unit printed and handwritten) cachet on coverSolRad-1 launch
1960-11-30: SolRad-2 (and Transit-3A) [failed]
United States1960-11-30Patrick AFB, FL(Black rubber-stamp and hand-written) cachet on coverSolRad-2 launch [failed]
1961-06-29: SolRad-3 (and Transit-4A and Injun-1)
United States1961-06-28Port Canaveral FL(Sarzin?) cachet on coverSolRad-3 launch
United States1961-06-28Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet on coverSolRad-3 launch
United States1961-06-28Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft blue and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-3 launch
United States1961-06-28Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft blue and black and black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-3 launch
United States1961-06-28Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet (different) on coverSolRad-3 launch
United States1961-06-28Port Canaveral FL(Goldcraft) cachet (different) on coverSolRad-3 launch
United States1961-06-29Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on coverSolRad-3 launch (Injun-1 and SolRad-3 names reversed)
United States1961-06-29Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-3 launch
United States1961-06-29Patrick AFB, FL(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp and black rubber-stamp) cachets on coverSolRad-3 launch
1962-01-24: SolRad-4A (and Injun-2 and SurCal-1 and LOFTI-2A and SECOR-(1))
United States1962-01-24Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insertSolRad-4A launch
United States1962-01-24Patrick AFB, FL(typed/small picture/rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-4A launch
1962-04-26: SolRad-4B
United States1962-04-26Lompoc CA(Goldcraft Cachets) cachet on coverSolRad-4A (or SAMOS-7) launch
United States1962-04-26Lompoc CA(Sarzin) cachet on coverSolRad-4A (or SAMOS-7) launch
United States1962-04-26Lompoc CA(Holden black and red rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-4A (or SAMOS-7) launch
1963-06-15: SolRad-6 (and LOFTI-2B and Poppy-2B and Poppy-2C and SurCal-3 and Wild Bill-4)
United States1963-06-15Vandenberg AFB, CA(Rank velvet) cachet on coverSolRad-6 launch
1965-03-09: SolRad-7B (and OSCAR-3 and SECOR-3 and Dodecapole-1 and Poppy-4 and SurCal-4)
No launch cover images available yet
1965-11-19: SolRad-8 (Explorer-30)
United States1965-11-19Wallops Island VA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insertSolRad-8 (Explorer-30) launch; also IQSY
United States1965-11-19Wallops Island VA(Sarzin?) cachet on coverSolRad-8 (Explorer-30) launch (wrong depiction); also IQSY
United States1965-11-19Wallops Island VA(Rank velvet) cachet on coverSolRad-8 (Explorer-30) launch; also IQSY
United States1965-11-19Wallops Island VA(Rank velvet, trial with overlay) cachet on coverSolRad-8 (Explorer-30) launch; also IQSY
United States1965-11-19Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-8 (Explorer-30) launch; also IQSY
United States1965-11-19Wallops Island VA(Centennial black rocket, type-1) cachet on coverSolRad-8 (Explorer-30) launch (Pioneer-3/4 type, Pioneer-5/Explorer-63, and Vanguard-2 depicted)
United States1965-11-19Wallops Island VA(Red printed) cachet on coverSolRad-8 (Explorer-30) launch; also IQSY
1968-03-05: SolRad-9 (Explorer-37)
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on coverSolRad-9 (Explorer-37) launch
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insertSolRad-9 (Explorer-37) launch
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insertSolRad-9 (Explorer-37) launch
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-9 (Explorer-37) launch
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on coverSolRad-9 (Explorer-37) launch
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-9 (Explorer-37) launch
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on (airmail) coverSolRad-9 (Explorer-37) launch
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet (different) on coverSolRad-9 (Explorer-37) launch
United States1968-03-05Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on coverSolRad-9 (Explorer-37) launch
1971-07-09: SolRad-10 (Explorer-44)
United States1971-07-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson green and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-10 (Explorer-44) launch
United States1971-07-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson blue and magenta rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-10 (Explorer-44) launch
United States1971-07-09Wallops Island VA (machine cancel)(Space Voyage) cachet on coverSolRad-10 (Explorer-44) launch
United States1971-07-09Wallops Island VA (hand cancel)(Space Voyage) cachet (same) on coverSolRad-10 (Explorer-44) launch
United States1971-07-09Wallops Island VA(Swanson black rubber-stamp and printed - Sarzin hybrid) cachet on coverSolRad-10 (Explorer-44) launch
United States1971-07-09Wallops Island VA(Centennial) cachet on coverSolRad-10 (Explorer-44) launch
United States1971-07-09Wallops Island VA(Orbit Covers) cachet on coverSolRad-10 (Explorer-44) launch
1976-03-14: SolRad-11A/11B (and LES-8/9)
United States1976-03-14Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on coverSolRad-11A/11B launch
United States1976-03-14Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on coverSolRad-11A/11B launch
United States1976-03-14Cape Canaveral FL(Blue-green rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-11A/11B launch
United States1976-03-14Cape Canaveral FL(Boudwin black and purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverSolRad-11A/11B launch
United States1976-03-15Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on coverSolRad-11A/11B launch
United States1976-03-15Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on coverSolRad-11A/11B launch
United States1976-03-15Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet on coverSolRad-11A/11B launch
United States1976-03-15Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet (and signature) on cover, also backSolRad-11A/11B launch
GEOS (USA)1
1965-11-06: GEOS-1 (Explorer-29)
United States1965-11-06Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet (and signature) on cover, also insert and insert variation (slightly different line lengths)GEOS-1 (Explorer-29) launch
United States1965-11-06Patrick AFB, FL(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insert and insert variation (slightly different line lengths)GEOS-1 (Explorer-29) launch
United States1965-11-06Cape Canaveral FL (machine cancel)(Centennial) cachet on coverGEOS-1 (Explorer-29) launch (wrong depiction)
United States1965-11-06Cape Canaveral FL (hand cancel)(Centennial) cachet on coverGEOS-1 (Explorer-29) launch (wrong depiction)
United States1965-11-06Patrick AFB, FL(Sarzin) cachet on coverGEOS-1 (Explorer-29) launch (Explorer-17 depicted)
United States1965-11-06Patrick AFB, FL(Rank velvet) cachet on coverGEOS-1 (Explorer-29) launch
United States1965-11-06Cape Canaveral FL(Celestial) cachet on coverGEOS-1 (Explorer-29) launch
United States1965-11-06Cape Canaveral FL(Artopages) cachet on coverGEOS-1 (Explorer-29) launch
1966-06-23: PAGEOS
United States1965-06-23Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insertPAGEOS launch
United States1965-06-23Vandenberg AFB, CA(Astro Covers, no logo) cachet on coverPAGEOS launch
United States1965-06-23Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverPAGEOS launch
United States1965-06-23Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? black rubber-stamp) cachet on coverPAGEOS launch
United States1965-06-23Vandenberg AFB, CA(Sarzin?) cachet on coverPAGEOS launch
1968-01-11: GEOS-2 (Explorer-36)
United States1968-01-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(Orbit Covers) cachet on coverGEOS-2 (Explorer-36) launch
United States1968-01-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(Swanson/DuBeau? blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverGEOS-2 (Explorer-36) launch
United States1968-01-11Lompoc CA, Vandenberg AFB(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insertGEOS-2 (Explorer-36) launch
United States1968-01-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet on cover, also insert and insert backGEOS-2 (Explorer-36) launch; also "GEOS-1" (in text on insert back)
United States1968-01-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(SpaceCraft/Swanson) cachet (and signature) on cover, also insert and insert backGEOS-2 (Explorer-36) launch; also "GEOS-1" (in text on insert back)
United States1968-01-11Vandenberg AFB, CA(Centennial brown rocket, type-2 and black text) cachet on coverGEOS-2 (Explorer-36) launch (Transit-2A, Pioneer-5/Explorer-63, TIROS/ESSA, and Vanguard-2 depicted)
1975-04-09: GEOS-3
United States1975-04-09Vandenberg AFB, CA(Space Voyage) cachet on coverGEOS-3 launch
United States1975-04-09Vandenberg AFB, CA(Centennial) cachet on coverGEOS-3 launch
United States1975-04-09Vandenberg AFB, CA(Cyan rubber-stamp) cachet on coverGEOS-3 launch
United States1975-04-09Lompoc CA(KSC/WLOD black rubber-stamp and typed) cachet on coverGEOS-3 launch
Spain1975-04-10Madrid(Printed) cachet on coverGEOS-3 launch
Malagasy Republic (Madagascar)1975-04-10Tananarive(Rubber-stamp) cachet (and signature) on coverGEOS-3 launch (but mis-spelled "GFOS")
United States1975-04-10Wallops Island VA(Purple rubber-stamp) cachet on coverGEOS-3 launch
ISEE / ICE2
1977-10-22: ISEE-1 (Explorer-56) and ISEE-2
United States1977-10-22Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on coverISEE-1 (Explorer-56) + ISEE-2 launch (Explorer-51/54/55 type depicted)
United States1977-10-22Cape Canaveral FL(ESA) cachet on coverISEE-1 (Explorer-56) + ISEE-2 launch
United States1977-10-22Cape Canaveral FL(Whitney green and black) cachet on (airmail) coverISEE-1 (Explorer-56) + ISEE-2 launch
United States1977-10-22Greenbelt MD(GSFC Stamp Club) cachet on coverISEE-1 (Explorer-56) + ISEE-2 launch
United States1977-10-22Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on coverISEE-1 (Explorer-56) + ISEE-2 launch
United States1977-10-22Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on coverISEE-1 (Explorer-56) + ISEE-2 launch
United States1977-10-25Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on coverISEE-1 (Explorer-56) + ISEE-2 launch
United States1977-10-25Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet on coverISEE-1 (Explorer-56) + ISEE-2 launch
1978-08-14: ISEE-3 / ICE2 (Explorer-59)
Spain1978-08-12Madrid(Printed) cachet on coverISEE-3 / ICE (Explorer-59) launch
United States1978-08-12Cape Canaveral FL(Orbit Covers) cachet on coverISEE-3 / ICE (Explorer-59) launch (Explorer-51/54/55 type depicted)
United States1978-08-12Cape Canaveral FL(Whitney orange and blue) cachet on (airmail) coverISEE-3 / ICE (Explorer-59) launch
United States1978-08-12Cape Canaveral FL(Centennial) cachet on coverISEE-3 / ICE (Explorer-59) launch
United States1978-08-12Cape Canaveral FL(Space Voyage) cachet on coverISEE-3 / ICE (Explorer-59) launch; ISEE-1 / Explorer-56, ISEE-2 (in cachet)
United States1978-08-14Kennedy Space Center FL(Space Voyage) cachet on coverISEE-3 / ICE (Explorer-59) launch; ISEE-1 / Explorer-56, ISEE-2 (in cachet)
United States1978-08-14Kennedy Space Center FL(SCPS) cachet on coverISEE-3 / ICE (Explorer-59) launch
ISEE-3 / ICE2 (events)
Australia1983-12-22Canberra ACT(Zaso) cachet on cover"ICE Moonloop"
United States1983-03-30Greenbelt MD(Space Voyage) cachet on cover"first lunar swingby"
United States1985-09-11Greenbelt MD(Space Voyage) cachet on cover"encounter with Giacobini-Zinner Comet"
Australia1986-03-25Canberra ACT(Space Voyage) cachet on cover"closest approach...Halley's Comet"
Spain1986-03-25Madrid(Space Voyage) cachet on cover"closest approach...Halley's Comet"
United States1986-03-25Pasadena CA(Space Voyage) cachet on cover"closest approach...Halley's Comet"
United States1986-03-25Barstow CA(Space Voyage) cachet on cover"closest approach...Halley's Comet"
United States1986-03-25Greenbelt MD(Space Voyage) cachet on cover"closest approach...Halley's Comet"
United States1986-03-25Greenbelt MD(GSFC blue rubber-stamp) cachet on coverclosest approach to Halley's Comet
ISEE/ICE (on other than ISEE/ICE launch covers)
Austria1986-03-06Graz(Printed) cachet on Vega-1 event cover"ICE"

1This checklist includes the USA GEOS series only, not the ESA-GEOS series.
2Explorer-59 / ISEE-3 was renamed ICE (International Cometary Explorer) in 1983.
3Explorer-6 and Pioneer-5 were similar "paddlewheel" satellites. It is believed that Explorer-6 contained two short antennas on its "top", whereas Pioneer-5 contained only a single short antenna. When there are no antennas on top, the distinction is unclear, but of the two, Pioneer-5 is assumed.


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